Talk:WikiJournal of Science/Lead: properties, history, and applications

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WikiJournal of Science
Wikipedia-integrated • Public peer review • Libre open access

WikiJournal of Science is an open-access, free-to-publish, Wikipedia-integrated academic journal for science, mathematics, engineering and technology topics. WJS WikiJSci Wiki.J.Sci. WikiJSci WikiSci WikiScience Wikiscience Wikijournal of Science Wikiversity Journal of Science WikiJournal Science Wikipedia Science Wikipedia science journal STEM Science Mathematics Engineering Technology Free to publish Open access Open-access Non-profit online journal Public peer review

<meta name='citation_doi' value='10.15347/wjs/2018.007'>

Article information

Author: Mikhail Boldyrev[a][i], et al.



Plagiarism check[edit]

Artículo bueno.svg Pass. WMF copyvio tool using TurnItIn. Short phrases such as "In pregnant women, high levels of exposure to lead may cause miscarriage" were similarly used in external pages, but not regarded as plagiarism. T.Shafee(Evo﹠Evo)talk 10:57, 9 January 2018 (UTC)

Editorial comments[edit]

Comments by Marshall Sumter
These comments were submitted on 07 December 2017, and refer to this previous version of the article

  1. Figure 8 lacks a credit. --Marshallsumter (discusscontribs) 00:57, 7 December 2017 (UTC)

Response
That is because figure 8 was made by myself.--R8R (discusscontribs) 10:39, 26 January 2018 (UTC)

  1. None of the 22 figures are mentioned in the text. --Marshallsumter (discusscontribs) 16:59, 22 December 2017 (UTC)

Response
That's true. I have, however, seen throughout the years journal articles that use figures without directly referring to them, so I assume that's fine.--R8R (discusscontribs) 10:39, 26 January 2018 (UTC)

  1. In the section Atomic: "Relativistic effects|, which become significant in heavier atoms" to "Relativistic effects, which become significant in heavier atoms"

Response
Done.--R8R (discusscontribs) 10:39, 26 January 2018 (UTC)

  1. In the section Atomic: "Rather than having a diamond cubic structure, lead forms metallic bonds in which only the p-electrons are delocalized and shared between the Pb2+ ions." is confusing. Do you mean lead can behave like gallium per "w:Metallic bonding is not the only type of chemical bonding a metal can exhibit, even as a pure substance. For example, elemental gallium consists of covalently-bound pairs of atoms in both liquid and solid state—these pairs form a crystal lattice with metallic bonding between them. Another example of a metal–metal covalent bond is mercurous ion (Hg2+
    2
    )." If so can you provide an experimental reference? --Marshallsumter (discusscontribs) 03:49, 14 December 2017 (UTC)

Response
That was not the intention, but I will check if that's the case and act accordingly.--R8R (discusscontribs) 10:39, 26 January 2018 (UTC)

  1. In the section Bulk "mild steel" to "mild steel". --Marshallsumter (discusscontribs) 05:48, 14 December 2017 (UTC)

Response
Done.--R8R (discusscontribs) 10:39, 26 January 2018 (UTC)

  1. In the section Bulk "It is quite malleable and somewhat ductile." to "It is quite malleable and somewhat ductile.". Malleability is response to compressive stresses. Ductility is response tensile stresses. The Wikipedia article isn't clear. --Marshallsumter (discusscontribs) 17:00, 14 December 2017 (UTC)

Response
Let me make that clear: is the current note 5 not enough to clarify the difference? I have, of course, added the wikilink.--R8R (discusscontribs) 10:39, 26 January 2018 (UTC)

  1. Regarding In space, "World lead resources exceed 2 billion tons. Significant deposits are located in Australia, China, Ireland, Mexico, Peru, Portugal, Russia, and the United States. Global reserves—resources that are economically feasible to extract—totaled 88 million tons in 2016, of which Australia had 35 million, China 17 million, and Russia 6.4 million." doesn't belong in this section. --Marshallsumter (discusscontribs) 17:30, 21 December 2017 (UTC)

Response
Yes, that is clearly a mistake. Moved it a couple of paragraphs below.--R8R (discusscontribs) 10:39, 26 January 2018 (UTC)

Suggestions
  1. Regarding Atomic, "Diamond cubic structures with lattice parameters around the lattice parameter of silicon exists both in thin lead and tin films, and in massive lead and tin, freshly solidified in vacuum of ≈5 x 10-6 Torr. Experimental evidence for almost identical structures of at least three oxide types is presented, demonstrating that lead and tin behave like silicon not only in the initial stages of crystallization, but also in the initial stages of oxidation."[1] --Marshallsumter (discusscontribs) 05:22, 14 December 2017 (UTC)

Response
Added that to a note.--R8R (discusscontribs) 11:52, 28 April 2018 (UTC)

  1. Regarding Atomic, "Rather than having a diamond cubic structure, lead forms metallic bonds in which only the p-electrons are delocalized and shared between the Pb2+ ions. Lead consequently has a face-centered cubic structure like the similarly sized divalent metals calcium and strontium.[5]" In Google's searching of Christensen 2002, p. 867, neither calcium nor strontium are mentioned, are you including your apparently original research conclusion that lead is face-centered cubic because its atomic radius (175 pm) is closer to calcium (197 pm) which is fcc than gold (144 pm) which is also fcc? Magnesium has an atomic radius of 160 pm but is hcp and thallium is 170 pm and also hcp. --Marshallsumter (discusscontribs) 00:56, 20 December 2017 (UTC)

Response
Bit by bit, I've reconstructed this statement using various sources. Every bit is now attributed to an author.--R8R (discusscontribs) 11:52, 28 April 2018 (UTC)

Also, it is important to note that gold and thallium are not divalent.--R8R (discusscontribs) 12:16, 28 April 2018 (UTC)
  1. Regarding Atomic, diamond cubic is in the Fd3m space group no. 227, which is the face-centered cubic Bravais lattice with two atoms on each face, one at (0,12,12) and the other at (14,14,14) instead of one.[2] --Marshallsumter (discusscontribs) 15:46, 22 December 2017 (UTC)

Response
That is correct but I do not understand what to make out of this. I couldn't find a spot to squeeze this in as it seems somewhat forced if entered somewhere as I can't make a focus on lead with this statement.--R8R (discusscontribs) 12:24, 28 April 2018 (UTC)

  1. Regarding Isotopes, all four stable lead isotopes 204
    Pb
    , 206
    Pb
    , 207
    Pb
    , and 208
    Pb
    are produced by S-process nucleosynthesis on thallium and as decay products. --Marshallsumter (discusscontribs) 00:45, 16 December 2017 (UTC)

Response
You're right but I think this information is more closely related to occurrence than to isotopes themselves and thus found in that section.--R8R (discusscontribs) 10:32, 28 April 2018 (UTC)

  1. Regarding Isotopes, "Three of the stable isotopes are found in three of the four major decay chains: lead-206, lead-207, and lead-208 are the final decay products of uranium-238, uranium-235, and thorium-232, respectively. These decay chains are called the uranium series, the actinium series, and the thorium series." While perhaps not easy to locate, supplying a reference for these two sentences would be good. 209
    Pb
    is in the fourth decay chain, the neptunium series. --Marshallsumter (discusscontribs) 02:28, 30 December 2017 (UTC)

Response
Done. The fourth chain and lead-209 are less important, so I'm inclined to keep them away.--R8R (discusscontribs) 11:09, 28 April 2018 (UTC)

  1. Regarding Lead(II), is Figure 4 β-PbO or a mixture of α-PbO and β-PbO? This image
    shows both
    . --Marshallsumter (discusscontribs) 01:25, 16 December 2017 (UTC)

Response
This picture is of greater encyclopedic/educational value, so I'm using it instead.--R8R (discusscontribs) 10:32, 28 April 2018 (UTC)

  1. Regarding Lead(IV), "Few inorganic lead(IV) compounds are known, and these exist only in highly acidic solutions.[59]". The phrase "highly acidic solutions" or "acidic solutions" does not exist in ref [59]. The reference does state: "Lead exists in three oxidation states: Pb(0), the metal; Pb(II); and Pb(IV). In the environment, lead primarily exists as Pb(II). Pb(IV) is only formed under extremely oxidizing conditions and inorganic Pb(IV) compounds are not found under ordinary environmental conditions. While organolead(II) compounds are known, organolead chemistry is dominated by the tetravalent (+4) oxidation state." --Marshallsumter (discusscontribs) 02:00, 16 December 2017 (UTC)

Response
Changed that to "Few inorganic lead(IV) compounds are known. They are only formed in highly oxidizing solutions and do not normally exist under standard conditions."--R8R (discusscontribs) 10:32, 28 April 2018 (UTC)

  1. Regarding Lead(IV), can you supply a reference for each of these statements: "Lead dioxide is a strong oxidizing agent, capable of oxidizing hydrochloric acid to chlorine gas." and "This is because the expected PbCl4 that would be produced is unstable and spontaneously decomposes to PbCl2 and Cl2."? --Marshallsumter (discusscontribs) 11:12, 17 December 2017 (UTC)

Response
Done.--R8R (discusscontribs) 12:36, 26 January 2018 (UTC)

  1. Regarding In space, "The r-process does not form as much lead as the s-process. It tends to stop once neutron-rich nuclei reach 126 neutrons. At this point, the neutrons are arranged in complete shells in the atomic nucleus, and it becomes harder to energetically accommodate more of them." Can you provide a reference for each of these statements. --Marshallsumter (discusscontribs) 17:26, 21 December 2017 (UTC)

Response
Done.--R8R (discusscontribs) 12:36, 26 January 2018 (UTC)

  1. Regarding In space, "In the r-process (r is for "rapid"), captures happen faster than nuclei can decay." and "In the s-process (s is for "slow"), captures are separated by years or decades, allowing less stable nuclei to undergo beta decay." Can you provide a reference for each of these statements. --Marshallsumter (discusscontribs) 07:30, 22 December 2017 (UTC)

Response
Done.--R8R (discusscontribs) 12:36, 26 January 2018 (UTC)

  1. Native lead isn't mentioned in the article. --Marshallsumter (discusscontribs) 16:30, 8 December 2017 (UTC) Found one sentence in section On Earth! --Marshallsumter (discusscontribs) 04:39, 21 December 2017 (UTC)

Response
Native lead is not really all that important, so that should suffice.--R8R (discusscontribs) 12:28, 28 April 2018 (UTC)

  1. Regarding On Earth, "It rarely occurs in its native, metallic form." Of the 32 elements more common than lead that are solids on Earth, 13 occur as native elements (40 %). Of the 37 less common than lead that are solids on Earth, 19 occur as native element (51 %). Lead's occurrence as native lead is likely comparable to its abundance as the other native elements are to their element's abundance. --Marshallsumter (discusscontribs) 18:17, 22 December 2017 (UTC)

Response
The source specifically says, "It is extremely rare that lead is found in its native form as lead metal; as with most metals, it almost always occurs as a mineral, chemically combined with elements such as sulfur and oxygen." I think this justifies the poor reflection of information on native lead.--R8R (discusscontribs) 12:36, 26 January 2018 (UTC)

  1. Regarding On Earth, "it is the 38th most abundant element in the crust." Using Figure 9, I count 40 elements more abundant on Earth than Pb. --Marshallsumter (discusscontribs) 16:53, 22 December 2017 (UTC)

Response
I checked Figure 9 as well. I drew a straight horizontal line in a graphical editor program to mark lead's level and counted how many elements had values above that line. These were all elements up to gallium (31 minus the missing He, Ne, and Ar, which makes it 28), Rb through Nb (5), Ba, La, Ce, and Nd (4). That sums up to 37, which makes lead 38th indeed.--R8R (discusscontribs) 12:36, 26 January 2018 (UTC)

  1. Regarding History, this section is interesting but appears to be about a quarter of the article; i.e., too long. --Marshallsumter (discusscontribs) 06:22, 2 January 2018 (UTC)

Response
I have tried to remove some unnecessary detail. The character count is as of right now 11171/56796, i.e. History now takes up slightly less than 20%. The share of the section must further fall after I make the additions you've suggested. Would we be good at that?--R8R (discusscontribs) 13:21, 26 January 2018 (UTC)

  1. Regarding Applications, solid state solar cells use hybrid organolead halide perovskites.[3] --Marshallsumter (discusscontribs) 06:22, 2 January 2018 (UTC)

Response
The list of uses was never meant to be extensive, I only listed those that seem to employ some large quantities of lead. The paper seems to suggest this use rather than picture it unfold in industry.--R8R (discusscontribs) 10:09, 1 May 2018 (UTC)

  1. Regarding Environmental effects, "The extraction, production, use, and disposal of lead and its products have caused significant contamination of the Earth's soils and waters." Do you have a reference for this sentence? --Marshallsumter (discusscontribs) 01:08, 24 December 2017 (UTC)

Response
This is a summing up sentence; as such, it is rather proven by the rest of this section.--R8R (discusscontribs) 13:21, 26 January 2018 (UTC)

  1. This article needs a section on lead-based (Pb is the major component) alloys. You have mentioned solders (there are many Pb-based that are still used for special applications), fusible alloys (Pb only as a minor element), copper and Chinese brass (Pb is minor), NaPb, lead bricks (minor Sb), and Pb-Sn alloys in organ pipes. But, there are Pb-Cd, Pb-Ca (lead-acid batteries), Molybdochalkos (historical Pb-Bi), Pb-Ag, Pb-In, Pb-Tl, and modern Pb-Bi (superconductors), and more. --Marshallsumter (discusscontribs) 02:06, 26 December 2017 (UTC)

Response
I cannot do it at the moment but I definitely agree, well spotted. I will leave this comment in bold for now until I've done so.--R8R (discusscontribs) 15:36, 7 May 2018 (UTC)

Comments by Marshall Sumter
It's the author(s) call on including this! Thank you for considering! --Marshallsumter (discusscontribs) 19:00, 16 June 2018 (UTC)

References[edit]

  1. S.K. Peneva, K.D. Djuneva and E.A. Tsukeva (2 May 1981). "RHEED study of the initial stages of crystallization and oxidation of lead and tin". Journal of Crystal Growth 53 (2): 382-396. doi:10.1016/0022-0248(81)90088-9. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0022024881900889. Retrieved 2017-12-13. 
  2. Norman F. M. Henry and Kathleen Lonsdale (1969). The 230 Three-Dimensional Space Groups, In: International Tables for X-ray Crystallography, Volume I Symmetry Groups, 3rd edition. Birmingham, England: The Kynoch Press. p. 341. Retrieved 2017-12-22. 
  3. Bing Cai, Yedi Xing, Zhou Yang, Wen-Hua Zhang and Jieshan Qiu (March 2013). "High performance hybrid solar cells sensitized by organolead halide perovskites". Energy & Enviromental Science 6 (5): 1480-1485. doi:10.1039/C3EE40343B. http://pubs.rsc.org/-/content/articlelanding/2013/ee/c3ee40343b/unauth#!divAbstract. Retrieved 2018-1-02. 

First peer review[edit]

Review by Jaclyn Catalano
This review was submitted on 04 January 2018, and refers to this previous version of the article

Sections reviewed: Abstract, Physical Properties, Chemistry, Application and Biological effects

Overall, good overview of lead and numerical values for the physical properties of lead are correct.

Abstract

The facts are correct. Good overview of lead.

1. Inconsistency between the color described in the abstract and the section Physical properties, bulk.

  • Abstract: When freshly cut, lead is bluish-white;
  • Physical Properties, Bulk: Pure lead has a bright silvery appearance with a hint of blue.

Response
The latter is correct. Corrected the lead section.--R8R (discusscontribs) 10:33, 1 May 2018 (UTC)

2. Lead is more than a neurotoxin. This sentence could be rephrased, Lead is a neurotoxin that accumulates in soft tissues and bones, damages the nervous system, and causes blood disorders.
Rephrased: Lead is a toxin that accumulates in soft tissues and bones, it acts as a neurotoxin damaging the nervous system and interferences with the function of biological enzymes.

Response
Done.--R8R (discusscontribs) 10:33, 1 May 2018 (UTC)

3. It is particularly problematic in children: even if blood levels are promptly normalized with treatment, permanent brain damage may result.
Instead of Permanent brain damage. Rephrase to neurological disorders, such as brain damage and behavioral problems.

Response
Done.--R8R (discusscontribs) 10:33, 1 May 2018 (UTC)

Physical Properties

Bulk

4. See comment above about the color. Also if it tarnishes it is subjected to corrosion.

Response
Yes. Passivation is mentioned, though?--R8R (discusscontribs) 10:33, 1 May 2018 (UTC)

5. It tarnishes on contact with moist air, and takes on a dull appearance the hue of which depends on the prevailing conditions. Characteristic properties of lead include high density, malleability, and high resistance to corrosion (due to passivation).[12]
Remove the bracket in the sentence above (due to passivation). Tarnishing is a form of corrosion so it is important that the corrosion discussed in the following sentence is due to passivation.

Response
Done.--R8R (discusscontribs) 10:33, 1 May 2018 (UTC)

Chemistry

6. Organic acids, such as acetic acid, dissolve lead in the presence of oxygen. [41]
Rephrase to: Organic acid, such as acetic acid dissolves lead in the presence of oxygen to and forms the corresponding lead salt in solution, such as lead (II) acetate.

Response
I am somewhat uneasy with two "such as" in a row, this doesn't sound fine. I considered writing something like "Organic acids dissolve lead in the presence of oxygen; for instance, the acetic acid dissolves lead to give a solution of lead(II) acetate" but isn't this more of general discussion on how acids dissolve metals rather than related directly to lead?--R8R (discusscontribs) 10:33, 1 May 2018 (UTC)

Lead (II) compounds

7. Include the names for alpha-PbO and beta-PbO.
Rephrase: Lead monoxide exists in two polymorphs, Litharge α-PbO (red) and Massicot β-PbO (yellow), the latter being stable only above around 488 °C. (I would also include the hyperlink to Lead monoxide and the respective lead isoform pages)

Response
I have applied the rephrasing, except I noted "litharge" and "massicot" don't need to be capitalized. I've added the hyperlink to w:lead monoxide. I've added links to w:litharge and w:massicot as well.--R8R (discusscontribs) 10:33, 1 May 2018 (UTC)

Applications

Compounds

8. Lead paint should be added. (Some of this information is in the Modern Era Section)

Response
I added a sentence on how these are still used in the developing countries.--R8R (discusscontribs) 17:09, 3 May 2018 (UTC)

Biological effects

9. Is there a reference for this “Only about a third of lead is excreted by a child.”

Response
I implied that this was supported by the reference at the end of the next sentence; duplicated that ref.--R8R (discusscontribs) 17:09, 3 May 2018 (UTC)

Toxicity

10. Include a sentence on lead inhibiting the enzyme (ALAD) that synthesizes heme.

Response
I found a hidden sentence on this in the text. I presume I had hidden it assuming this would seem a little too much. I think it's pretty neat. While looking around, I alos learned that ALAD is not the only enzyme that synthesizes heme, even though it is the major producer of it.--R8R (discusscontribs) 17:37, 3 May 2018 (UTC)

Exposure Sources

11. Ingestion of applied lead-based paint is the major source of exposure for children: a direct source is chewing on old painted window sills. Include also, and peeling paint chips.

Response
Sure, but I think this is already included? "Alternatively, as the applied dry paint deteriorates, it peels, is pulverized into dust, and then enters the body through hand-to-mouth contact or contaminated food, water, or alcohol."--R8R (discusscontribs) 17:44, 3 May 2018 (UTC)

Second peer review[edit]

Review by anonymous peer reviewer
This review was submitted on 06 January 2017, and refers to this previous version of the article

Sections reviewed: Abstract, Physical properties, Chemistry, Etymology, Production, Applications

Abstract

First sentence – lead isn’t “assigned” atomic number 82.  It simply has atomic number 82 by definition.  Perhaps “Lead is a chemical element, with atomic number 82, that is assigned …”. Second paragraph, second sentence:  “lead and lead oxides…., and it…”.  “It” has an unclear antecedent and should be replaced by the word “lead”. Third paragraph, fourth sentence: there should be a comma after “ductility”.  In the pdf version I received, the last paragraph of the abstract is in a different font size than the rest of the abstract.

Response
Re "assigned": you are absolutely correct. Fixed.
Re "lead and lead oxides": good point. However, I find that "lead" so many times in a row sounds terrible. I went with "lead and its oxides" instead, this makes the sentence sound better and the ambiguity is still resolved.
Re missing comma: right. Done.
Re different font: this must be a problem in the pdf. There is nothing causing that in the code.--R8R (discusscontribs) 19:49, 3 May 2018 (UTC)

Physical properties

Atomic

first paragraph, last sentence.  I’d like to see the inert pair effect clarified so the reader understands it is limited to post-transition metal elements.  Also, at the end of that sentence, it seems strange to use the word “long” to describe a distance.  I believe “large” would be more appropriate.  However, it doesn’t seem to me that any aspect of crystal structure belongs here, since the rest of the paragraph focuses on ionization energies.  Finally, “become reluctant to” seems like an anthropomorphism to me, which should perhaps be avoided. Perhaps this sentence should read “Due to the inert pair effect observed in post-transition metal elements, the 6s electrons of lead are relatively more unlikely to engage in bonding than expected based on periodic trends, leading to increased ionization energies and favoring the +2 oxidation state”.  The part about the large distance between nearest atoms in crystalline lead should be shifted to the next paragraph.

Response
Re "so the reader understands it is limited to post-transition metal elements": from what I know, it is not. For instance, auride ions display this inert pair as well: [1], and I've heard mercury's relative inertness is explained by this as well. Even the 7s elements (francium and radium) are less reactive than the 6s elements (cesium and barium) exactly because of this effect, even though the periodic trends suggest otherwise. It is rather limited to the heavy elements, and the heavier an element, the more profound the effect is, but I'm not sure if we should focus on that.
I would also not like to mention the increased stability of the +2 state here because this part of the article is concerned with physical effects and this stability is explicitly attributed to the inert pair effect in the appropriate section.
I also can't figure out how to shift the part about the large distance to the next paragraph. This is due to the inert pair effect, and there is no need to mention it twice in this section.
Can't really figure out what should be done, but please take a look.--R8R (discusscontribs) 19:49, 3 May 2018 (UTC)

Bulk

the table about isotopes belongs in the next section.

Response
This is correct, of course, but if we do shift it there, then the text of that section is awfully sandwiched, so that's why it is the way it is: for aesthetical reasons only. I assume the reader will figure it out and won't be confused.--R8R (discusscontribs) 19:49, 3 May 2018 (UTC)

First paragraph – commas should be added after “bright” in the first sentence and “appearance” in the second sentence.  Lead is ductile, so that should be added to the list of characteristics: “…malleability, ductility, and high resistance…”

Response
Done.--R8R (discusscontribs) 19:49, 3 May 2018 (UTC)

Last paragraph, third sentence – the word “at” should be added after “gold”.

Response
I get the point, but perhaps the word should go after "both"? Added it there for now.--R8R (discusscontribs) 19:49, 3 May 2018 (UTC)

Isotopes

Should there be a source/citation for “nuclear shell model” in paragraph 1?  I think the table about isotopes belongs here, with a comment, and the sentence immediately under the paragraph needs to be worked in here.  I’d recommend the second sentence in this paragraph should be something like: “The main isotopes of lead, with information on percent abundance, half-life, and decay mode and product, are listed in Table 1, although isotope abundances vary greatly by sample.”

Response
Re source for "nuclear shell model": added.
Re "table belongs here": see above. I would place it here if it did not collide with the meteor picture and I actually am fond of that picture: rather than being just an illustration, it actually links some knowledge introduced in this section to something else, having the reader know more.
Re "sentence immediately under the paragraph needs to be worked in here": I didn't understand this part. Which sentence exactly?
Re changing the second sentence: I've added the sentence, except I left out the "isotope abundances vary greatly" bit because the table says so anyway and this is actually explained in the text in greater detail two paragraphs later.--R8R (discusscontribs) 15:34, 7 May 2018 (UTC)

In the third paragraph, third sentence, “Their isotopic concentration” needs to be changed to “Their isotopic concentrations”.  In this same paragraph, the ratios used in lead-lead dating need to be clarified.  I suggest the second-to-last sentence should have the last phrase removed (“this allows for lead-lead dating”).  Another sentence should be added after this one, reading something like “Lead-lead dating involves analysis of lead-207/lead -204 ratios versus lead-206/lead-204 ratios.”

Response
Re "concentrations": done.
Re "need to be clarified": I tried to changing the wording, albeit somewhat differently; I think my rewording works fine but let me know what you think.--R8R (discusscontribs) 15:34, 7 May 2018 (UTC)

One important application of a specific lead isotope is missing: Lead-207 is NMR-active, which has led to a huge and important field of research and has medicinal applications. There ought to be at least one reference to this body of knowledge.

Response
I have mentioned this now. Thank you for bringing that up.--R8R (discusscontribs) 17:34, 5 June 2018 (UTC)

Chemistry

First paragraph, second sentence – the name should be lead(II) carbonate.  Second paragraph, second sentence needs a comma after “heating” -   “…requires heating, as the resulting…”

Response
:Agree with both. Done.--R8R (discusscontribs) 15:34, 7 May 2018 (UTC)

Third paragraph, first sentence – “insolubility” would be better changed to “solubility”

Response
Done.--R8R (discusscontribs) 15:34, 7 May 2018 (UTC)

Inorganic compounds

First paragraph, second sentence; rather than just “… the more important for lead”, for clarity consider “the more important of the two oxidation states for lead.”  Fifth sentence, rather than “This is less applicable…”, substitute a specific word for “this”, such as: “The inert pair effect is less applicable…”.  In the same sentence, place a comma after “electronegativity”. Second paragraph, last sentence requires a “the” added before “carbon” (“…going down the carbon group…”)

Response
Agree with all. Done.--R8R (discusscontribs) 15:34, 7 May 2018 (UTC)

i. Lead(II)

First paragraph, second sentence – the second listed hydrolysis product is incorrect: it should be [Pb4(OH)4]4+.  Also, this is not the final product, but the most common one.  The sentence would be more accurately changed to:

“Lead(II) ions are usually colorless in solution.[48]  No simple hydroxide is found; in aqueous solution, the lead(II) ion undergoes a series of pH-dependent hydrolysis and condensation reactions, including Pb(OH)+ and the most common hydrolysis product, [Pb4(OH)4]4+. [50],[52]”  (These are not the original references.  I was unable to access reference 49, but I did use sources 50 and 52 for checking these facts).

Response
Well spotted. Fixed.--R8R (discusscontribs) 16:31, 17 May 2018 (UTC)

I was unable to check reference 51 about the qualitative analysis of lead in the last two sentences of the first paragraph.  The last statement needs to be checked, I believe. To my best knowledge, lead(II) chloride is sparingly soluble in cold water, not somewhat soluble.  The precipitation of lead(II) chloride using dilute hydrochloric acid will detect the presence of lead in all but extremely dilute solutions.  The last sentence makes it seem as if hydrogen sulfide is bubbled through the solution when it has already been treated with dilute hydrochloric acid. This makes no sense, because at that point almost all of the lead will be present as a precipitate and will not react. So I believe the last sentence should be changed to “As the chloride salt is sparingly soluble in water, in very dilute solutions the precipitation of lead(II) sulfide is achieved by bubbling hydrogen sulfide through the solution.”

Response
You are absolutely correct on this. Done. Thank you for spotting this.--R8R (discusscontribs) 16:31, 17 May 2018 (UTC)

Second paragraph – The proper name is lead(II) oxide; “lead monoxide” should be avoided.  It would enhance the first sentence to add the common names of the two forms of PbO:  “… red a-PbO (litharge) and yellow b-PbO (massicot)…”.  The use of the word “it” is very confusing.  The second sentence needs to specify which form.   Either “Litharge” or “a-PbO” needs to replace “It” in that sentence.  Also, as written, the sentence is untrue:  tetraethyl lead is the most commonly used lead compound.  So the second sentence should be changed to read: “Litharge is the most commonly used inorganic compound of lead.”

Response
"Lead monoxide" is a proper name and so is "lead(II) oxide." Both naming systems are considered equally appropriate by the latest edition of IUPAC's Red Book (see IR-5.4.2., pages 88-90 of the pdf) Agree with the rest. I specifically checked the source on the "most commonly used lead compound" bit and it says exactly what you say, litharge is the most common inorganic compound. Fixed that, thank you for spotting this.--R8R (discusscontribs) 16:31, 17 May 2018 (UTC)

The third sentence of the second paragraph is confusing and likely inaccurate; I can’t access reference 53.  I’m not sure what is meant by the hydroxide “counterpart” of lead(II) oxide.  The hydroxides have already been discussed in the first paragraph.  As far as plumbite, I THINK that it is produced by hydrolysis in weakly basic solutions; strongly basic solutions would result in plumbate.

Response
I have accessed another source and copied a short phrase from there: "increasing the pH of solutions of lead(II) salts leads to hydrolysis and condensation." I hope this phrase is fine with you.--R8R (discusscontribs) 16:31, 17 May 2018 (UTC)

In the third paragraph, the next-to-last sentence could use some elaboration – a few examples of the lead pseudohalides that are known should be listed.

Response
Done.--R8R (discusscontribs) 16:31, 17 May 2018 (UTC)

   

ii. Lead(IV)

In this paragraph, all names should be stated in proper (IUPAC) format:  Lead(IV) oxide, lead(II) oxide, lead(IV) oxide, lead(IV) sulfide, lead(IV) selenide, lead(IV) fluoride, lead(II) fluoride, lead(IV) chloride, lead(IV) bromide, and lead(IV) iodide.

Response
See comment above: the notation used now is proper IUPAC format, too.--R8R (discusscontribs) 16:31, 17 May 2018 (UTC)

An important lead(IV) compound is omitted:  Lead(IV) acetate is a well-known, selective oxidizing agent.[52]

Response
Note that the subsection is titled "Inorganic compounds." The compound is listed under the "Organolead" title.--R8R (discusscontribs) 16:31, 17 May 2018 (UTC)

iii. Other oxidation states

In the first paragraph, second sentence, a comma needs to be added for clarity:  “… this oxidation state is not stable, as both the ….” The next sentence is unclear: what is meant by “such species”?  There needs to be some follow-up – “… in such species as…”  or  perhaps “in similar organolead complexes to the lead(III) complexes” if that’s the case (I can’t access reference 67 to check this). In the second paragraph, third sentence, Pb2O3 needs to be set off with commas before and after.

Response
Re missing comma: done. Re "such species": the point is, lead(I) is found in larger radicals. Changed to "such radical species." Re missing commas: done.--R8R (discusscontribs) 17:47, 18 May 2018 (UTC)

Organolead In the first paragraph, first sentence, all members of the group have the ability to form multiply-bonded chains (note the hyphen between “multiply” and “bonded”).  The first two sentences should be replaced with: “Lead can form multiply-bonded chains, a property it shares with the lighter members of Group IV.  The capacity for catenation decreases going down the group due to decreasing bond energy. The Pb-Pb bond energy is…” third sentence, for clarity, add a comma after “itself”.

Response
My intention was not to say otherwise but rather to compare lead specifically with carbon. Your suggestion, however, is fine as well and supported by the source used, so I went with it.--R8R (discusscontribs) 17:47, 18 May 2018 (UTC)

Next to last sentence – again avoid the unclear “it”.  Try:  “Lead forms predominantly organolead(IV) compounds, even when starting…”

Response
Done.--R8R (discusscontribs) 17:47, 18 May 2018 (UTC)

In the second paragraph, plumbane is unstable; this should be stated, probably in a third sentence: “Plumbane itself is thermally unstable, but is used to obtain a variety of alkyl derivatives.[52]”  In the next-to-last sentence, lead(IV) acetate should be used rather than lead tetraacetate; also, I think it would be worthwhile noting WHY tetraethyllead was produced in such large quantities: “…in larger quantities than any other organometallic compound, due to its widespread use as a gasoline additive.” In this same sentence, there should be a comma after “organic chemistry” and “chemistry” should be changed to “synthesis”.

Response
From what I know, plumbane is not actually used to obtain its derivatives. If you can argue otherwise, I'd like to see a source on that. As for nomenclature: again, see above, "lead tetraacetate" is valid nomeclature. As for why the acetate is used: we have a section dedicated to uses, so given that, I would rather leave this info to the relevant section. As for the finishing remarks: done.--R8R (discusscontribs) 17:47, 18 May 2018 (UTC)

Etymology

no comments

Production

First paragraph, sixth sentence (“According to…”) requires a comma after “discarded”

Response
Well spotted, thank you.--R8R (discusscontribs) 17:47, 18 May 2018 (UTC)

Second paragraph:  “primary” and “secondary” describe the process, not the metal.   So the first sentence should read “The primary and secondary lead production processes are similar.”.  The third sentence also needs to be modified: “Given adequate techniques, lead obtained via secondary processes is indistinguishable from lead obtained via primary processes.”

Response
Agree, done.--R8R (discusscontribs) 17:47, 18 May 2018 (UTC)

Primary

i. Two-step process

the chemical equations ought to contain phases (PbS(s), for example).  In the second sentence, oxides of other metals are also generated in the roasting process, but the wording does not indicate this.    Consider changing to “…roasting yields not only the desired lead(II) oxide, but a mixture of oxides, sulfates, and silicates of lead and of the other metals…”

Response
Agree, done.--R8R (discusscontribs) 10:45, 20 May 2018 (UTC)

The second-to-last sentence in this paragraph needs clarification:  the Parkes process relies on the immiscibility of zinc in lead, not of silver or gold in lead.

Perhaps change to: “The zinc, which is immiscible in lead, dissolves the silver and gold.  The zinc solution can be separated from the lead, and the silver and gold retrieved.”

Response
Agree, done.--R8R (discusscontribs) 10:45, 20 May 2018 (UTC)

Another issue I’d like to see clarified is whether the Betts process is regularly employed when very pure lead is required.  The mention of electrolysis in the “alternatives” section makes it seem as if electrolysis is not currently widely used, but I believe it is common when very pure lead is required.

Response
The problem with this process is that it is relatively expensive. According to Ullmann, it is mostly used for bullions with a relatively high amount of impurities, especially bismuth. Added a short note on that.--R8R (discusscontribs) 10:45, 20 May 2018 (UTC)

ii.  Direct process

In this section, the proper name of “lead monoxide” is lead(II) oxide.

Response
As argued above, "lead monoxide" is fine.--R8R (discusscontribs) 10:45, 20 May 2018 (UTC)

In the first paragraph, the first sentence should have a comma after “In this process,…”  In the second sentence, the parenthetical expression should begin with “as”: “Carbon (as coke or coal gas)…”

Response
Agree, done.--R8R (discusscontribs) 10:45, 20 May 2018 (UTC)

In the second paragraph, I think it should be specified that the form of lead in the high-lead slag mentioned in the second sentence is lead(II) oxide.

Response
I agree, but this is already covered in the first sentence: "the remaining 20% forms a slag rich in lead monoxide." I assume that the reader will follow; in fact, I find it hard not to.--R8R (discusscontribs) 10:45, 20 May 2018 (UTC)

iii. Alternatives

Hydrometallurgical extraction is a much broader term than implied here; several different methods may be used, rather than just electrolysis.

Response
I have trouble understanding if there is anything should be done here. Could you please clarify?--R8R (discusscontribs) 10:45, 20 May 2018 (UTC)

Secondary

In the second sentence, it’d be nice to see numbers to back up the statement about the variability of yields.  In the last sentence of this paragraph, the last phrase is confusing:  are bismuth and silver being accepted as impurities, rather than trying to remove them? Or is it understood that bismuth and silver are the most common impurities?

Response
As for numbers: I've corrected the sentence a bit and added the numbers. As for the last sentence: Thank you very much for spotting this! That sentence was based on an inaccurate interpretation of the source. I have removed it altogether.--R8R (discusscontribs) 11:45, 20 May 2018 (UTC)

Applications

Elemental form

Begin the third paragraph with the word “Lead” rather than “Its”.  In the third paragraph, the third sentence, the word “weight” is inaccurate.  Perhaps combine the second and third sentences: “It is used as ballast in sailboat keels; its density allows it to take up a small volume and minimize water resistance, thus counterbalancing the heeling effect of wind on the sails.[182] In the fifth paragraph, the second sentence requires a comma after the word “copper”.

Response
Agree with all, done.--R8R (discusscontribs) 11:45, 20 May 2018 (UTC)

Compounds

no comments

Third peer review[edit]

WikiJournal of Science.Review.Jan12.2018 LEAD env.pdf

A


Reviewer-annotated pdf file.

Review by Robert M. Gogal Jr.
This review was submitted on 12 January 2018, and refers to this previous version of the article

Sections reviewed: Environmental effects, Restriction and Remediation

Environmental effects

Editorial suggestion:

1. Change to... The extraction, production, use, and disposal of lead and its products have resulted in significant contamination of the Earth's soils and waters. Atmospheric emissions of lead were at their peak during the Industrial Revolution and the second half of the twentieth century with the use of leaded gasoline for automotive transportation.

Response
Done.--R8R (discusscontribs) 11:41, 30 May 2018 (UTC)

2. Elevated concentrations of lead persist in soils and sediments in post-industrial and urban areas; industrial emissions, including those arising from coal burning,[242] continue in many parts of the world, particularly in the developing countries.[243] ...... This statement leaves the reader thinking that lead contamination is solely a result of industrial contamination, which it is not.

Response
I think this sentence can be taken differently, but of course, I see your concern. I've added a sentence summing up the sources of lead contamination as per United Nations Environment Programme.--R8R (discusscontribs) 11:41, 30 May 2018 (UTC)

3. The fact is that particulate lead in the form of spent shot and fragments from recreation shooting ranges, military ranges and sites of active and past military conflicts contain significant levels of lead in the soil. It has and still is a major health problem to humans and wildlife. Although there has been much effort to reduce the use of particulate lead in ammunition in industrialized nations it is still utilized in third world countries. I recommend that the author add 3-4 sentences about particulate lead to this sub-section.

Response
Done.--R8R (discusscontribs) 11:41, 30 May 2018 (UTC)

4. Change to... Environmental lead can compete with other metals found in and on plants surfaces potentially inhibiting photosynthesis and at high enough concentrations, negatively affecting plant growth and survival.

Response
Done.--R8R (discusscontribs) 11:41, 30 May 2018 (UTC)

5. Change to... Contamination of soils and plants can allow lead to ascend the food chain affecting microorganisms and animals.

Response
Done.--R8R (discusscontribs) 11:41, 30 May 2018 (UTC)

6. Affected animals have a reduced ability to synthesize red blood cells, which causes anemia.[244] .....This sentence seems out of place or incomplete to me.

Response
I agree, there is more to it; expanded this sentence to mention other affected systems.--R8R (discusscontribs) 18:14, 6 June 2018 (UTC)

7. Lead is a neurotoxicant in wildlife species as well as man. In addition to hemo, it is a renal, repro and hepatotoxic. The author would do well to follow the review of the biological effects similar to man for wildlife species if he wishes to comment on environmental effects of lead.

Response
I did not include that originally because I didn't want to be overly repetitive, and also because I generally think that in this overview article, animals do not merit a full review. If this were a bio-centered article titled, say, Lead pollution or something like that, I would absolutely agree that this fits in well, but it is not a bio-centered article, so this may be too much. I've listed systems affected by lead, though.--R8R (discusscontribs) 18:14, 6 June 2018 (UTC)

8. There have been numerous studies on the effects of lead on marine species and avian species (aquatic and terrestrial). I would recommend a sentence being included regarding this issue. The author’s the statement that lead "reduced ability to synthesize red blood cells, which causes anemia" is not entirely accurate. Lead has been shown to block heme synthesis leading to a decline in RBC survival and increased hemoloysis.

Response
I have added a sentence on fish and birds; please see if this is what you had in mind. As for inaccurate statement: it had been removed by the time I got to this comment. I hope the section in general is fine now.--R8R (discusscontribs) 15:40, 10 June 2018 (UTC)

9. An important biomarker assay for lead exposure is measuring delta aminolevulinic-acid dehydratase (d-ALAD) and both serum and urine samples are commonly collected for evaluation.

Response
Thank you, added that.--R8R (discusscontribs) 15:40, 10 June 2018 (UTC)

Restriction and remediation

Verb tense needs to be changed to the past tense throughout this section where appropriate

1. Change to... By the mid-1980s, there was significant decline in the use of lead in industry.

Response
Done.--R8R (discusscontribs) 15:40, 10 June 2018 (UTC)

2. Change to... Particulate control devices were installed in coal-fired power plants to capture lead emissions.[242]

Response
Done.--R8R (discusscontribs) 15:40, 10 June 2018 (UTC)

3. The author starts with discussing the shift in industrial lead use in the 1980s and discussing government regulations as the driving force. Then, he changes verb tense on the following sentences. Beyond the first couple of sentences, it is hard to discern what regulations and restrictions are past and which ones are newly enacted although, I suspect that many of them are regulations that were enacted in the past. Perhaps, the author can heavily revise this section?

Response
After all the edits made in response to these comments, the sections seems fine to me, so please take a look and, if there's still something wrong, explain it in greater detail.--R8R (discusscontribs) 13:55, 12 June 2018 (UTC)

4. The last sentence in the first paragraph discusses the 1993 Netherland’s ban on lead shot and the decline in environmental lead in tonnes. If the referenced paper is about particulate measured, it should be “deposition” and not emission.

Response
Done.--R8R (discusscontribs) 12:55, 12 June 2018 (UTC)

5. Last paragraph is a loose compilation of sentences that are not very well unified. I would recommend a heavy revision of this paragraph as well.

Response
While I am all in thoughts on how to reorganize the first paragraph, I am failing to see what is wrong here. Most sentences are drawn together well by the common theme of research on how to deal with lead via biological means, which is explicitly stated in the second sentence. I have, however, made some minor reorganizing; please see what you think of it.--R8R (discusscontribs) 12:55, 12 June 2018 (UTC)

6. The remediation discussion paragraph should also include the efforts to control and minimize the effects of environmental particulate lead. In addition to using lead capture nets and backstops, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 2005 published a guideline entitled, Best Management Practices for Pb at Outdoor Shooting Ranges, outlining management protocols for more sustainable and safe management of spent Pb.

Response
Thank you. I have mentioned that and reorganized the text a little bit.--R8R (discusscontribs) 12:55, 12 June 2018 (UTC)

7. Inclusive to this the EPA recommended assessing the pH of soils for acidity. Acidic soils facilitate the leaching of lead out of the soil into the waterways allowing for bioaccumulation into plant and wild life. Treating acidic soils with phosphates to reach a neutral pH will block the leaching of lead.

Response
Added a sentence on that.--R8R (discusscontribs) 13:55, 12 June 2018 (UTC)

Response
A general note: thank you for all of your comments. These comments on these usually obstructed sections were very welcome. I want to know if everything's been well done, or what further work is needed.--R8R (discusscontribs) 13:55, 12 June 2018 (UTC)

Reader Comments[edit]

Would it be possible for the authors to include a section on compliance with ethical standards to the end of this manuscript. A suitable section for this paper would be (if there are indeed no conflicts of interest and no studies with human or animal subjects):

Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflicts of Interest
Mikhail Boldyrev has not declared any potential conflits of interest
Human and animal Subjects
This article does not contain any studes with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors

Van Vlijmen (discusscontribs) 07:11, 15 February 2018 (UTC)

Also, who are referred to by 'et al.' in the author list for this paper? Van Vlijmen (discusscontribs) 07:11, 15 February 2018 (UTC)

Sorry to respond so late. As for the compliance note, probably the journal itself, rather than I as the author, is responsible for that. As for et al., this stands for all editors who made changes to this text, including before I first touched it; it originated as a Wikipedia article.--R8R (discusscontribs) 20:37, 3 July 2018 (UTC)