Radiation astronomy/Geography/Quiz

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An orange sunset in the Mahim Bay is shown around the Haji Ali Dargah in India. Credit: Humayunn Peerzaada.

Radiation geography, or astronomical radiation geography, is the lecture and article of the course on the principles of radiation astronomy about the effect of entities, sources and objects observed with radiation astronomy in the universe on locations and regions. Astrogeography also includes geographical radiation astronomy which deals with the effects of location and regions on radiation astronomy. Both fields are included here.

This quiz that you are free to take at any time is based on this resource. Once you’ve read and studied it, the links contained within, and listed under See also, you should have adequate background to get 100 %.

Enjoy learning by doing!


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1. Which of the following are radiation astronomy phenomena associated with Afghanistan?

the Ai Khanoum Sun dial
An orange sunset in the Mahim Bay
a black sky without stars
the zenith

2. True or False, Astronomical radiation geography is primarily the laboratory geography performed to understand the observations obtained from radiation astronomy.


3. Which of the following is not a studied characteristic of astrogeography?

backyard astronomy
cumulus clouds
"the expanse of space that seems to be over the earth like a dome"
sea level

4. "The spectrum of gaseous methane at 77 K in the 1.1-2.6 µm region [is] a benchmark for"

5. True or False, The chemical element astatine has been mapped by a gamma-ray spectrometer over the rocky surface of the Moon.


6. The Sun as a star has what geographical property?

it's a primordial population III star
it passes once a year across the Lockman Hole
silicates have been discovered in its interior structure
optical reflectance studies have found evidence of magnesium
it has a surface temperature of ~700 K
it has a longitude and latitude grid system for locating active regions

7. Complete the text:

The topographic map of Mars includes the volcanoes in the west (including , to the east of Tharsis, and in the southern hemisphere.

8. True or False, The Atlantic Ocean can have a color very close to that of the sky.


9. When sea level is present, what characteristics are readily observed?

mean high tide
mean low tide
glacial periods
hydroisostatic rebound
temperatures above 103 K
salt flats

10. Particularly with respect to the present, in the last 10 kyr sea level has never been what?

11. True or False, The angle between the object and the observer's local horizon is called altitude.


12. Which of the following is not a prominent contributor associated with a horizontal coordinate system?

the blue sky
local horizon
great circle

13. That part of outer space between planets and their star(s) is called the?

14. True or False, A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system that enables every location on Mars to be specified by a set of numbers and/or letters.


15. Which of the following is not a phenomenon usually associated with regions?

a connected part of a space
a tract of land
definite extent
Van Maanen's star
temporal change in radiation flux

16. Complete the text:

A spatial distribution is a spatial of or extent of astronomical entities, sources, or .

17. True or False, Y-radiation from the Sun excites oxygen atoms in the Galactic halo.


18. Which of the following is not a phenomenon associated with the soft X-ray diffuse background?

general increase in intensity from the Galactic plane to the poles
nearly all is thermal emission at the lowest energies
0.25 keV
approximately a 106 K plasma
the Sun

19. For some period before 2700 b2k calendars from around the world had a year of how many days?

20. True or False, Depending on local conditions and the need for observation, it may be easier to observe from a roof top in downtown Singapore than rural Stratford, Texas.


21. The term astrogeography is often more restricted because of what?

the relationship between outer-space geography and geographic position
military space strategy
extensive meteorite cratering
a flattening out
evaluating strategy
military operations

22. Astronomy is performed all around the surface of the Earth by?

23. True or False, The Sphinx Observatory is on the Giza plateau.


24. Which of the following are phenomena associated with grid systems?

geographic coordinates
the Royal Observatory in Greenwich
French Institut Géographique National (IGN) maps
a longitude meridian passing through Paris
a local center of civilization

25. The Lunokhod 2 lunar surface explorer is the Luna 21 rover from what union?

26. True or False, The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory is a 12-meter sphere filled with heavy water surrounded by light detectors located 2 km above the ground in Sudbury, Ontario, Canada.


27. Which of the following are associated with the IceCube Neutrino Observatory?

under ice
the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station
Digital Optical Modules
the counting house is on the surface above the array
the baryon neutrino
the electron neutrino

28. ANTARES is the name of a neutrino detector designed to be used as a directional Neutrino Telescope residing under the

29. True or False, Apparent superluminal motion is an optical illusion subject to reference frame.


30. Which of the following are characteristic of the photosphere

a coordinate system for the Sun
a surface
the diameter quoted for the Sun
inclinations as high as 50°
the sunspot cycle

31. Using a coordinate system, X-rays have been located near the north pole of what rocky object?

32. True or False, Tinia is the god of the sky and the highest god in Etruscan mythology equivalent to Saturn.


33. Which geographical phenomena are associated with the Earth?

quartz is the second most abundant mineral
an atmosphere containing CO2
a north geographic and magnetic pole
a rotational axis
a prime meridian
a cycle of lower temperatures in each latitudinal hemisphere
a cycle of higher temperatures in each longitudinal hemisphere

34. The galactic coordinate system is a celestial coordinate system in spherical coordinates, with the Sun as its center, a primary direction aligned with the approximate center of the Milky Way galaxy, and a fundamental plane approximately in the what?

35. True or False, Cherenkov telescopes do not actually detect the gamma rays directly.


36. Phenomena associated with HESS?

has a gaseous surface
currently-operating installation on Mars
exploration of gamma-ray sources
located on the Cranz family farm

37. The process of bombardment-induced surface alteration or damage is called.

38. True or False, An observatory is a place.


39. Which of the following are observatories on Earth?

Chandra X-ray Observatory
Giza Pyramids
Tuorla Observatory
the Hubble
Aldershot Observatory

40. The BLAST is a what.

41. True or False, The ANITA experiment is designed to study ultra-high-energy cosmic neutrinos using the Greenland ice sheet.


42. Which of the following are associated with sounding rockets?

a launch location
Woomera Test Range
White Sands Proving Grounds
Natal, Brazil
the Skylark

43. The world's first and largest operational space launch facility is what?

44. True or False, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a US Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics.


45. Which physics laboratories and facilities worldwide have been and are being used to understand the observations made using radiation astronomy?

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
Los Alamos National Laboratory
Stanford Linear Accelerator Center
Argonne National Laboratory

46. In addition to the United States of America and Russia, what other nation has launch humans into orbit above the Earth.

47. True or False, The first successful attempt to detect X-rays above the Earth's surface occurred at White Sands Proving Grounds.


48. What are a number of reasons to consider probing from different geographical or spatial locations?

only so many stars can be observed from one location on Earth
measuring an X-ray background noise
scattering by the Earth's upper atmosphere
placing them away from population centers
trigonometric parallax

49. Suborbital probing may be accomplished from different geographical locations using?

50. True or False, The Mauna Kea Observatories are used for scientific research across the electromagnetic spectrum from visible light to radio, and comprise the largest such facility in the world.


51. Which geographical phenomena are associated with Stonehenge?

celestial observation
a topographic high
a remarkably even horizon

52. True or False, Aquila is a Zodiacal constellation.


53. True or False, The ecliptic passes through the constellation of Canis Major.


54. True or False, The ecliptic passes through the constellation of Caelum.


55. True or False, The Galactic plane passes through the constellation of Canis Major.


56. True or False, The Galactic plane passes through the constellation of Aquila.


57. True or False, The Galactic plane passes through the constellation of Caelum.


Your score is 0 / 0



  1. Questioning astrogeography helps establish its inaccuracies.

Control groups[edit]

This is an image of a Lewis rat. Credit: Charles River Laboratories.

The findings demonstrate a statistically systematic change from the status quo or the control group.

“In the design of experiments, treatments [or special properties or characteristics] are applied to [or observed in] experimental units in the treatment group(s).[1] In comparative experiments, members of the complementary group, the control group, receive either no treatment or a standard treatment.[2]"[3]

Proof of concept[edit]

Def. a “short and/or incomplete realization of a certain method or idea to demonstrate its feasibility"[4] is called a proof of concept.

Def. evidence that demonstrates that a concept is possible is called proof of concept.

The proof-of-concept structure consists of

  1. background,
  2. procedures,
  3. findings, and
  4. interpretation.[5]

See also[edit]


  1. Klaus Hinkelmann, Oscar Kempthorne (2008). Design and Analysis of Experiments, Volume I: Introduction to Experimental Design (2nd ed.). Wiley. ISBN 978-0-471-72756-9. http://books.google.com/?id=T3wWj2kVYZgC&printsec=frontcover. 
  2. R. A. Bailey (2008). Design of comparative experiments. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-68357-9. http://www.cambridge.org/uk/catalogue/catalogue.asp?isbn=9780521683579. 
  3. "Treatment and control groups, In: Wikipedia". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. May 18, 2012. Retrieved 2012-05-31. 
  4. "proof of concept, In: Wiktionary". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. November 10, 2012. Retrieved 2013-01-13. 
  5. Ginger Lehrman and Ian B Hogue, Sarah Palmer, Cheryl Jennings, Celsa A Spina, Ann Wiegand, Alan L Landay, Robert W Coombs, Douglas D Richman, John W Mellors, John M Coffin, Ronald J Bosch, David M Margolis (August 13, 2005). "Depletion of latent HIV-1 infection in vivo: a proof-of-concept study". Lancet 366 (9485): 549-55. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(05)67098-5. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1894952/. Retrieved 2012-05-09. 

External links[edit]

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