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For these Hopi snake dancers in 1897 at Walpi, Arizona, safety is a matter of practice and skill. Credit: A. C. Froman.

Safety is the "condition or feeling of being safe".[1]

Just about any endeavor can be performed safely.



  1. not "in danger; free from harm's reach",[2]
  2. free "from risk; harmless; riskless",[2]
  3. providing "protection from danger; providing shelter",[2] or
  4. not "in danger from the specified source of harm"[2]

is called safe.

Practical safety[edit]

Practical Safety can be defined as "anything done to prevent accidents or reduce their effects". It is generally a subject with much unnecessary confusion. Essentially, safety breaks down into 2 major categories:

Safety Technology: engineering solutions designed to eliminate / reduce hazards.

Safety Behaviour: defined safe actions using in conjunction with safety technology.

In order to control the design / input and to sustain both categories (voluntarily) Safety Mangement (application of management technques to control safety technology / behaviour) is necessary. The accepted world standard in this area is OHSAS18001. Templates are available to assist users in this endeavour, eg ISA2000. These can be certified by internationally recognized management systems certification organizations, eg ICS.

Safety Law: Statutory measures to enforce the above measures apply in most countries eg OHSA in the USA and EU law in Europe. Employers failing to adopt adequate safety management measures are liable to be prosecuted with resultant fines and possible imprisonment. Employers who do adopt such measures are likely to achieve significant savings in many areas of operation making them more competitive than their counterparts.



  1. a "condition of not being threatened, especially physically, psychologically, emotionally, or financially"[3] or
  2. freedom "from apprehension"[3]

is called security.


Def. a "likelihood of a negative [such as an unhealthy] outcome"[4] is called a risk.

Evaluating a risk may mean assigning a probability of an unhealthy occurrence, e.g., an experimental repellor vehicle 10 km above the Earth's surface with only one repellor system may have a higher probability of crashing back to the ground than another with quadruple independent systems available to repel the Earth.



  1. Safety is conducting an experiment using 3300 coulombs in a capacitor and suffering no harm or radiation poisoning.

Control groups[edit]

This is an image of a Lewis rat. Credit: Charles River Laboratories.

The findings demonstrate a statistically systematic change from the status quo or the control group.

“In the design of experiments, treatments [or special properties or characteristics] are applied to [or observed in] experimental units in the treatment group(s).[5] In comparative experiments, members of the complementary group, the control group, receive either no treatment or a standard treatment.[6]"[7]

Proof of concept[edit]

Def. a “short and/or incomplete realization of a certain method or idea to demonstrate its feasibility"[8] is called a proof of concept.

Def. evidence that demonstrates that a concept is possible is called proof of concept.

The proof-of-concept structure consists of

  1. background,
  2. procedures,
  3. findings, and
  4. interpretation.[9]

Proof of technology[edit]

"[T]he objective of a proof of technology is to determine the solution to some technical problem, such as how two systems might be integrated or that a certain throughput can be achieved with a given configuration."[10]


  1. "[a]n original object or form which is a basis for other objects, forms, or for its models and generalizations",[11]
  2. "[a]n early sample or model built to test a concept or process",[11] or
  3. "[a]n instance of a category or a concept that combines its most representative attributes"[11] is called a prototype.

Def. "[t]o test something using the conditions that it was designed to operate under, especially out in the real world instead of in a laboratory or workshop"[12] is called "field-test", or a field test.

A "proof-of-technology prototype ... typically implements one critical scenario to exercise or stress the highest-priority requirements."[13]

"[A] proof-of-technology test demonstrates the system can be used"[14].

"The strongest proof of technology performance is based on consistency among multiple lines of evidence, all pointing to similar levels of risk reduction."[15]

See also[edit]

Important ProjectSpace[edit]



  1. "safety, In: Wiktionary". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. September 30, 2013. Retrieved 2013-09-30. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 "safe, In: Wiktionary". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. August 28, 2013. Retrieved 2013-09-30. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 "security, In: Wiktionary". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. June 7, 2014. Retrieved 2014-07-05. 
  4. "risk, In: Wiktionary". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retrieved 2014-07-05. 
  5. Klaus Hinkelmann, Oscar Kempthorne (2008). Design and Analysis of Experiments, Volume I: Introduction to Experimental Design (2nd ed.). Wiley. ISBN 978-0-471-72756-9. 
  6. R. A. Bailey (2008). Design of comparative experiments. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-68357-9. 
  7. "Treatment and control groups, In: Wikipedia". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. May 18, 2012. Retrieved 2012-05-31. 
  8. "proof of concept, In: Wiktionary". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. November 10, 2012. Retrieved 2013-01-13. 
  9. Ginger Lehrman and Ian B Hogue, Sarah Palmer, Cheryl Jennings, Celsa A Spina, Ann Wiegand, Alan L Landay, Robert W Coombs, Douglas D Richman, John W Mellors, John M Coffin, Ronald J Bosch, David M Margolis (August 13, 2005). "Depletion of latent HIV-1 infection in vivo: a proof-of-concept study". Lancet 366 (9485): 549-55. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(05)67098-5. Retrieved 2012-05-09. 
  10. "Proof of concept, In: Wikipedia". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. December 27, 2012. Retrieved 2013-01-13. 
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 "prototype, In: Wiktionary". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. December 8, 2013. Retrieved 2014-01-03. 
  12. "field-test, In: Wiktionary". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. August 5, 2012. Retrieved 2013-01-13. 
  13. A. Liu; I. Gorton (March/April 2003). "Accelerating COTS middleware acquisition: the i-Mate process". Software, IEEE 20 (2): 72-9. doi:10.1109/MS.2003.1184171. Retrieved 2012-02-15. 
  14. Rhea Wessel (January 25, 2008). "Cargo-Tracking System Combines RFID, Sensors, GSM and Satellite". RFID Journal: 1-2. Retrieved 2012-02-15. 
  15. P. Suresh, C. Rao, M.D. Annable and J.W. Jawitz (August 2000). E. Timothy Oppelt. ed. [ In Situ Flushing for Enhanced NAPL Site Remediation: Metrics for Performance Assessment, In: Abiotic In Situ Technologies for Groundwater Remediation Conference]. Cincinnati, Ohio: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. pp. 105. Retrieved 2012-02-15. 

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