Radiation astronomy/Spatials

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This ROSAT image is an Aitoff-Hammer equal-area map in galactic coordinates with the Galactic center in the middle of the 0.25 keV diffuse X-ray background. Credit: NASA.

A spatial distribution is a spatial frequency of occurrence or extent of an existence or existences such as entities, sources, or objects. A space is a volume large enough to accommodate a thing.

There is an “extensive 1/4 keV emission in the Galactic halo”, an “observed 1/4 keV [X-ray emission originating] in a Local Hot Bubble (LHB) that surrounds the Sun. ... and an isotropic extragalactic component.”[1] In addition to this “distribution of emission responsible for the soft X-ray diffuse background (SXRB) ... there are the distinct enhancements of supernova remnants, superbubbles, and clusters of galaxies.”[1]

The ROSAT soft X-ray diffuse background (SXRB) image shows the general increase in intensity from the Galactic plane to the poles. At the lowest energies, 0.1 - 0.3 keV, nearly all of the observed soft X-ray background (SXRB) is thermal emission from ~106 K plasma.

Generally, a coronal cloud, a cloud composed of plasma, is usually associated with a star or other celestial or astronomical body, extending sometimes millions of kilometers into space, or thousands of light-years, depending on the associated body. The high temperature of the coronal cloud gives it unusual spectral features. These features have been traced to highly ionized atoms of elements such as iron which indicate a plasma's temperature in excess of 106 K (MK) and associated emission of X-rays.

Muons[edit | edit source]

The Moon's cosmic ray shadow, as seen in secondary muons generated by cosmic rays in the atmosphere, and detected 700 meters below ground, at the Soudan II detector. Credit: J. H. Cobb et al. (The Soudan 2 Collaboration).{{fairuse}}

"The muons created through decays of secondary pions and kaons are fully polarized, which results in electron/positron decay asymmetry, which in turn causes a difference in their production spectra."[2]

Jupiter[edit | edit source]

These images show the distribution of acetylene around the north and south poles of Jupiter. Credit: NASA/JPL/GSFC.

"These images [at right] show the distribution of the organic molecule acetylene at the north and south poles of Jupiter, based on data obtained by NASA's Cassini spacecraft in early January 2001. It is the highest-resolution map of acetylene to date on Jupiter. The enhanced emission results both from the warmer temperatures in the auroral hot spots, and probably also from an enhanced abundance in these regions. The detection helps scientists understand the chemical interactions between sunlight and molecules in Jupiter's stratosphere."[3]

Europa[edit | edit source]

Frozen sulfuric acid on Jupiter's moon Europa is depicted in this image produced from data gathered by NASA's Galileo spacecraft. Credit: NASA/JPL.

"Frozen sulfuric acid on Jupiter's moon Europa is depicted in this image produced from data gathered by NASA's Galileo spacecraft. The brightest areas, where the yellow is most intense, represent regions of high frozen sulfuric acid concentration. Sulfuric acid is found in battery acid and in Earth's acid rain."[4]

"This image is based on data gathered by Galileo's near infrared mapping spectrometer."[4]

"Europa's leading hemisphere is toward the bottom right, and there are enhanced concentrations of sulfuric acid in the trailing side of Europa (the upper left side of the image). This is the face of Europa that is struck by sulfur ions coming from Jupiter's innermost moon, Io. The long, narrow features that crisscross Europa also show sulfuric acid that may be from sulfurous material extruded in cracks."[4]

Astrochemistry[edit | edit source]

This graphic of Jupiter's moon Europa maps a relationship between the amount of energy deposited onto the moon from charged-particle bombardment and the chemical contents of ice deposits on the surface in five areas of the moon (labeled A through E). Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Univ. of Ariz./JHUAPL/Univ. of Colo.

"This graphic [image centered above] of Jupiter's moon Europa maps a relationship between the amount of energy deposited onto the moon from charged-particle bombardment and the chemical contents of ice deposits on the surface in five areas of the moon (labeled A through E)."[5]

"Energetic ions and electrons tied to Jupiter's powerful magnetic field smack into Europa as the field sweeps around Jupiter. The magnetic field travels around Jupiter even faster than Europa orbits the planet. Most of the energetic particles hitting Europa strike the moon's "trailing hemisphere," the half facing away from the direction Europa travels in its orbit. The "leading hemisphere," facing in the direction of travel, receives fewer of the charged particles."[5]

"Researchers assessed the amount of sulfate hydrates -- compared with relatively pristine water -- in the surface ice in five widely distributed areas of Europa. They used data from observations made by the near infrared spectrometer (NIMS) instrument on NASA's Galileo spacecraft, which orbited Jupiter from 1995 to 2003. They found that the concentration of frozen sulfuric acid on the surface varies greatly. It ranges from undetectable levels near the center of Europa's leading hemisphere, to more than half of the surface material near the center of the trailing hemisphere. The concentration is closely related to the amount of energy received from electrons and sulfur ions striking the surface, with a distribution controlled by interactions between Jupiter and Europa's magnetic fields."[5]

"This pattern could provide direction for the best places to study the surface of Europa for learning about material churned up from the moon's subsurface, which includes a deep saltwater ocean beneath an icy shell. The portions of the surface least affected by the bombardment of charged particles from above are most likely to preserve the original chemical compounds that erupted from the interior. Understanding the chemical ingredients of Europa's subsurface ocean could help scientists determine whether, as many suspect, the ocean could have supported life in the past or even now."[5]

"The images of Europa used for the base maps of this figure were taken by the solid state imager on Galileo. The areas labeled A through E are the areas covered by five sets of NIMS observations, and color-coded with darker, bluer portions having more sulfate hydrates and brighter, pinker portions having more water ice. The mapped patterns for energy input are derived from models for the flux of electrons and ions delivered by Jupiter's magnetic field. The color-code key at the right is labeled in units of mega electron volts per square centimeter per second."[5]

Crab Nebula[edit | edit source]

The Crab Nebula is a remnant of an exploded star. This image shows the Crab Nebula in various energy bands, including a hard X-ray image from the HEFT data taken during its 2005 observation run. Each image is 6′ wide. Credit: .

"The high-energy focusing telescope (HEFT) is a balloon-borne experiment to image astrophysical sources in the hard X-ray (20–100 keV) band.[6] Its maiden flight took place in May 2005 from Fort Sumner, New Mexico, USA. The angular resolution of HEFT is ~1.5'. Rather than using a grazing-angle X-ray telescope, HEFT makes use of a novel tungsten-silicon multilayer coatings to extend the reflectivity of nested grazing-incidence mirrors beyond 10 keV. HEFT has an energy resolution of 1.0 keV full width at half maximum at 60 keV. HEFT was launched for a 25-hour balloon flight in May 2005. The instrument performed within specification and observed Tau X-1, the Crab Nebula."[7]

Empty spaces[edit | edit source]

The universe within 1 billion light-years (307 Mpc) of Earth is shown to contain the local superclusters, galaxy filaments and voids. Credit: Richard Powell.

In set theory, emptiness is symbolized by the empty set: a set that contains no elements.

Def. the state of being devoid of content; containing nothing is called empty.

Free space, a perfect vacuum is expressed in the classical physics model. Vacuum state is a perfect vacuum based on the quantum mechanical model. In mathematical physics, the homogeneous equation may correspond to a physical theory formulated in empty space are disambiguations for "empty space".

In astronomy, voids are the empty spaces between filaments (the largest-scale structures in the Universe), which contain very few, or no, galaxies. ... Voids located in high-density environments are smaller than voids situated in low-density spaces of the universe.[8]

Temperatures[edit | edit source]

Climatology is represented by this global warming map. Credit: Robert A. Rohde.

Climatology is the study of climate, scientifically defined as weather conditions averaged over a period of time,[9] and is a branch of the atmospheric sciences.

Climate encompasses the statistics of temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind, rainfall, atmospheric particle count and numerous other meteorological elements in a given region over long periods of time.

Hypotheses[edit | edit source]

  1. The use of satellites should provide ten times the information as sounding rockets or balloons.

A control group for a radiation satellite would contain

  1. a radiation astronomy telescope,
  2. a two-way communication system,
  3. a positional locator,
  4. an orientation propulsion system, and
  5. power supplies and energy sources for all components.

A control group for radiation astronomy satellites may include an ideal or rigorously stable orbit so that the satellite observes the radiation at or to a much higher resolution than an Earth-based ground-level observatory is capable of.

See also[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. 1.0 1.1 S. L. Snowden, R. Egger, D. P. Finkbiner, M. J. Freyberg, and P. P. Plucinsky (February 1, 1998). "Progress on Establishing the Spatial Distribution of Material Responsible for the 1/4 keV Soft X-Ray Diffuse Background Local and Halo Components". The Astrophysical Journal 493 (1): 715-29. doi:10.1086/305135. http://iopscience.iop.org/0004-637X/493/2/715/fulltext/. Retrieved 2012-06-14. 
  2. I. V. Moskalenko and A. W. Strong (February 1, 1998). "Production and propagation of cosmic-ray positrons and electrons". The Astrophysical Journal 493 (2): 694-707. doi:10.1086/305152. http://iopscience.iop.org/0004-637X/493/2/694. Retrieved 2014-02-01. 
  3. Sue Lavoie (December 31, 2010). Acetylene at Jupiter's North and South Poles. Ministry of Space Exploration. http://minsex.blogspot.com/2010_12_01_archive.html. Retrieved 2013-02-06. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Sue Lavoie (September 30, 1999). PIA02500: Sulfuric Acid on Europa. Washington DC USA: NASA's Office of Space Science. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA02500. Retrieved 2013-06-24. 
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 Tony Greicius (April 12, 2013). Energy From Above Affecting Surface of Europa. Pasadena, California USA: NASA/JPL. http://www.nasa.gov/topics/solarsystem/features/pia16921.html. Retrieved 2014-06-11. 
  6. F. A. Harrison, Steven Boggs, Aleksey E. Bolotnikov, Finn E. Christensen, Walter R. Cook III, William W. Craig, Charles J. Hailey, Mario A. Jimenez-Garate, Peter H. Mao (2000). Joachim E. Truemper, Bernd Aschenbach. ed. "Development of the High-Energy Focusing Telescope (HEFT) balloon experiment". Proc SPIE. X-Ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions III 4012: 693. doi:10.1117/12.391608. 
  7. Marshallsumter (April 15, 2013). "X-ray astronomy". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retrieved 2013-05-11. {{cite web}}: |author= has generic name (help)
  8. U. Lindner, J. Einasto, M. Einasto, W. Freudling, K. Fricke, E. Tago (1995). The Structure of Supervoids I: Void Hierarchy in the Northern Local Supervoid "The structure of supervoids. I. Void hierarchy in the Northern Local Supervoid". Astron. Astrophys. 301: 329. http://www.uni-sw.gwdg.de/research/preprints/1995/pr1995_14.html/ The Structure of Supervoids I: Void Hierarchy in the Northern Local Supervoid. 
  9. "Climate Prediction Center Climate Glossary". Retrieved November 23, 2006.

External links[edit | edit source]

{{Radiation astronomy resources}}{{Repellor vehicle}}