where A = 22, Z = 11, N = Na, Z-1 = 10, and N' = Ne.
Beta decay does not change the number of nucleons, A, in the nucleus but changes only its charge, Z. Thus the set of all nuclides with the same A can be introduced; these isobaric nuclides may turn into each other via beta decay. Among them, several nuclides (at least one) are beta stable, because they present local minima of the mass excess: if such a nucleus has (A, Z) numbers, the neighbour nuclei (A, Z−1) and (A, Z+1) have higher mass excess and can beta decay into (A, Z), but not vice versa. For all odd mass numbers A the global minimum is also the unique local minimum. For even A, there are up to three different beta-stable isobars experimentally known. There are about 355 known beta-decay stable nuclides total.
Radioactive decay[edit | edit source]
Sometimes elements are unstable, and they decay into more stable elements. Some do this slowly, in a matter of thousand, millions or even billions of years, while others do it quickly, sometimes in a matter of milliseconds. Any radioactive isotope has a half life, that is how long it will take half of a certain amount of radioactive material to decay into a different isotope. For instance, Uranium-234 has a half life of 245,000 years, so after 245,000 years a 1-gram sample of Uranium-234 would have only 1/2 gram of Uranium-234 in it. For this isotope, every 245,000 the amount of Uranium-243 in a sample is cut in half. So after 490,000 years, 1/4 of a grams of Uranium-234 will remain in the sample. Different isotopes of different elements generally have different half-lifes. For instance, Polonium-214 has a half life of 163 microseconds (a microsecond is one-millionth of a second).  When this process is started artificially, it is called transmutation. 
This is an example of an artificial transmutation, this one being called a fission reaction:
Transmutation of species[edit | edit source]
Def. the process of changing, transforming or converting one species into another, or from one species into another, is called transmutation of species.
In the early 19th century, Jean-Baptiste Lamarck proposed his theory of the transmutation of species, the first fully formed theory of evolution.
"Lamarck became convinced of the transmutation of species during the period 1797-1800 ... He used Trigonia as a prime example of a once-dominant group [in the Mesozoic] which had been drastically restricted in diversity, abundance, and geographic range" down to one genus Neotrigonia and five living species. All are found off the coast of Australia.
Hypotheses[edit | edit source]
- The use of satellites should provide ten times the information as sounding rockets or balloons.
A control group for a radiation satellite would contain
- a radiation astronomy telescope,
- a two-way communication system,
- a positional locator,
- an orientation propulsion system, and
- power supplies and energy sources for all components.
A control group for radiation astronomy satellites may include an ideal or rigorously stable orbit so that the satellite observes the radiation at or to a much higher resolution than an Earth-based ground-level observatory is capable of.
See also[edit | edit source]
References[edit | edit source]
- Stephen Jay Gould (March 1968). "Trigonia and the origin of species". Journal of the History of Biology 1 (1): 41-56. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF00149775?LI=true. Retrieved 2013-01-08.
[edit | edit source]
- International Astronomical Union
- NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database - NED
- NASA's National Space Science Data Center
- Office of Scientific & Technical Information
- The SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System
- Scirus for scientific information only advanced search
- SDSS Quick Look tool: SkyServer
- SIMBAD Astronomical Database
- Spacecraft Query at NASA
- Universal coordinate converter