Keynote lectures/Sex integration

From Wikiversity
Jump to navigation Jump to search
This side of the Halifax, Nova Scotia 1882 token is strikingly American. Credit: Jerry "Woody" from Edmonton, Canada.

Sex integration is the intermixing of people or groups previously segregated on the basis of sex, for any social endeavor, activity, or a society that is made up totally of one sex. During childhood development sex differences, gender identity and labeling may lead to some sex segregation. Automatic sex integration may occur during and after development naturally as indicated by studies of such early peoples as the San people of southern Africa, where individuals of either sex are relatively equal[1] and the society egalitarian.[1]

"Continuing segregation in a variety of forms suggests that it would be fruitful to focus more attention on the variability existing within already “integrated” occupations."[2]

The same may be written of social groups and societies.

Integration[edit]

Def.

  1. an "act or process of making whole or entire",[3]
  2. a "process of fitting into a community, notably applied to 'visible' (ethnic, immigrant...) minorities",[3]
  3. an "operation of finding the integral of a function",[3] or
  4. a "process by which the manifold is compacted into the relatively simple and permanent; supposed to alternate with differentiation as an agent in species' development",[3]

is called integration.

Sex[edit]

The two sexes (male and female) of the vermilion flycatcher are illustrated. Credit: Steven G. Johnson.

Def.

  1. a "main division into which an organism is placed according to its reproductive functions or organs",[4]
  2. a "sum of the biological characteristics by which male and female and other organisms are distinguished",[4] or
  3. sexual "intercourse; the act of sexual intercourse"[4]

is called sex.

Earth sciences[edit]

West African bullfrog can change sex in a same-sex or single-sex environment. Credit: .

Def.

  1. belonging "to the sex which typically produces eggs, which in humans and most other mammals is typically the one which has XX chromosomes; belonging to the sex which has larger gametes (for species which have two sexes and for which this distinction can be made)"

[5] or

  1. belonging "to the feminine (social) gender"[5]

is called a female.

Def.

  1. belonging "to the sex which typically has testes, which in humans and most other mammals is typically the one which has XY chromosomes",[6]
  2. belonging "to the masculine (social) gender",[6] or
  3. pertaining "to or associated with men, or male animals; masculine"

is called a male.

Some animals such as the West African bullfrog can change sex in a same-sex or single-sex environment.

Def. a "period of time when certain ungulates mate"[7] is called rutting.

Def. "the time of year when certain animals mate, for example in the deer family"[8] is called rutting season.

"Average peak date of the whitetail [deer] rut in the United States: November 13. Average peak date of the whitetail rut in Alabama: January 15. [Rutting season may last 40-80 or more days.]"[9]

Colors[edit]

There are many different types of sex determination depending on chromosomes. Credit: CFCF.

As the image at the right illustrates, there are many different types of sex determination depending on chromosomes.

Theoretical sex integration[edit]

Here's a theoretical definition:

Def. an occupation that is "between 45.0 and 55.0 percent female"[2] is called an integrated occupation, or sex integrated occupation.

Def. any group of adult hominins that is between 45.0 and 55.0 percent female is called a sexually integrated group.

Strong forces[edit]

"[F]or the vast majority of children, there is coincidence of biological sex, social gender label, and psychological gender identity, which is sufficient to produce same-sex segregation."[10][11]

"[Y]oung children who passed a gender labeling task were more likely than those who failed the task to choose same-sex peers (Fagot, Leinbach, & Hagan, 1986), suggesting that gender labeling promotes sex segregation."[11]

"[S]ame-sex segregation is a group phenomenon that arises from social processes that are related to gender identity and labeling common to all members of a sex, rather than to similarities in sex-typed activities."[11]

Sex segregation in children reflects social factors common to all members of the sex and is a group phenomenon resulting from gender identification and labeling, rather than to similarities in sex-typed activities.[12]

Weak forces[edit]

"On playmate preference, there was little overlap between control boys and girls (see Figure 2). The boys who scored within the range of girls were very young, and young children do not show strong same-sex playmate preferences (Hartup, 1983; Maccoby & Jacklin, 1987)."[11]

Continua[edit]

A sex difference in humans is a distinction of biological and/or physiological characteristics associated with either males or females of a species.

Quantitative differences are based on a gradient and involve different averages.

For example, most males are taller and stronger than females,[13] but an individual female could be taller and/or stronger than an individual male. These differences and their extent vary across societies.[14]

The most obvious differences between males and females include all the features related to reproductive role, notably the endocrine (hormonal) systems and their physiological and behavioural effects, including gonadal differentiation, internal and external genital and breast differentiation, and differentiation of muscle mass, height, and hair distribution.

Externally, the most sexually dimorphic portions of the human body are the chest, the lower half of the face, and the area between the waist and the knees.[15]

Males weigh about 15% more than females, on average. For those older than 20 years of age, males in the US have an average weight of 86.1 kg (190 lbs), whereas females have an average weight of 74 kg (163 lbs).[16]

On average, men are taller than women, by about 15 cm (6 inches).[13] American males who are 20 years old or older have an average height of 176.8 cm (5 ft 10 in). The average height of corresponding females is 162 cm (5 ft 4in).[16]

Male and female pelvises are shaped differently. The female pelvis features a wider pelvic cavity, which is necessary when giving birth. The female pelvis has evolved to its maximum width for childbirth — an even wider pelvis would make women unable to walk.[17][18] In contrast, human male pelves did not evolve to give birth and are therefore slightly more optimized for walking.[19] The female pelvis is larger and broader than the male pelvis which is taller, narrower, and more compact. The female inlet is larger and oval in shape, while the male inlet is more heart-shaped.[20]

Sex differences usually describe differences which clearly represent a binary male/female split, such as human reproduction. Though some sex differences are controversial, they are not to be confused with sexist stereotypes.

Backgrounds[edit]

Def.

  1. a "division of [words, specifically] nouns and pronouns (and sometimes of other parts of speech), [into categories] such as masculine, feminine, neuter or common",[21]
  2. "a division into which an organism is placed according to its reproductive functions or organs",
  3. "the sum of the biological characteristics by which male and female and other organisms are distinguished",[21]
  4. identification "as male/masculine, female/feminine or something else, and association with a (social) role or set of behavioral and cultural traits, clothing, etc typically associated with one sex",[21] or
  5. a "sociocultural phenomenon of the division of people into various categories such as "male" and "female", with each having associated clothing, roles, stereotypes, etc"[21]

is called a gender.

Usage notes

"Some speakers, particularly in informal contexts, use sex and gender synonymously (interchangeably). In formal contexts, a distinction is usually made between sex (which is biological) and gender (which is social)."[21]

Neutrals[edit]

Def.

  1. a "state or quality of being neutral; the condition of being unengaged in contests between others; state of taking no part on either side; indifference",[22]
  2. a "condition of a nation or government which refrains from taking part, directly or indirectly, in a war between other powers",[22] or
  3. those "who are neutral; a combination of neutral powers or states"[22]

is called neutrality.

Def.

  1. applicable "or available to either gender (to both males and females)",[23]
  2. not "indicating or restricted by gender, and thus applicable or available to those of any gender and to those of no gender",[23] or
  3. in "languages where words are assigned to one gender or another, lacking such an assignment"[23]

is called gender-neutral.

"[E]qual sex representation in occupations does not necessarily produce gender equity at the job level, nor does equity in labor market rewards necessarily follow integration."[2]

"[O]ccupational desegregation does not necessarily yield gender equity."[2]

Unisex refers to things that are suitable for either sex,[24][25] but can also be another term for gender-blindness.

Hair stylists and beauty salons that serve both men and women are often referred to as unisex. This is also typical of other services that traditionally separated the sexes, such as clothing shops.

Egalitarianism[edit]

According to the Merriam-Webster Dictionary, the term has two distinct definitions in modern English.[26] It is defined either as a political doctrine that all people should be treated as equals and have the same political, economic, social, and civil rights[27] or as a social philosophy advocating the removal of economic inequalities among people or the decentralization of power. Some sources define egalitarianism as the point of view that equality reflects the natural state of humanity.[28][29][30]

Def. "[t]he political doctrine that holds that all people in a society should have equal rights from birth"[31] is called egalitarianism.

Egalitarian mortality[edit]

Egalitarian mortality (or mortality equality) is the study of mortality within groups, settlements, or societies, where the longevity of groups such as men and women appears to be approximately the same. "Say, for example, those who died before 80 always died at 50 and those who survived past 80 died at 85. Then if no one survives to 80, we have a completely egalitarian mortality distribution—everyone dies at 50."[32] Over the last century, mortality inequality has declined drastically in high-income countries and is now comparatively trivial; i.e., approaching mortality equality.[32] "[A] number of studies show more gender-egalitarian mortality among the poor."[33]

Sex segregation[edit]

Def. "[p]eople separating geographically, residentially, racially, religiously or by sex based on happenstance, voluntary choice or cultural attitudes [as enforced by law or the passing of laws]"[34] is called segregation.

Sex segregation is the separation of people according to their sex. The term gender apartheid (or sexual apartheid) also has been applied to segregation of people by gender,[35] implying that it is sexual discrimination.[36] In some circumstances, gender segregation is a controversial policy, with critics contending that in most or all circumstances it is a violation of human rights, and supporters arguing that it is necessary to maintain decency, sacredness, modesty, female safety,[37] or the family unit.[38]

Adult sex segregation may have other origins. For example, the cosmological order underlying Polynesian notions of aristocracy, apparently originating from high volcanic islands whereby males have higher status by living higher on the volcano, is compromised by spatial ambiguities when living on an atoll consisting of a ring of islets, and the hierarchical social order becomes insupportable leading to a more egalitarian basis for social relations.[39]

Patriarchy[edit]

"[S]ex integration [may eliminate] gender hierarchy. [...] Male dominant norms can and do sexualize hierarchy [...]."[40]

“[G]ender is the central device for the simultaneous oppression both of women and of sexual minorities [including single men] under hetero-patriarchy. . . . [S]exual orientation actually and ultimately is sex-based.”[41]

But, "gender inequality of [the institutions and practices of sex, motherhood, and marriage] is not necessarily transformed through sex integration.61"[40]

"Privacy’s freedom does not make you equal, but freedom and equality can be harmonized if equality is not compromised."[40]

Male senior managers captured by the men's club concept, may well be the product of “corporate patriarchy” in which cultural processes and practices discriminate against and form a resistance to women.[42]

"When gender imbalance at the top (with men in the majority) is combined with greater sex integration further down the hierarchy, women experience greater “fit” within the organisation than when that gender imbalance permeates all management levels."[42] Further, an integrated top management team in terms of gender mix is possibly the single most important factor in creating a culture in which women feel comfortable and valued.[42]

Occupations[edit]

Workplaces are still out of balance, especially in leadership roles. Credit: Till Leopold, Vesselina Stefanova Ratcheva, and Saadia Zahidi.{{fairuse}}
Having a child can lead to scientists switching or quitting their careers. Credit: Erin A. Cech & Mary Blair-Loy.{{fairuse}}

"Occupational segregation by sex is extensive in every region, at all economic development levels, under all political systems, and in diverse religious, social and cultural environments. It is one of the most important and enduring aspects of labour markets around the world."[43]

"It is a major source of labour market rigidity and economic inefficiency. Excluding a majority of workers from a majority of occupations, as at present, is wasteful of human resources, increases labour market inflexibility, and reduces an economy's ability to adjust to change."[43]

Occupational "segregation by sex is detrimental to women. It has an important negative effect on how men view women and on how women view themselves. This is turn negatively affects women's status and income and, consequently, many social variables such as mortality and morbidity, poverty and income inequality. The persistence of gender stereotypes also has negative effects on education and training and thus causes gender-based inequalities to be perpetuated into future generations."[43]

"[F]emale-male wage differentials are very small for single persons [...] married persons account for almost all of the observed female-male wage differential [...]."[43]

As the image on the right shows workplaces are still out of balance, especially in leadership roles, and as described in Recent history below the very recent history has worsened.

The image on the left illustrates the effect of having a first child has on career retention of scientists, technologists, engineers, and mathematicians, or (STEM) professionals.

"More than 40% of women with full-time jobs in science leave the sector or go part time after having their first child, according to a study of how parenthood affects career trajectories in the United States. By contrast, only 23% of new fathers leave or cut their working hours."[44]

"The analysis [...] might help to explain the persistent under-representation of women in jobs that involve science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM)."[44]

"90% of people in the United States become parents during their working lives".[44]

The "Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data System, a database provided by the US National Science Foundation [...] contains information from surveys of the US STEM workforce every two to three years. From the 2003 data, Cech and Blair-Loy picked the child-free scientists in full-time employment and tracked their familial status in the next wave of the survey, in 2006. This gave them two groups of scientists to compare — 841 who became parents during this period, and 3,365 who remained childless throughout."[44]

New "parents are significantly more likely to leave a full-time science career for full-time non-science careers than their child-free colleagues[45]."[44]

"By the end of the study period, 23% of men and 43% of women who had become parents had left full-time STEM employment. They either went part time, switched to non-STEM careers or left the workforce altogether. This compared to 16% of child-free men and 24% of child-free women. The team controlled for potential confounding differences between people with and without children."[44]

"For a subset of the people who had left science, the data set also included an entry on why they had left science. Around half of the new parents in this subset cited family-related reasons, compared with just 4% of people without children."[44]

"Taken together, these findings suggest that parenthood is an important driver of gender imbalance in STEM employment."[46]

"STEM work is often culturally less tolerant and supportive of caregiving responsibilities than other occupations. So mothers — and fathers — may feel squeezed out of STEM work and pulled into full-time work in non-STEM fields."[46]

"The results showing that fathers also leave STEM reinforces the hypothesis that the problem is a structural one, in which dedicated professionals are not expected to have a personal life, and, indeed, are punished for so doing."[47]

"Women can become exhausted from constantly having to prove themselves in a professional environment that is, at best, challenging to everyone and, at worst, openly sexist."[48]

"These young women are smart and tenacious. When these young women start a family, they realize that this exhaustion and stress is not sustainable."[48]

"Policies on family leave should send the message that having children is expected and accepted, for example. Senior researchers should mentor junior members of staff, and people should accept the challenges women in science may face. We need to have candid, non-blaming conversations about [these issues]."[48]

Financial institutions[edit]

"Final joint standards just released by six federal agencies for assessing the diversity practices of the financial institutions they regulate represent a complete failure to seriously address diversity in the banking industry."[49]

"The standards were issued by the Offices of Minority and Women Inclusion (OMWIs) in the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, Securities and Exchange Commission, National Credit Union Administration and the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau as required by section 342 [of the Dodd-Frank financial reform law]."[49]

“These standards lack vision.”[50]

“Congress gave the OMWIs a chance to help this critical sector of our economy truly reflect America, but what came out today sends the message that either the OMWIs or their bosses don’t care. Imagine you’re back in school and your teacher tells you that you can decide whether or not to take a final exam, write it yourself, grade it yourself, and any bad results won’t appear on your transcript. That’s what they’ve done. It’s just staggering.”[50]

“The standards issued today unfortunately fall short of what is necessary to achieve real progress.”[51]

“As I noted in my recent Corporate Diversity Survey, it’s no secret that the financial industry has a long way to go to improve the diversity of its leadership, workforce, and supplier base. The Offices of Minority and Women Inclusion were created to help address the lack of diversity within our financial sector, and we need much more than voluntary self-assessments to bring about much-needed transparency and meaningful change. The time has long passed for substantive and far-reaching standards to expand management, employment, and business opportunities for women and racial or ethnic minorities at all levels of the financial sector. The OMWIs must begin to live up to their potential and use their authority to push for greater diversity across the board.”[51]

“In the end, the Agencies have chosen to do what is convenient for the companies, rather than the right thing for the long-term benefit of our country.”[52]

The "industry [has a] long history of severe underrepresentation of minorities and women. For example, white men constitute only 31 percent of the U.S. workforce but occupy 64 percent of executive and senior level positions in the financial industry. Many believe that lack of attention to communities of color contributed to regulatory neglect of problems that led to the financial crash of 2008."[49]

Specifically, these are richer married white men (much less than 15 percent of the U.S. workforce), not necessarily single white men who are the majority of white men in the U.S. workforce.

"The standards allow financial institutions to do a self-assessment of diversity practices, but do not require any reporting to the public or to the OMWIs. Neither do they set any standards for reporting that would allow for meaningful comparisons between companies."[49]

"Effective models for promoting diversity among regulated businesses, without coercion or quotas, already exist."[50]

"In California, for example, both the Public Utilities Commission and Department of Insurance have programs under which regulated firms report the degree to which they contract with firms owned by women, minorities or disabled veterans. These programs, based on transparency and including clear reporting standards, have produced marked increases in contracting with diverse businesses."[49]

“Congress directed the OMWIs to assess the diversity policies and practices of the entities they regulate, and these standards don’t fulfill the congressional mandate. Letting the companies decide whether to report, what to report and how to report it is like having no reporting at all. We’re shocked and disappointed that they’ve disregarded so much constructive input.”[50]

Corporate America[edit]

Women and people of color remain grossly underrepresented at the highest ranks of corporate leadership. Credit: Bob Menendez.

"[W]omen and people of color remain grossly underrepresented at the highest ranks of corporate leadership and in corporate procurement practices. The numbers are dismal – and they haven’t improved much since I started this effort in 2010."[53]

"For example, white men continue to represent the overwhelming majority – 63% – of boards of directors. And, as you can see in the chart below, taken together with white women, white directors represent 82% of all board members. This disparity is even more pronounced on executive teams, as my survey found that 88% of all senior executives at participating Fortune 100 companies are white."[53]

"It is unacceptable that Corporate America reaps record profits by marketing goods and services to diverse communities, but women and minorities are not in leadership positions. It is unacceptable that our nation’s leading companies spend less than 5% of their total procurement dollars with minority-owned businesses, and only 3% with women-owned businesses, at a time when women- and minority-owned firms are flourishing in America and driving our nation’s economic growth."[53]

"On Monday [6/1/2015], Google said the percentage of women in technology jobs at the company had risen only slightly since last year, from 17 percent to 18 percent. The percentage of women in leadership roles also barely budged, from 21 percent to 22 percent."[54]

"Early indications show promise, but we know that with an organization our size, year on year growth and meaningful change is going to take time. There isn't a simple solution to solving the diversity challenges our company and industry faces, which is why we're committed over the long run to work that spans efforts."[55]

Just "14 percent of the software engineers it hired the previous year through university outreach efforts were women, but that number grew to 22 percent this past year — outpacing the percentage of computer science graduates who are women (18 percent)."[54]

Military[edit]

This is the beret donning ceremony at Masada. Credit: Zizoxaxa.

The Caracal Battalion is an infantry combat battalion of the Israel Defense Forces, composed of both male and female soldiers, of both Jewish and Arab descent.[56] It is named after the Caracal, a small cat whose sexes appear the same.[57] As of 2009, approximately 70% of the battalion was female.[56][58]

Israel is the only country in the world with a mandatory military service requirement for women.[59][60][61]

With respect to the Israel Defense Forces (IDF), "[t]he 2000 Equality amendment to the Military Service law states that "The right of women to serve in any role in the IDF is equal to the right of men."[61]

Women currently comprise 33% of all IDF soldiers and 51% of its officers,[62] fulfilling various roles within the Ground, Navy and Air Forces.

Backlashes[edit]

At a local retail outlet that uses a baler in its backroom, employees 18 and over are all trained to make bales when the baler is ready. But, women who work or supervise sales floor operations when the baler is full from their cardboard consistently order bales to be made from men working in the backroom (not part of their job tasks) rather than make the bales themselves. One backroom woman in charge of recycling does make bales whenever possible. Women stocking shelves or racks on the sales floor also will not make bales, although required to when the baler becomes full with their cardboard. Out of some eleven women, including the store manager, only the woman handling recycling consistently makes bales. All of the rest, the majority, are made by men.

Antarctic ice sheets[edit]

Image of Monika Puskeppeleit in Antarctica is her during 1989 overwinter. Credit: Monika Puskeppeleit.{{fairuse}}

Antarctica is "an enchanted continent in the sky, pale like a sleeping princess".[63]

"Sir Ernest Shackleton refused the request of "three sporty girls" who wrote to him in 1914, seeking a place in his Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition because they "[did] not see why men should have all the glory, and women none…""[64]

"1,300 women applied to join a proposed British expedition in 1937. All were denied."[65]

"Russian geologist Maria Klenova was the first woman to conduct research in the Antarctic, in 1956. Argentine scientists followed a decade later. But some countries were slower to thaw, with the US and UK only reversing their formal bans in the late 1960s and 70s."[65]

"The apparent moral peril of mixed accommodation was one argument against including women. Janet Thompson, the first woman to go south with the British Antarctic Survey (BAS), had to informally convince the wives of her teammates that she was going as a serious scientist."[65]

Another was turned down because "there were no facilities for women in the Antarctic… no shops… no hairdressers".[65]

As a geologist I "wrote to India's Department of Ocean Development in 1982 declaring my interest in the country's second Antarctic expedition."[66]

"A year later, she and marine biologist Aditi Pant became the first Indian women to set foot on the continent."[65]

"I assumed all kinds of responsibilities - both scientific and tasks that required physical labour… You have to consider yourself equally capable as a man in everything you do."[66]

In Germany, "I was fighting a similar battle. Fascinated by the medical challenges of overwintering in the Antarctic, where brutal weather isolates teams from civilisation for up to nine months, I first began appealing to Germany's polar research institute in 1984."[67]

"They didn't want to have mixed teams on an Antarctic base. I was told this is not possible for women in this century."[67]

In 1947: "There are some things women don't do. They don't become Pope or President or go down to the Antarctic."[68]

In 1957: "Women will not be allowed in the Antarctic until we can provide one woman for every man".[69]

In 1965: "Antarctica [will] remain the womanless white continent of peace".[70]

"In 1989, I led the first all-female team to overwinter in Antarctica. We arrived at the Georg-von-Neumayer station to take over from a male crew who had heard little of the transition that was about to occur. I will not say they were jealous, but they did not like it at all."[67]

"You have to learn a high respect for nature... You have to pay attention. If you don't have respect for nature you will lose."[67]

"Yet women are still less likely to overwinter than men. This is largely down to the nature of the support roles necessary to keep the base running in harsh conditions, with mechanics, plumbers and engineers coming from commonly male-dominated trades."[71]

"There are not normally a high proportion of women on the stations, maybe between 10% and 25%, and I have found that the women I have worked with generally share a kind of extra camaraderie."[71]

Recent history[edit]

Predictions from the World Economic Forum (WEF) worsen to close gap of equality. Credit: World Economic Forum.{{fairuse}}
Income gender gap widens over very recent years. Credit: World Economic Forum.{{fairuse}}
Women in the Middle East and North Africa fared the worst, with war-torn Yemen coming last on the list with a gender equality score of just 52%. Credit: World Economic Forum.{{fairuse}}

The recent history period dates from around 1,000 b2k to present.

"As Lieberson pointed out, this analysis misses the fact that "the dominant group ... uses its dominance to advance its own position" (p. 166)"[72].

"Dominant groups remain privileged because they write the rules, and the rules they write "enable them to continue to write the rules" (Lieberson 1985, p. 167; emphasis added)."[72]

"Neoclassical economic theory holds that the market is the mechanism through which wages are set, but markets are merely systems of rules (Marshall and Paulin n.d., p. 15) that dominant groups establish for their own purposes."[72]

"Dominant groups differentiate subordinate groups by physically isolating them--in ghettos, nurseries, segregated living quarters, and so on."[72]

"For example, when their physical integration with the dominant group means that a subordinate group's status differences might otherwise be invisible, special dress is usually required of them, as servants are required to wear uniforms."[72] "Because of the centrality of differentiation in domination systems, dominant groups have a considerable stake in maintaining it."[72]

"The equality gap between men and women would take 100 years to close at its current rate."[73] See the image on the right.

"Women are measured as having 68% of the chances and outcomes that men have. This is slightly down from the 68.3% measured last year."[73] See the image on the left.

"Gender parity is closest in areas of health and education, but significant gaps in economic participation and political empowerment continue to endure across the world."[73] See the table in the center image.

The World Economic Forum (WEF), the source of the foregoing gender gap monitoring, is a Swiss nonprofit foundation, headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, recognized as an international body, with a mission "committed to improving the state of the world [by engaging] the foremost political, business and other leaders of society to shape global, regional and industry agendas."[74]

"The global gender gap has widened for the first time since the World Economic Forum’s Global Gender Gap Report was first published in 2006, bringing to an end a decade of slow but steady progress towards improving gender parity. This year the average gender gap stands at 32%, compared with 31.7% last year. This reversal has been driven by declining gender parity in both the workplace and in political representation."[75]

"Despite roughly equal university education overall, there is a difference in what male and female students are studying. Women are more likely to specialise in fields such as health and welfare or education, while men make up more of those specialising in engineering, manufacturing and information technology degrees. These choices are not based on aptitude, but are made due to perceived opportunities and societal attitudes."[75]

"In the workplace, across industries, there is a further imbalance especially when it comes to leadership roles. Not only must more effort be made to balance talent pipelines, but companies must also adopt better practices and policies when it comes to hiring, retention, promotion, mentorship, sponsorship, transparency and targets."[75]

Mathematics[edit]

Def. "[a] policy of formally complying with efforts to achieve a goal by making small, token gestures; especially to hire a minimal number of ethnically diverse or disadvantaged people"[76] is called tokenism.

Tokenism occurs when a group is composed of a clear majority, but there exists a definable subgroup within the larger group comprising less than 15 prcent.[77]

In the arts, employment, and politics, tokenism is a policy or practice of limited inclusion or artistic and/or political representation of members of a traditionally marginalized group, usually creating a false appearance of inclusive practices rather than discrimination. Typical examples in real life and fiction include purposely including a member of a minority race (such as a black character in a mainly white cast, or a woman in a traditionally male universe) into a group. Classically, token characters have some reduced capacity compared to the other characters and may have bland or inoffensive personalities so as to not be accused of stereotyping negative traits. Alternatively, their differences may be overemphasized or made "exotic" and glamorous.[78] An Asian columnist arguing that immigration is too high, or a black pundit arguing that affirmative action is wrong could be considered [the use of] a token minority.[79]

Notation: let the symbol C&EN represent Chemical & Engineering News.

"C&EN's annual survey ... finds that 54 of the 403 directors serving at 42 top chemical companies are women. That is a rate of 1.3 women per firm and 13.4% of the total number of board positions."[80] While this is an increase over the previous year's result, "women aren't any more prominent among chemical company executive officers ... Women hold 41 of 417 executive officer slots at chemical firms ... an overall representation of 9.8%."[80] The previous year representation was 9.9%.[80]

Economics[edit]

Women's contributions to co-authored papers tend to be undervalued. Credit: Heather Sarsons.{{fairuse}}

"In the US, only about 13% of women hold permanent academic positions in economics; and in the UK the proportion is only slightly better at 15.5%."[81]

"Only one woman has ever won the Nobel Prize in economics - American Elinor Ostrom in 2009."[81]

"Because if economists' models are suggesting that sexism doesn't exist, that it's all a result of people's free choices and ... their personal characteristics, then you deny the fact there is a problem."[82]

When "posters on the site [EconJobRumors.com] discussed female economists, they used starkly different terms than those that were used to discuss male economists. [...] Posters tended to discuss a woman's physical appearance (hot and hottie were in the top ten) whereas those terms used with men tended to emphasise their intellectual ability (Wharton and Austrian - for the school of economic thinking - were in the top terms for men)."[83]

An "additional co-authored paper on an economist's resume correlates to an 8% increase in the probability of a male economist getting a tenured post - but only a 2% increase for female candidates."[84]

Per the graph on the right: "While solo-authored papers send a clear signal about one's ability, co-authored papers do not provide specific information about each contributor's skills. I find that women incur a penalty when they co-author that men do not experience."[84]

Female "economists' papers take six months longer to peer review in top journals than their male counterparts; that when women get tenured faculty jobs in economics, they get paid less; and that even if a woman makes it to the front of a lecture hall - there might be no men listening to them."[81]

"There was a very interesting and quick bit of number crunching that was done by the Centre for Global Development which has headquarters in both Washington and London. When they looked at male attendance at the seminars that they run they found that it fell off quite dramatically whenever gender was mentioned in the seminar topic."[82]

"When I think back to my lectures last year for instance out of the 11 lecturers and supervisors I had throughout the year that are based in the faculty - just one was a woman."[85]

"Representation is just something that does affect me because I am subconsciously looking for role models or someone where I can say you know, 'oh that could be me standing up there teaching this lecture'."[85]

"For the moment economists have only looked at the world around them through male eyes and this only provides us with half the story. And with only half the story how can we get results that will help the whole population?"[86]

Technology[edit]

"Hakim (1998:28) described policies of the Equal Opportunities Commission (EOC) in Britain, and international bodies such as the OECD, ILO, and European Commission, that see desegregation as the “principal mechanism for promoting equality between men and women.”"[2]

"Men and women in our society have very different experiences in nearly every aspect of their lives, so it is not surprising to find that their experiences with respect to technology are also very different. Boys and men are expected to learn about machines, tools and how things work. In addition, they absorb, ideally, a 'technological world view' that grew up along with industrial society. Such a world view emphasizes objectivity, rationality, control over nature and distance from human emotions. Conversely, girls and women are not expected to know much about technical matters. Instead, they are to be good at interpersonal relationships and to focus on people and on emotion. They are to be less rational, less capable of abstract, 'objective' thought."[87]

Hypotheses[edit]

  1. Sex segregation is an effective way to control large populations.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Marjorie Shostak (1981). Nisa: The Life and Words of a !Kung Woman. New York: Harvard University Press. p. 402. ISBN 0674624858. Retrieved 2012-02-10.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 Mary L. Gatta and Patricia A. Roos (September 2005). "Rethinking occupational integration". Sociological Forum 20 (3): 369-402. doi:10.1007/s11206-005-6594-5. http://www.rci.rutgers.edu/~roos/pdfiles/integration1103.pdf. Retrieved 2012-02-10. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 integration, In: Wiktionary. San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 28 May 2014. Retrieved 2014-07-07.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 sex. San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 7 July 2014. Retrieved 2014-07-07.
  5. 5.0 5.1 female. San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 16 June 2014. Retrieved 2014-07-07.
  6. 6.0 6.1 male. San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 7 July 2014. Retrieved 2014-07-07.
  7. Scooteristi (28 December 2011). rutting. San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retrieved 2016-05-20.
  8. Donnanz (18 November 2014). rutting season. San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retrieved 2016-05-20.
  9. Dave Hurteau (November 2005). "Bucks in Love". Field & Stream 110 (7): 44. https://books.google.com/books?id=B1HwTDjEM3AC&pg=PA44. Retrieved 2016-05-20. 
  10. E. E. Maccoby, C. N. Jacklin (1987). H. W. Reese (ed.). Gender segregation in childhood. In: Advances in Child Development and Behavior. 20. New York: Academic Press. pp. 239–87. |access-date= requires |url= (help)
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 Sheri A. Berenbaum, Elizabeth Snyder (January 1995). "Early hormonal influences on childhood sex-typed activity and playmate preferences: Implications for the development of sexual orientation". Developmental Psychology 31 (1): 31-42. doi:10.1037/0012-1649.31.1.31. http://www.lhup.edu/tmitchel/wmst/berenbaum.pdf. Retrieved 2012-12-20. 
  12. E. E. Maccoby (1987). "Gender as a social category". Developmental Psychology 24: 755-65. doi:10.1037/0012-1649.24.6.755. 
  13. 13.0 13.1 Gustafsson A & Lindenfors P (2004). "Human size evolution: no allometric relationship between male and female stature". Journal of Human Evolution 47 (4): 253–266. doi:10.1016/j.jhevol.2004.07.004. PMID 15454336. 
  14. Birke, Lydia. The Gender and Science Reader ed. Muriel Lederman and Ingrid Bartsch. New York, Routledge, 2001. 306-322
  15. Gray 1918, Nowell 1926, Green 2000, et al.
  16. 16.0 16.1 Ogden et al (2004). Mean Body Weight, Height,and Body Mass Index, United States 1960–2002 Advance Data from Vital and Health Statistics, Number 347, October 27, 2004.
  17. R. Shaffer, M. Brodine, S. Trone, C. Macera (2005). "Predictors of stress fracture susceptibility in young female recruits". The American Journal of Sports 34 (1). http://ajs.sagepub.com/content/34/1/108.short. 
  18. Austin, W. Women in Sports, q angle, and acl injuries. Retrieved 1 July 2012.
  19. Merry (2005), p 48
  20. Thieme Atlas of Anatomy (2006), p 112
  21. 21.0 21.1 21.2 21.3 21.4 gender. San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. July 7, 2014. Retrieved 2014-07-07.
  22. 22.0 22.1 22.2 neutrality. San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 6 June 2014. Retrieved 2014-07-07.
  23. 23.0 23.1 23.2 gender-neutral. San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. October 9, 2013. Retrieved 2014-07-07.
  24. AskOxford: unisex
  25. unisex - Definitions from Dictionary.com
  26. http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/egalitarianism
  27. The American Heritage Dictionary (2003). egalitarianism.
  28. John Gowdy (1998). Limited Wants, Unlimited Means: A reader on Hunter-Gatherer Economics and the Environment. St Louis: Island Press. p. 342. ISBN 155963555X.
  29. Dahlberg, Frances (1975). Woman the Gatherer. London: Yale university press. ISBN 0-30-02989-6 Check |isbn= value: length (help).
  30. Erdal, D. & Whiten, A. (1996) "Egalitarianism and Machiavellian Intelligence in Human Evolution" in Mellars, P. & Gibson, K. (eds) Modeling the Early Human Mind. Cambridge MacDonald Monograph Series
  31. egalitarianism. San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. December 9, 2012. Retrieved 2012-12-20.
  32. 32.0 32.1 Sam Peltzman (Fall 2009). "Mortality Inequality". The Journal of Economic Perspectives 23 (4): 175-90. doi:10.1257/089533009789994395. https://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/events/papers/071115_text.pdf. Retrieved 2012-04-27. 
  33. Lawrence Haddad, Christine Peña, Chizuru Nishida, Agnes Quisumbing, and Alison Slack (September 1996). Food Security and Nutrition Implications of Intrahousehold Bias: A Review of Literature (PDF). Washington, DC: International Food Policy Research Institute. p. 72. Retrieved 2012-04-27.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  34. segregation. San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. November 29, 2012. Retrieved 2012-12-20.
  35. Stephen Bates (2001-10-25). Women clergy accuse Church of sexual apartheid. The Guardian. London: Guardian Unlimited. Retrieved 2010-05-23.
  36. Otto D (1996). "Holding Up half the Sky, But For Whose Benefit: A Critical Analysis of the Fourth World Conference on Women". Austl Feminist LJ. 7. http://heinonlinebackup.com/hol-cgi-bin/get_pdf.cgi?handle=hein.journals/afemlj6&section=6. 
  37. Amnesty International includes segregated toilets among the measures to ensure the safety of girls/boys in schools. Six steps to stop violence against schoolgirls, Document ACT 77/008/2007, November 2007.
  38. CL Claussen (1991). "Incorporating Women's Reality into Legal Neutrality in the European Community: The Sex Segregation of Labor and Work-Family Nexus". Law Policy Intern'l Bus. 22. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&se=gglsc&d=5000143625. 
  39. R Feinberg (July 1988). "Socio-spatial symbolism and the logic of rank on two Polynesian outliers". Ethnology 27 (3): 291-310. doi:10.2307/3773522. 
  40. 40.0 40.1 40.2 Catharine A MacKinnon (2004). "The Road Not Taken: Sex Equality in Lawrence v. Texas". Ohio St. L.J. 65: 1081-94. http://moritzlaw.osu.edu/students/groups/oslj/files/2012/03/65.5.mackinnon.pdf. 
  41. Francisco Valdes (1995). "Queers, Sissies, Dykes, and Tomboys: Deconstructing the Conflation of “Sex,” “Gender,” and “Sexual Orientation” in Euro-American Law and Society". California Law Review 83: 3, 324, 336. http://moritzlaw.osu.edu/students/groups/oslj/files/2012/03/65.5.mackinnon.pdf. Retrieved 2015-06-10. 
  42. 42.0 42.1 42.2 Ruth Simpson (2000). "Gender mix and organisational fit: how gender imbalance at different levels of the organisation impacts on women managers". Women in Management Review 15 (1): 5-18. doi:10.1108/09649420010310173. http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?articleid=1412161&show=abstract. 
  43. 43.0 43.1 43.2 43.3 Richard Anker R (Autumn 1997). "Theories of occupational segregation by sex: An overview". International Labour Review 136 (3): 138–64. http://www.iiav.nl/epublications/2001/women_gender_and_work.pdf. 
  44. 44.0 44.1 44.2 44.3 44.4 44.5 44.6 Holly Else (19 February 2019). Nearly half of US female scientists leave full-time science after first child. London, UK: Nature. Retrieved 22 February 2019.
  45. Cech, E. A. & Blair-Loy, M. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1810862116 (2019).
  46. 46.0 46.1 Erin A. Cech & Mary Blair-Loy (19 February 2019). Nearly half of US female scientists leave full-time science after first child. London, UK: Nature. Retrieved 22 February 2019.
  47. Virginia Valian (19 February 2019). Nearly half of US female scientists leave full-time science after first child. London, UK: Nature. Retrieved 22 February 2019.
  48. 48.0 48.1 48.2 Ami Radunskaya (19 February 2019). Nearly half of US female scientists leave full-time science after first child. London, UK: Nature. Retrieved 22 February 2019.
  49. 49.0 49.1 49.2 49.3 49.4 Bruce Mirken (9 June 2015). Advocates, Officials Blast Bank Regulators’ Proposed Diversity Standards. Greenlining Institute. Retrieved 2015-06-15.
  50. 50.0 50.1 50.2 50.3 Sasha Werblin (9 June 2015). Advocates, Officials Blast Bank Regulators’ Proposed Diversity Standards. Greenlining Institute. Retrieved 2015-06-15.
  51. 51.0 51.1 Senator Bob Menendez (D-N.J.) (9 June 2015). Advocates, Officials Blast Bank Regulators’ Proposed Diversity Standards. Greenlining Institute. Retrieved 2015-06-15.
  52. Luis A. Aguilar (9 June 2015). Advocates, Officials Blast Bank Regulators’ Proposed Diversity Standards. Greenlining Institute. Retrieved 2015-06-15.
  53. 53.0 53.1 53.2 Bob Menendez (12 June 2015). Corporate America has a Diversity Problem. Washington, DC USA: U.S. Senate. Retrieved 2015-06-15.
  54. 54.0 54.1 Jena McGregor (1 June 2015). Google’s diversity numbers changed little in past year. The Washington Post. Retrieved 2015-06-15.
  55. Nancy Lee (1 June 2015). Google’s diversity numbers changed little in past year. The Washington Post. Retrieved 2015-06-15.
  56. 56.0 56.1 Arieh O'Sullivan (15 July 2005). Coed combat. The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved October 5, 2011.
  57. Caracal. the Honolulu Zoo. Retrieved October 5, 2011.
  58. Integration women in IDF. March 2009. Retrieved October 5, 2011.
  59. Statistics: Women’s Service in the IDF for 2010, 25 Aug 2010. Israel Defense Forces. 25 August 2010. Retrieved 22 March 2011.
  60. Lauren Gelfond Feldinger (September 21, 2008). Skirting history. The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 2011-03-22.
  61. 61.0 61.1 Integration of women in the IDF. Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 8 March 2009. Retrieved 23 March 2011.
  62. More female officers in more positions in the IDF. IDF spokesperson. 30 November 2011. Retrieved 8 December 2011.
  63. US Navy Admiral Richard Byrd (9 November 2017). 100 Women: The ice ceiling holding women back from Antarctic exploration. London, United Kingdom: British Broadcasting Company. Retrieved 2017-11-09.
  64. Scott Polar Research Institute (9 November 2017). 100 Women: The ice ceiling holding women back from Antarctic exploration. London, United Kingdom: British Broadcasting Company. Retrieved 2017-11-09.
  65. 65.0 65.1 65.2 65.3 65.4 Morgan Seag (9 November 2017). 100 Women: The ice ceiling holding women back from Antarctic exploration. London, United Kingdom: British Broadcasting Company. Retrieved 2017-11-09.
  66. 66.0 66.1 Sudipta Sengupta (9 November 2017). 100 Women: The ice ceiling holding women back from Antarctic exploration. London, United Kingdom: British Broadcasting Company. Retrieved 2017-11-09.
  67. 67.0 67.1 67.2 67.3 Monika Puskeppeleit (9 November 2017). 100 Women: The ice ceiling holding women back from Antarctic exploration. London, United Kingdom: British Broadcasting Company. Retrieved 2017-11-09.
  68. Harry Darlington (9 November 2017). 100 Women: The ice ceiling holding women back from Antarctic exploration. London, United Kingdom: British Broadcasting Company. Retrieved 2017-11-09.
  69. Rear Admiral George Dufek (9 November 2017). 100 Women: The ice ceiling holding women back from Antarctic exploration. London, United Kingdom: British Broadcasting Company. Retrieved 2017-11-09.
  70. Admiral F E Bakutis (9 November 2017). 100 Women: The ice ceiling holding women back from Antarctic exploration. London, United Kingdom: British Broadcasting Company. Retrieved 2017-11-09.
  71. 71.0 71.1 Jess Walkup (9 November 2017). 100 Women: The ice ceiling holding women back from Antarctic exploration. London, United Kingdom: British Broadcasting Company. Retrieved 2017-11-09.
  72. 72.0 72.1 72.2 72.3 72.4 72.5 Barbara F. Reskin (March 1988). "Bringing the Men Back In: Sex Differentiation and the Devaluation of Women's Work". Gender and Society 2 (1): 58–81. http://www.unc.edu/~kleinman/handouts/Bringing%20the%20Men%20Back%20In.pdf. 
  73. 73.0 73.1 73.2 World Economic Forum (2 November 2017). Women won't have equality for 100 years - World Economic Forum. World Economic Forum. Retrieved 2017-11-02.
  74. World Economic Forum (2017). Our Mission. Geneva, Switzerland: World Economic Forum. Retrieved 2017-11-02.
  75. 75.0 75.1 75.2 Till Leopold, Vesselina Stefanova Ratcheva, and Saadia Zahidi (2 November 2017). 5 charts that will change how you see women's equality in 2017. Geneva, Switzerland: World Economic Forum. Retrieved 2017-11-02.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  76. tokenism. San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. March 31, 2012. Retrieved 2012-08-20.
  77. Rosabeth Moss Kanter (November 3, 1993). Men and Women of the Corporation. New York: Basic Books. p. 390. Retrieved 2012-02-10.
  78. "Tokenism". Dictionary.com.
  79. Philip Kerr (April 15, 2002). Token Credit. New Statesman.
  80. 80.0 80.1 80.2 Alexander H. Tullo (August 20, 2012). "Women in Industry". Chemical & Engineering News 50 (34): 16-8. http://www.cendigital.org/cendigital/20120820?sub_id=KfPRkBJKBcr7&folio=16#pg18. Retrieved 2012-08-20. 
  81. 81.0 81.1 81.2 Kim Gittleson (12 October 2017). Where are all the women in economics?. Cambridge: British Broadcasting Company. Retrieved 2017-10-12.
  82. 82.0 82.1 Victoria Bateman (12 October 2017). Where are all the women in economics?. Cambridge: British Broadcasting Company. Retrieved 2017-10-12.
  83. Alice Wu (12 October 2017). Where are all the women in economics?. Cambridge: British Broadcasting Company. Retrieved 2017-10-12.
  84. 84.0 84.1 Heather Sarsons (12 October 2017). Where are all the women in economics?. Cambridge: British Broadcasting Company. Retrieved 2017-10-12.
  85. 85.0 85.1 Paulin Ausser (12 October 2017). Where are all the women in economics?. Cambridge: British Broadcasting Company. Retrieved 2017-10-12.
  86. Clara Starrsjo (12 October 2017). Where are all the women in economics?. Cambridge: British Broadcasting Company. Retrieved 2017-10-12.
  87. Margaret Lowe Benston (1988). Cheris Kramarae (ed.). Women's voices/men's voices: Technology as language, In: Technology and Women's Voices: Keeping in Touch. New York: Routledge & Kegan Paul Inc. pp. 12–22. ISBN 0-203-22193-1. Retrieved 2012-04-29.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

{{Dominant group}}

{{Terminology resources}}