Manned spaceflight on an individual basis has only been achieved with experimental aircraft such as the X-15.
Def. an "act of flight" is called flying.
- the "act of flying",
- an "instance of flying", or
- a "journey made by an aircraft, eg a balloon, plane or space shuttle, particularly one between two airports, which needs to be reserved in advance" is called a flight.
Def. a flight "into, from or through space" is called a space flight or spaceflight.
Def. any "region of space beyond limits determined with reference to boundaries of a celestial system or body, especially the region of space immediately beyond Earth's atmosphere" is called outer space.
""Flyings" could vary considerably in complexity and lavishness and could involve an actor or property being either lifted from the stage into the flies above or vice versa. As Colin Visser has observed, flyings and sinkings are both "associated with supernatural manifestations of various kinds""
Bone mineral losses
Def. the "amount of mineral per square centimeter of" bone is called bone density (in clinical practice).
"Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter."
Areal bone mineral density "BMD (aBMD) measurements by [dual energy X-ray absorptiometry] DXA showed that cosmonauts making flights of 4- to 12-month duration on the Soviet/Russian MIR spacecraft lost bone at an average rate of 1%/month from the spine and 1.5%/month from the hip."
From "a study of crewmembers (13 males and 1 female; age range, 40–55 years) on long-duration missions (4–6 months) on the International Space Station (ISS). We used DXA to obtain aBMD of the hip and spine and volumetric QCT (vQCT) to assess integral, cortical, and trabecular volumetric BMD (vBMD) in the hip and spine. In the heel, DXA was used to measure aBMD, and quantitative ultrasound (QUS) was used to measure speed of sound (SOS) and broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA). [...] aBMD was lost at rates of 0.9%/month at the spine (p < 0.001) and 1.4 –1.5%/month at the hip (p < 0.001). Spinal integral vBMD was lost at a rate of 0.9%/month (p < 0.001), and trabecular vBMD was lost at 0.7%/month (p < 0.05). In contrast to earlier reports, these changes were generalized across the vertebrae and not focused in the posterior elements. In the hip, integral, cortical, and trabecular vBMD was lost at rates of 1.2–1.5%/month (p < 0.0001), 0.4–0.5%/month (p < 0.01), and 2.2–2.7%/month (p < 0.001), respectively. The cortical bone loss in the hip occurred primarily by cortical thinning. Calcaneal aBMD measurements by DXA showed smaller mean losses (0.4%/month) than hip or spine measurements, with SOS and BUA showing no change."
"Long-term spaceflights induce bone loss as a result of profound modifications of bone remodeling"
"We measured intact parathyroid hormone (PTH) and serum calcium; for bone formation, serum concentrations of bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP), intact osteocalcin (iBGP), and type 1 procollagen propeptide (PICP); for resorption, urinary concentrations (normalized by creatinine) of procollagen C-telopeptide (CTX), free and bound deoxypyridinoline (F and B D-Pyr), and Pyr in a 36-year-old cosmonaut (RTO), before (days −180, −60, and −15), during (from days 10 to 178, n = 12), and after (days +7, +15, +25, and +90) a 180-day spaceflight, in another cosmonaut (ASW) before and after the flight. Flight PTH tended to decrease by 48% and postflight PTH increased by 98%. During the flight, BAP, iBGP, and PICP decreased by 27%, 38%, and 28% respectively in CM1, and increased by 54%, 35%, and 78% after the flight. F D-Pyr and CTX increased by 54% and 78% during the flight and decreased by 29% and 40% after the flight, respectively. We showed for the first time in humans that microgravity induced an uncoupling of bone remodeling between formation and resorption that could account for bone loss."
Carotid baroreceptor-cardiac reflexes
"Spaceflight is associated with decreased orthostatic tolerance after landing. Short-duration spaceflight (4–5 days) impairs one neural mechanism: the carotid baroreceptor-cardiac reflex. To understand the effects of longer-duration spaceflight on baroreflex function, we measured R-R interval power spectra, antecubital vein plasma catecholamine levels, carotid baroreceptor-cardiac reflex responses, responses to Valsalva maneuvers, and orthostatic tolerance in 16 astronauts before and after shuttle missions lasting 8–14 days. We found the following changes between preflight and landing day: 1) orthostatic tolerance decreased; 2) R-R interval spectral power in the 0.05 to 0.15-Hz band increased; 3) plasma norepinephrine and epinephrine levels increased; 4) the slope, range, and operational point of the carotid baroreceptor cardiac reflex response decreased; and 5) blood pressure and heart rate responses to Valsalva maneuvers were altered. Autonomic changes persisted for several days after landing."
Immune system changes
"The results of immunological analyses before, during and after spaceflight, have established the fact that spaceflight can result in a blunting of the immune mechanisms of human crew members and animal test species. There is some evidence that the immune function changes in short-term flights resemble those occurring after acute stress, while the changes during long-term flights resemble those caused by chronic stress. In addition, this blunting of the immune function occurs concomitant with a relative increase in potentially infectious microorganisms in the space cabin environment. This combination of events results in an increased probability of inflight infectious events. The realization of this probability has been shown to be partially negated by the judicious use of a preflight health stabilization program and other operational countermeasures."
Muscle mass losses
"Muscle strength and limb girth measurements during Skylab and Apollo missions suggested that loss of muscle mass may occur as a result of spaceflight. Extended duration spaceflight is important for the economical and practical use of space. The loss of muscle mass during spaceflight is a medical concern for long duration flights to the planets or extended stays aboard space stations. Understanding the extent and temporal relationships of muscle loss is important for the development of effective spaceflight countermeasures."
"Statistical analyses demonstrated that [after 8 d shuttle flight] the soleus-gastrocnemius (-6.3%), anterior calf (-3.9%), hamstrings (-8.3%), quadriceps (-6.0%) and intrinsic back (-10.3%) muscles were decreased, p < 0.05, compared to baseline, 24 h after landing. At 2 weeks post recovery, the hamstrings and intrinsic lower back muscles were still below baseline, p < 0.05."
Def. symptoms "of cerebral hypoperfusion or autonomic overaction which develop while the subject is standing, but are relieved on recumbency" are called orthostatic intolerance.
The types of orthostatic intolerance "include NEUROCARDIOGENIC SYNCOPE; POSTURAL ORTHOSTATIC TACHYCARDIA SYNDROME; and neurogenic ORTHOSTATIC HYPOTENSION."
Def. a "transient loss of consciousness and postural tone caused by diminished blood flow to the brain" is called a syncope.
Def. loss "of consciousness due to a reduction in blood pressure that is associated with an increase in vagal tone and peripheral vasodilation" is called vasovagal syncope or neurocardiogenic syncope.
Def. a "syndrome of ORTHOSTATIC INTOLERANCE combined with excessive upright TACHYCARDIA, and usually without associated ORTHOSTATIC HYPOTENSION" is called Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome.
"All variants have in common an excessively reduced venous return to the heart (central HYPOVOLEMIA) while upright."
Def. "a 20-mm Hg decrease in systolic pressure or a 10-mm Hg decrease in diastolic pressure 3 minutes after the person has risen from supine to standing" is called orthostatic hypotension.
"Symptoms generally include DIZZINESS, blurred vision, and SYNCOPE."
"Orthostatic intolerance occurs commonly after spaceflight, and important aspects of the underlying mechanisms remain unclear."
"After spaceflight, 9 of the 14 (64%) crew members could not complete a 10-min stand test that all completed preflight."
The "postural vasoconstrictor response was significantly greater among the finishers (P < 0.01)."
- A method to place a 5,000 kg object in orbit by using the natural electric field of the Earth may be possible.
The findings demonstrate a statistically systematic change from the status quo or the control group.
“In the design of experiments, treatments [or special properties or characteristics] are applied to [or observed in] experimental units in the treatment group(s). In comparative experiments, members of the complementary group, the control group, receive either no treatment or a standard treatment."
Def. a “short and/or incomplete realization of a certain method or idea to demonstrate its feasibility" is called a proof of concept.
Def. evidence that demonstrates that a concept is possible is called proof of concept.
The proof-of-concept structure consists of
- findings, and
Proof of technology
"[T]he objective of a proof of technology is to determine the solution to some technical problem, such as how two systems might be integrated or that a certain throughput can be achieved with a given configuration."
- "[a]n original object or form which is a basis for other objects, forms, or for its models and generalizations",
- "[a]n early sample or model built to test a concept or process", or
- "[a]n instance of a category or a concept that combines its most representative attributes" is called a prototype.
Def. "[t]o test something using the conditions that it was designed to operate under, especially out in the real world instead of in a laboratory or workshop" is called "field-test", or a field test.
A "proof-of-technology prototype ... typically implements one critical scenario to exercise or stress the highest-priority requirements."
"[A] proof-of-technology test demonstrates the system can be used".
"The strongest proof of technology performance is based on consistency among multiple lines of evidence, all pointing to similar levels of risk reduction."
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