Simulation argument (coding cosmic microwave background)

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Programming cosmic microwave background parameters for deep universe (Planck scale) Simulation Hypothesis modeling

The simulation hypothesis or simulation argument is an argument that proposes that the universe in its entirety, down to the smallest detail, could be an artificial simulation such as a computer simulation. Neil deGrasse Tyson put the odds at 50-50 that our entire existence is a program on someone else’s hard drive [1].

Universe simulation hypothesis models operating at the Planck scale can use the Planck units as the scaffolding upon which particles are embedded [2]. A minimum structure that comprises discrete Planck units for mass mP, volume (measured in length lp) and time tp, is proposed for use as a base structure, this can be defined as a Planck micro black-hole.


Simulation clock-rate[edit | edit source]

The simulation clock-rate would be defined as the minimum increment to the simulation. As an example;

 FOR tage = 1 TO the_end         '1 = big bang                            
         generate 1 unit of Planck time tp       
         generate 1 unit of Planck mass mP      
         generate 1 unit of Planck volume (radius Planck length lp)     
         ........ 
 NEXT tage                       'tage in an incrementing variable and not a dimensioned unit of time 

A 14 billion year old universe would approximate 1062tp. In the absence of other factors (assuming only Planck units), the universe simulation would then have a mass and size commensurate with tage = 1062 multiples of Planck mass and Planck length respectively as shown in this table:


cosmic microwave background parameters; calculated vs observed
Parameter Calculated Calculated Observed
Age (billions of years) 13.8 14.624 13.8
Age (units of Planck time) 0.404 1061 0.428 1061 0.404 1061
Mass density 0.24 x 10-26 kg.m-3 0.21 x 10-26 kg.m-3 0.24 x 10-26 kg.m-3
Radiation energy density 0.468 x 10-13 kg.m-1.s-2 0.417 x 10-13 kg.m-1.s-2 0.417 x 10-13 kg.m-1.s-2
Hubble constant 70.85 km/s/Mp 66.86 km/s/Mp 67 (ESA's Planck satellite 2013)
CMB temperature 2.807K 2.727K 2.7255K
CMB peak frequency 164.9GHz 160.2GHz 160.2GHz
Casimir length 0.41mm 0.42mm


Mass density[edit | edit source]

Setting bh as the sum universe and tsec as time measured in seconds;

Gravitation constant G as Planck units;

From the Friedman equation; replacing p with the above mass density formula, √(λ) reduces to the radius of the universe;


Temperature[edit | edit source]

Measured in terms of Planck temperature TP;

The mass/volume formula uses tage2, the temperature formula uses √(tage). We may therefore eliminate the age variable tage and combine both formulas into a single constant of proportionality that resembles the radiation density constant.


Radiation energy density[edit | edit source]

From Stefan Boltzmann constant σSB


Casimir formula[edit | edit source]

y-axis = mPa, x-axis = dc2lp (nm)}

The Casimir force per unit area for idealized, perfectly conducting plates with vacuum between them; F = force, A = plate area, dc 2 lp = distance between plates in units of Planck length

if dc = 2 π √tage then the Casimir force equates to the radiation energy density formula.

The diagram (right) plots Casimir length dc2lp against radiation energy density pressure measured in mPa for different tage with a vertex around 1PaA. A radiation energy density pressure of 1Pa occurs around tage = 0.8743 1054 tp (2987 years), with Casimir length = 189.89nm and temperature TBH = 6034 K.


Hubble constant[edit | edit source]

1 Mpc = 3.08567758 x 1022.


Black body peak frequency[edit | edit source]


Entropy[edit | edit source]


Cosmological constant[edit | edit source]

Riess and Perlmutter using Type 1a supernovae to show that the universe is accelerating. This discovery provided the first direct evidence that Ω is non-zero giving the cosmological constant as ~ 1071 years;

units of Planck time;

This remarkable discovery has highlighted the question of why Ω has this unusually small value. So far, no explanations have been offered for the proximity of Ω to 1/tuniv2 ~ 1.6 x 10-122, where tuniv ~ 8 x 1060 is the present expansion age of the universe in Planck time units. Attempts to explain why Ω ~ 1/tuniv2 have relied upon ensembles of possible universes, in which all possible values of Ω are found [3] .


The maximum temperature Tmax would be when tage = 1. What is of equal importance is the minimum possible temperature Tmin - that temperature 1 Planck unit above absolute zero, this temperature would signify the limit of expansion; tage = the_end (the 'universe' could expand no further). For example, taking the inverse of Planck temperature;

This then gives us a value for the final age in units of Planck time (about 0.35 x 1073 yrs);

The mid way point (Tuniverse = 1K) would be when (about 108.77 billion years);


Spiral expansion[edit | edit source]

Planck black-hole universe; discrete Planck micro black-holes mapped onto a Theodorus spiral

By expanding according to a Spiral of Theodorus pattern where each triangle refers to 1 increment to tage, we can map the mass and volume components as integral steps of tage (the spiral circumference) and the radiation domain as a sqrt progression (the spiral arm). A spiral universe can rotate with respect to itself differentiating between an L and R universe without recourse to an external reference.

If mathematical constants and physical constants are also a function of tage then their precision would depend on tage, for example using this progression when tage = 1, π2 = 6;




External links[edit | edit source]



References[edit | edit source]

  1. Are We Living in a Computer Simulation? https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/are-we-living-in-a-computer-simulation/
  2. Macleod, Malcolm J.; "Programming cosmic microwave background parameters for Planck scale Simulation Hypothesis modeling". RG. Feb 2011. doi:10.13140/RG.2.2.31308.16004/7. 
  3. J. Barrow, D. J. Shaw; The Value of the Cosmological Constant, arXiv:1105.3105v1 [gr-qc] 16 May 2011