This image shows a rock apparently where it fell. Credit: Sten Porse.

Particles astronomy is a lecture from the radiation astronomy department that is under development for possible inclusion in the course on the principles of radiation astronomy.

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## Quiz

1 True or False, A lithometeor is a rocky-object meteor.

 TRUE FALSE

2 Meteorites found on Earth may be from which of the following?

 Saturn Mercury the Moon the asteroid belt Jupiter Mars Earth

3 True or False, A cryometeor is a very large chunk of amber.

 TRUE FALSE

4 Complete the text:

 An aerometeor is a unit of air traveling or through an atmosphere.

5 True or False, A metallic or stony object that is the remains of a meteor is called a meteoroid.

 TRUE FALSE

6 On 19 May 1910, the Earth actually passed through the tail of what comet.

7 True or False, The observations of planetary motion agree with computed orbits to the accuracy of the observations.

 TRUE FALSE

8 Various gaps and density minima have been observed in the Saturnian

 system.

9 True or False, Micrometeoroids have less stable orbits than meteoroids.

 TRUE FALSE

10 Which of the following are characteristic of a binary formed via gravitational fragmentation?

 the local Jeans length the local speed of sound the mean molecular weight the electron neutrino the mean particle density neutrons

11 True or False, A new cosmogony predicts that all particles in one stream have the same mineral composition.

 TRUE FALSE

12 Complete the text:

 The moon was formed independently of the earth and later , presumably by a interaction.

13 True or False, A hydrometeor is a precipitation product.

 TRUE FALSE

14 The charge on a planetary dust particle may change with?

15 Yes or No, A cometary orbit about the Sun is a radiation astronomy phenomenon.

 Yes No

16 Which weather phenomena are most likely to interfere with observing stars?

 a late-summer rainstorm a clear sky an approaching dust storm below normal temperatures a typhoon a snow fall fog

17 True or False, To date, all of the reported hypervelocity stars (HVSs), which are believed to be ejected from the Galactic center, are blue.

 TRUE FALSE

18 Any natural object radiating through a portion or all of a natural object's atmosphere may be called a what?

19 True or False, Olivine is a silicate mineral that may be detected in cometary coma dust with green astronomy.

 TRUE FALSE

20 Which of the following are astronomical phenomena associated with the Sun as a likely source?

 coronal clouds cosmic rays neutrinos Oh My God type particles meteors comets blue rays

21 Why is much of the surface of Mars covered with red iron oxide dust when the rocks that compose much of its surface are blue or violet?

 Mars has been systematically bombarded with small iron-nickel meteorites or micrometeorites that oxidize in its atmosphere Mars has been frequently bombarded with hematite containing micrometeorites asteroid impacts on Mars may have forced iron from near its core into the atmosphere and onto the surface as hematite dust that oxidized Mars is like Earth in surface hematite composition, but Earth has much more water precipitation from iron-rich water

22 Which of the following is not a radiation phenomenon associated with a comet?

 airglow elongated dust particles high albedo olivine Rayleighs coronal mass ejection

23 Which of the following are radiation astronomy phenomena associated with the apparent liquid-object Earth?

 rain snow hail neutron emission polar coronal holes meteor emission rotation

24 Complete the text:

 Bombardment by protostellar may make the rock of calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions and chondrules radioactive, producing found in meteorites that are difficult to obtain with other mechanisms.

25 Complete the text:

 Cosmic rays with energies over the energy of 5 x 1019 interact with photons to produce via the ${\displaystyle \Delta }$ resonance.

26 The relative abundances of solar cosmic rays reflect those of the solar

27 Complete the text:

 The tracks in emulsion chambers have been used for measurements of nuclei above in a series of balloon-borne experiments.

28 True or False, Violent activity and supernovae generate cosmic-ray superthermal particles.

 TRUE FALSE

29 A cosmic ray may originate from what astronomical source?

 Jupiter the solar wind the diffuse X-ray background Mount Redoubt in Alaska the asteroid belt an active galactic nucleus

30 True or False, A small amount of aluminum-26 is produced by collisions of magnesium atoms with cosmic-ray protons.

 TRUE FALSE

31 Ionization within the Earth's atmosphere from cosmic rays has what property?

 it's subject to solar eclipses it increases underwater cosmic rays do not penetrate the atmosphere is higher at the base of the Eiffel tower rather than the top is obscured by hot-air balloons the ionization rate rises at rising elevation

32 True or False, The feature that makes deep inelastic lepton scattering and e+e- annihilation tractable is that these processes proceed via the electromagnetic and strong interactions.

 TRUE FALSE

33 Yes or No, Van Allen radiation belt electrons are constantly removed by collisions with atmospheric neutrals, losses to the magnetopause, and outward radial diffusion.

 Yes No

34 Yes or No, Beta particles (electrons) are more penetrating than alpha particles, but still can be absorbed by a few millimeters of aluminum.

 Yes No

35 Which types of radiation astronomy directly observe the rocky-object surface of Venus?

 meteor astronomy cosmic-ray astronomy neutron astronomy proton astronomy beta-ray astronomy neutrino astronomy gamma-ray astronomy X-ray astronomy ultraviolet astronomy visual astronomy infrared astronomy submillimeter astronomy radio astronomy radar astronomy microwave astronomy superluminal astronomy

36 Yes or No, Beta particles are high-energy, high-speed electrons or positrons emitted by certain types of radioactive nuclei.

 Yes No

37 When the Earth is viewed from space using X-ray astronomy what characteristic is readily observed?

 the magnetic north pole the Hudson Bay meteorite crater the South Atlantic Anomaly the Bermuda Triangle solar positron events electrons striking the ionosphere

38 True or False, Electrons in the Earth's magnetosphere are energized by neutral particles from the Sun.

 TRUE FALSE

39 Complete the text:

 Match up the item letter with each of the possibilities below: Meteors - A Cosmic rays - B Neutrons - C Protons - D Electrons - E Positrons - F Gamma rays - G Superluminals - H X-ray jets the index of refraction is often greater than 1 just below a resonance frequency . iron, nickel, cobalt, and traces of iridium . Sagittarius X-1 . escape from a typical hard low-mass X-ray binary . collisions with argon atoms . X-rays are emitted as they slow down . Henry Moseley using X-ray spectra .

40 Yes or No, Positron astronomy is 30 years old but remains in its infancy.

 Yes No

41 What are some of the characteristics of Jovian electrons?

 hard spectrum Jovian electrons near Earth are on their way to the Sun an energy power law flux increases with 27 day periodicities at 1 AU, flux decreases exhibit a short-term modulation of 13 minutes come in mutable varieties

42 Yes or No, A clumpiness in the galactic halo is through a spatially continuous elevation in the density of dark matter, rather than the more realistic discrete distribution of clumps.

 Yes No

## Hypotheses

1. The radiation astronomy of beta particles (electrons and positrons as a group) may provide insight into fusion reactions above the Sun's photosphere.