Radiation astronomy/High-velocity galaxies
"The irregular galaxy NGC 1427A is a spectacular example of the resulting stellar rumble. Under the gravitational grasp of a large gang of galaxies, called the Fornax cluster, the small bluish galaxy is plunging headlong into the group at 600 kilometers per second or nearly 400 miles per second."
"Galaxy clusters, like the Fornax cluster, contain hundreds or even thousands of individual galaxies. Within the Fornax cluster, there is a considerable amount of gas lying between the galaxies. When the gas within NGC 1427A collides with the Fornax gas, it is compressed to the point that it starts to collapse under its own gravity. This leads to formation of the myriad of new stars seen across NGC 1427A, which give the galaxy an overall arrowhead shape that appears to point in the direction of the galaxy's high-velocity motion."
- 1 Active galaxies
- 2 Galaxy harassment
- 3 Quasars
- 4 Blazars
- 5 BL Lacertae objects
- 6 Seyfert galaxies
- 7 Narrow Line Seyfert galaxies
- 8 A1689-zD1
- 9 A1703 zD6
- 10 A2744-JD
- 11 A2744 YD4
- 12 Abell 115
- 13 BDF-521
- 14 BDF-3299
- 15 EGSY8p7
- 16 EGS-zs8-1
- 17 G2-1408
- 18 GN-108036
- 19 GN-z11
- 20 HCM-6A
- 21 HVC 127-41-330
- 22 IOK-1
- 23 LAE J095950.99+021219.1
- 24 MACS0647-JD
- 25 MACS1149-JD1
- 26 NGC 1275
- 27 NGC 1365
- 28 SDF J132418.3+271455
- 29 SDF J132522.3+273520
- 30 SPT0615-JD
- 31 SXDF-NB1006-2
- 32 UDFy-33436598
- 33 UDFy-38135539
- 34 ULAS J1120+0641
- 35 ULAS J1342+0928
- 36 z7 GSD 3811
- 37 z8 GND 5296
- 38 See also
- 39 References
- 40 External links
The majority of active galaxies are very distant and show large Doppler shifts suggesting that active galaxies occurred in the early Universe and, due to cosmic inflation, are receding away from the Milky Way at very high speeds, where Quasars are the furthest active galaxies, some of them being observed at distances 12 billion light years away and Seyfert galaxies are much closer than quasars.
Galaxy harassment is a type of interaction between a low-luminosity galaxy and a brighter one that takes place within rich galaxy clusters, such as the Virgo Cluster and Coma Cluster, where galaxies are moving at high relative speeds and suffering frequent encounters with other systems of the cluster by the high galactic density of the latter, where computer simulations suggest the interactions convert the affected galaxy disks into disturbed barred spiral galaxies and produce starbursts followed by, if more encounters occur, loss of angular momentum and heating of their gas resulting in the conversion of (late type) low-luminosity spiral galaxies into dwarf spheroidals and dwarf ellipticals.
High-resolution images of quasars, particularly from the Hubble Space Telescope, have demonstrated that quasars occur in the centers of galaxies, and that some host-galaxies are strongly interacting or merging galaxies.
The peak epoch of quasar activity was approximately 10 billion years ago. As of 2017, the most distant known quasar is ULAS J1342+0928 at redshift z = 7.54; light observed from this quasar was emitted when the universe was only 690 million years old. The supermassive black hole in this quasar, estimated at 800 million solar masses, is the most distant black hole identified to date.
"So far, the clumsily long name 'quasi-stellar radio sources' is used to describe these objects. Because the nature of these objects is entirely unknown, it is hard to prepare a short, appropriate nomenclature for them so that their essential properties are obvious from their name. For convenience, the abbreviated form 'quasar' will be used throughout this paper."
Def. a "very compact quasar, associated with [a supermassive black hole at the center] of an active galaxy" or an "object which is either [an optically violent variable quasar or a BL Lac object] or which has properties of both" is called a blazar.
Relativistic beaming of electromagnetic radiation from the jet makes blazars appear much brighter than they would be if the jet were pointed in a direction away from the Earth.
In visible-wavelength images, most blazars appear compact and pointlike, but high-resolution images reveal that they are located at the centers of elliptical galaxies.
In July 2018, the IceCube Neutrino Observatory announced that they have traced a neutrino that hit their Antarctica-based detector in September 2017 back to its point of origin in a blazar 3.7 billion light-years away, which is the first time that a neutrino detector has been used to locate an object in space.
BL Lacertae objects
Def. "a type of active galaxy with an active galactic nucleus (AGN), named after its prototype, BL Lacertae" is called a BL Lac object, or BL Lacertae object.
In contrast to other types of active galactic nuclei, BL Lacs are characterized by rapid and large-amplitude flux variability and significant optical polarization. Because of these properties, the prototype of the class (BL Lacertae, BL Lac) was originally thought to be a variable star, but when compared to the more luminous active nuclei (quasars) with strong emission lines, BL Lac objects have spectra dominated by a relatively featureless non-thermal emission continuum over the entire electromagnetic range. This lack of spectral lines historically hindered BL Lac's identification of their nature and proved to be a hurdle in the determination of their distance.
All known BL Lacs are associated with core dominated radio sources, many of them exhibiting superluminal motion.
OVV quasars are generally more luminous and have stronger emission lines than BL Lac objects.
Seyfert galaxies are one of the two largest groups of active galaxies, along with quasars, and have quasar-like nuclei (very luminous, distant and bright sources of electromagnetic radiation) with very high surface brightnesses whose spectra reveal strong, high-ionisation emission lines, but unlike quasars, their host galaxies are clearly detectable.
Seyfert galaxies account for about 10% of all galaxies.
Seen in visible light, most Seyfert galaxies look like normal spiral galaxies, but when studied under other wavelengths, it becomes clear that the luminosity of their cores is of comparable intensity to the luminosity of whole galaxies the size of the Milky Way.
Seyfert galaxies are named after Carl Keenan Seyfert, who first described this class in 1943.
Very few Seyfert galaxies are ellipticals, most of them being spiral or barred spiral galaxies.
A simple division into types I and II has been devised, with the classes depending on the relative width of their emission lines.
Several dozen galaxies exhibiting the Seyfert phenomenon exist in the close vicinity (≈27 Mpc) of our own galaxy. Seyfert galaxies form a substantial fraction of the galaxies appearing in the Markarian catalog, a list of galaxies displaying an ultraviolet excess in their nuclei.
In a typical Seyfert galaxy, the nuclear source emits at visible wavelengths an amount of radiation comparable to that of the whole galaxy's constituent stars, while in a quasar, the nuclear source is brighter than the constituent stars by at least a factor of 100.
Type I Seyferts are very bright sources of ultraviolet light and X-rays in addition to the visible light coming from their cores, with two sets of emission lines on their spectra: narrow lines with widths (measured in velocity units) of several hundred km/s, and broad lines with widths up to 104 km/s.
The broad line emission region, RBLR, can be estimated from the time delay corresponding to the time taken by light to travel from the continuum source to the line-emitting gas.
Type II Seyfert galaxies have the characteristic bright core, as well as appearing bright when viewed at infrared wavelengths. Their spectra contain narrow lines associated with forbidden transitions, and broad lines associated with allowed strong dipole or intercombination transitions.
The notations Seyfert 1.5, 1.8 and 1.9, the subclasses are based on the optical appearance of the spectrum, with the numerically larger subclasses having weaker broad-line components relative to the narrow lines.
In Type 1.5, the strength of the Hα and Hβ lines are comparable.
The narrow line Seyfert I galaxies (NLSy1) have been subject to extensive research in recent years.
Narrow Line Seyfert galaxies
NGC 4051, a narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy, contains a supermassive black hole with a mass of 1.73 million solar masses. This galaxy was studied by the Multicolor Active Galactic Nuclei Monitoring 2m telescope. Several supernovae have been discovered in NGC 4051: SN 1983I, SN 2010br, and SN 2003ie.
The galaxy is a Seyfert galaxy that emits bright X-rays. However, in early 1998 the X-ray emission ceased as observed in by the Beppo-SAX satellite.
The second image down on the left is a quasar near the center of the image with no obvious host galaxy seen, but near the top of the image is a strongly disturbed and star-forming galaxy, the Starburst galaxy, and near the quasar is a blob of gas that is apparently being ionized by the quasar's radiation.
"One might suggest that the host galaxy has disappeared from our view as a result of the collision [which formed the disturbed galaxy], but it is hard to imagine how the complete disruption of a galaxy could happen."
A three-body kick to a bright quasar out of its galaxy during a merger is one theory.
Possible evidence for the ejection of a supermassive black hole from an ongoing merger of galaxies is presented.
The two main arguments against the ejection hypothesis were:
- The quasar spectrum reveals it to be a narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy. NLS1's are believed to have abnormally small black holes; since black hole size is strongly correlated with galaxy size, the host galaxy of the quasar should also be abnormally small, explaining why it had not been detected by Magain et al.
- The quasar spectrum also reveals the presence of a classic, narrow emission line region (NLR). The gas producing the narrow lines lies roughly a thousand light-years from the black hole, and such gas could not remain bound to the black hole following a kick large enough to remove it from its host galaxy.
The "naked" quasar is in fact a perfectly normal, narrow-line Seyfert galaxy that happened to lie close on the sky to a disturbed galaxy.
A more careful attempt to find the quasar's host galaxy concluded that it was impossible to rule out the presence of a galaxy given the confusing light from the quasar.
The X-ray emission observed from the quasar has been used to estimate the mass of the black hole confirming a small mass for the black hole, implying an even fainter host galaxy than predicted.
Radio emission detected from the quasar may indicate ongoing star formation, which "contradicts any suggestion that this is a 'naked' quasar'".
Quasar induced galaxy formation may be a new paradigm.
If the redshift, z~7.6, is correct, it would explain why the galaxy's faint light reaches us at infrared wavelengths. It could only be observed with Hubble Space Telescope's Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) and the Spitzer Space Telescope's Infrared Array Camera exploiting the natural phenomenon of gravitational lensing: the galaxy cluster Abell 1689, which lies between Earth and A1689-zD1, at a distance of 2.2 billion light-years from us, functions as a natural "magnifying glass" for the light from the far more distant galaxy which lies directly behind it, at 700 million years after the Big Bang, as seen from Earth.
A1703 zD6 was reported as being a candidate for being a strongly lensed Lyman-break galaxy, within a 2012 publication by L.D.Bradley and others, within The Astrophysical Journal. It has a redshift of 7 (a light travel time of 12.9 billion years), and its J2000 coordinates are 13 15 01.0 +51 50 04. It is located in the Canes Venatici constellation.
In 2017, Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) observed A2744 YD4 and detected a small quantity of dust (the most distant stardust to date) and the first signature of oxygen emitting light only 600 million years after the Big Bang.
"The very high velocity galaxy (ID 91) is a clear interloper far more than 3000 km s−1 from other galaxies. The other two high velocity galaxies (IDs 96 and 100), that are close enough in 2D [are] far from the high velocity BCM−A [3C 28] galaxy".
There are "two structures of cluster-type well recognizable in the plane of the sky and [...] they differ of ~2000 km s−1 in the [line of sight] LOS velocity. The northern, high velocity subcluster (A115N) is likely centred on the second brightest cluster galaxy (BCM-A, coincident with radio source 3C28) and the northern X-ray peak."
For BDF-521: Redshift z = 7.008, Light travel distance 13.04 Gly, astronomical object type Galaxy.
For BDF-3299: Redshift z = 7.109, Light travel distance 13.05 Gly, Type of astronomical object: Galaxy.
EGSY8p7 (EGSY-2008532660) is a distant galaxy in the constellation of Camelopardalis, with a spectroscopic redshift of z = 8.68 (photometric redshift 8.57), a light travel distance of 13.2 billion light-years from Earth; therefore, at an age of 13.2 billion years, it is observed as it existed 570 million years after the Big Bang, which occurred 13.8 billion years ago, using the W. M. Keck Observatory. In July 2015, EGSY8p7 was announced as the oldest and most-distant known object, surpassing the previous record holder, EGS-zs8-1, which was determined in May 2015 as the oldest and most distant object. In March 2016, Pascal Oesch, one of the discoverers of EGSY8p7, announced the discovery of GN-z11, an older and more distant galaxy.
A possible explanation for the detection would be that reionization progressed in a "patchy" manner, rather than homogeneously throughout the universe, creating patches where the EGSY8p7 hydrogen Lyman-alpha emissions could travel to Earth, because there were no neutral hydrogen clouds to absorb the emissions.
EGS-zs8-1 is a high-redshift Lyman-break galaxy found at the northern constellation of Boötes. In May 2015, EGS-zs8-1 had the highest spectroscopic redshift of any known galaxy, meaning EGS-zs8-1 was the most distant and the oldest galaxy observed. In July 2015, EGS-zs8-1 was surpassed by EGSY8p7 (EGSY-2008532660)
The redshift of EGS-zs8-1 was measured at z = 7.73, corresponding to a light travel distance of about 13.04 billion light years from Earth, and age of 13.04 billion years. The galaxy shows a high rate of star formation, so it releases its peak radiation at the vacuum ultraviolet part of the electromagnetic spectrum, near the 121.567 nm (1,215.67 Å) Lyman-alpha emission line due to the intense radiation from newly formed blue stars, hence it is classified as a Lyman-break galaxy; high-redshift starburst galaxies emitting the Lyman-alpha emission line. Because of the cosmological redshift effect caused by the metric expansion of space, the peak light from the galaxy has become redshifted and has moved into the infrared part of the electromagnetic spectrum. The galaxy has a comoving distance (light travel distance multiplied by the Hubble constant, caused by the metric expansion of space) of about 30 billion light years from Earth.
EGS-zs8-1 was born 670 million years after the Big Bang, during the period of reionization, and it's 15 percent the size of the Milky Way. The galaxy was found to be larger than its other neighbors in that period when the universe was still very young. Its mass at the time the light was emitted is estimated to have been about 15% of the Milky Way's current mass. The galaxy was making new stars at roughly 80 times the rate of the current Milky Way, or equivalent to 800 Solar mass worth of material turning to stars every year. The light reaching Earth was made by stars in EGS-zs8-1 that were 100 million to 300 million years old at the time they emitted the light. The age of EGS-zs8-1 places it in the reionization phase of creation, a time when hydrogen outside the galaxies was switching from a neutral to ionized state. According to the galaxy's discoverers, EGS-zs8-1 and other early galaxies were likely the causes of reionization.
GN-108036 is a distant galaxy discovered and confirmed by the Subaru Telescope and the Keck Observatory located in Hawaii; its study was also completed by the Hubble Space Telescope and the Spitzer Space Telescope.
GN-z11 is a high-redshift galaxy found in the constellation Ursa Major. GN-z11 is currently the oldest and most distant known galaxy in the observable universe. GN-z11 has a spectroscopic redshift of z = 11.09, which corresponds to a proper distance of approximately 32 billion light-years (9.8 billion parsecs). At first glance, the distance of 32 billion light-years (9.8 billion parsecs) might seem impossibly far away in a Universe that is only 13.8 billion (short scale) years old, where a light year is the distance light travels in a year, and where nothing can travel faster than the speed of light. However, because of the expansion of the universe, the distance of 2.66 billion light years between GN-z11 and the Milky Way at the time when the light was emitted increased by a factor of (z+1)=12.1 to a distance of 32.2 billion light-years during the 13.4 billion years it has taken the light to reach us.
The object's name is derived from its location in the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey field of galaxies and its high cosmological redshift number (GN + z11). GN-z11 is observed as it existed 13.4 billion years ago, just 400 million years after the Big Bang; as a result, GN-z11's distance is sometimes inappropriately reported as 13.4 billion light years, its light travel distance measurement.
The galaxy was identified by a team studying data from the Hubble Space Telescope's Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) and Spitzer Space Telescope's Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey-North (GOODS-North). The research team used Hubble's Wide Field Camera 3 to measure the distance to GN-z11 spectroscopically, by splitting the light into its component colors to measure the redshift caused by the expansion of the universe. The findings, which were announced in March 2016, revealed the galaxy to be farther away than originally thought, at the distance limit of what the Hubble Telescope can observe. GN-z11 is around 150 million years older than the previous record-holder EGSY8p7, and is observed (shortly after but) "very close to the end of the so-called Dark Ages of the universe", and (during but) "near the very beginning" of the reionization era.
HCM-6A is a Lyman-alpha emitter (LAE) galaxy that was found in 2002 by using the W. M. Keck Observatory (Keck II Telescope) in Hawaii. HCM-6A is located behind the Abell 370 galactic cluster, near Messier 77 (M77). in the constellation Cetus, which enabled the astronomers to use Abell 370 as a gravitational lens to get a clearer image of the object.
For HCM-6A: Redshift z = 6.56 and astronomical object type Galaxy, the first non-quasar galaxy found to exceed redshift 6 and exceeded the redshift of quasar SDSSp J103027.10+052455.0 of z = 6.28
Notation: IOK stands for the observers' names Iye, Ota, and Kashikawa.
IOK-1 is a distant galaxy in the constellation Coma Berenice at redshift 6.96.
LAE J095950.99+021219.1 is about 13 billion light years away and is a Lyman-alpha emitter.
For LAE J095950.99+021219.1: Redshift z = 6.944, Light travel distance 13.03 Gly, astronomical object type Galaxy.
MACS0647-JD, a galaxy has a redshift of about z = 9.11, equivalent to a light travel distance of 13.26 billion light-years (4 billion parsecs), formed 130 million years after the Big Bang.
MACS1149-JD1 (also known as PCB2012 3020) is one of the farthest known galaxies from Earth and is at a redshift of about z=9.11, or about 13.28 billion ly (4.07 billion pc) light-travel distance.
NGC 1275 consists of two galaxies, a central type-cD galaxy in the Perseus Cluster, and a so-called "high velocity system" (HVS) which lies in front of it. The HVS is moving at 3000 km/s towards the dominant system, and is believed to be merging with the Perseus Cluster. The HVS is not affecting the cD galaxy as it lies at least 200 thousand light years from it. however tidal interactions are disrupting it and ram-pressure stripping produced by its interaction with the intracluster medium of Perseus is stripping its gas as well as producing large amounts of star formation within it
NGC 1365 is notable for its central black hole spinning almost the speed of light.
For SPT0615-JD: Redshift z = 9.9, Light travel distance 13.27 Gly, astronomical object type Galaxy.
SXDF-NB1006-2 is a distant galaxy located in the Cetus constellation, with a spectroscopic redshift of z = 7.213 or 12.91 billion light-years away. It was discovered by the Subaru XMM-Newton Deep Survey Field. The galaxy was claimed to be the most distant galaxy at announcement in June 2012, as the more distant claimants were not confirmed spectroscopically at the time. It exceeded the previous confirmed distance holder, GN-108036, also discovered by the Subaru. It contains the oldest oxygen in the Universe.
For UDFy-33436598: Redshift zp≅8.6, Light travel distance 13.1 Gly, astronomical object type Candidate galaxy or protogalaxy.
For UDFy-38135539: Redshift z = 8.55, Light travel distance 13.1 Gly, astronomical object type Candidate galaxy or protogalaxy. A spectroscopic redshift of z = 8.55 was claimed for this source in 2010, but has subsequently been shown to be mistaken.
ULAS J1120+0641 is the second most distant known quasar as of 6 December 2017, after ULAS J1342+0928. ULAS J1120+0641 (at a comoving distance of 28.85 billion light-years) was the first quasar discovered beyond a redshift of 7. Its discovery was reported in June 2011. Various news reports, including those provided by the Associated Press, have stated that it is the brightest object seen so far in the universe.
"ULAS J1120+0641 took the brightest object title from another quasar that wasn't formed until about 100 million years later, when the universe was 870 million years old."
Such statements are erroneous, however; other quasars are known to be at least 100 times more luminous.
ULAS J1120+0641 was discovered by the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS), using the UK Infrared Telescope, located in Hawaii. The name of the object is derived from UKIDSS Large Area Survey (ULAS), the name of the survey that discovered the quasar, and the location of the quasar in the sky in terms of right ascension (11h 20m) and declination (+06° 41'). This places the quasar in the constellation of Leo, close (on the plane of the sky) to σ Leo. The quasar was discovered by a telescope that operates at infrared wavelengths, which is at longer wavelength and lower energy than visible light. When the light was originally emitted by ULAS J1120+0641, it was in the ultraviolet, with shorter wavelength and higher energy than visible light. The change in energy and wavelength of the light is due to the expanding universe, which imparts a cosmological redshift to all light as it travels through the universe.
The team of scientists spent years searching the UKIDSS for a quasar whose redshift was higher than 6.5. ULAS J1120+0641 is even farther away than they hoped for, with a redshift greater than 7.
UKIDSS is a near infrared photometric survey, so the original discovery was only a photometric redshift of zphot>6.5. Before announcing their discovery, the team used spectroscopy on the Gemini North Telescope and the Very Large Telescope to obtain a spectroscopic redshift of 7.085±0.003.
ULAS J1120+0641 has a measured redshift of 7.085, which corresponds to a comoving distance of 28.85 billion light-years from Earth. Although this may appear to be larger than the size of the observable universe, this is not in fact a contradiction. As of 2011, it is the most distant quasar yet observed. The quasar emitted the light observed on Earth today less than 770 million years after the Big Bang, about 13 billion years ago. This is 100 million years earlier than light from the most distant previously known quasar.
The quasar's luminosity is estimated at 6.3×1013
solar luminosities. This energy output is generated by a supermassive black hole estimated at 2+1.5
solar masses. While the black hole powers the quasar, the light does not come from the black hole itself.
The light from ULAS J1120+0641 was emitted before the end of the theoretically-predicted transition of the intergalactic medium from an electrically neutral to an ionized state (the epoch of reionization). Quasars may have been an important energy source in this process, which marked the end of the cosmic Dark Ages, so observing a quasar from before the transition is of major interest to theoreticians. Because of their high ultraviolet luminosity, quasars also are some of the best sources for studying the reionization process.
This is the first time scientists have seen a quasar with such a large fraction of neutral (non-ionized) hydrogen absorption in its spectrum. Mortlock estimates that 10% to 50% of the hydrogen at the redshift of ULAS J1120+0641 is neutral. The neutral hydrogen fraction in all other quasars seen, even those only 100 million years younger, was typically 1% or less. The spectrum also lacked any significant indication of non-Big Bang nucleosynthesis metals, where the combination of the neutral hydrogen reading, and lack of metals is suggestive of the quasar being embedded in a protogalaxy in the midst of forming, and possibly creating the first Population III stars for the galaxy, or a pre-protogalaxy core still embedded in the primordial hydrogen fog, predating the Population III stellar population for this galaxy.
The supermassive black hole in ULAS J1120+0641 has a higher mass than was expected, as the Eddington limit sets a maximum rate at which a black hole can grow, so the existence of such a massive black hole so soon after the Big Bang implies that it must have formed with a very high initial mass, through the merging of thousands of smaller black holes, or that the standard model of cosmology requires revision.
"This black hole grew far larger than we expected in only 690 million years after the Big Bang, which challenges our theories about how black holes form." at a reported redshift of z = 7.54, surpassing the redshift of 7 for the previously known most distant quasar ULAS J1120+0641. The ULAS J1342+0928 quasar is located in the Boötes constellation. The related supermassive black hole is reported to be "800 million times the mass of the sun".
On 6 December 2017, astronomers published that they had found the quasar using data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) combined with ground-based surveys from one of the Magellan Telescopes at Las Campanas Observatory in Chile, as well as the Large Binocular Telescope in Arizona and the Gemini Observatory (Gemini North telescope) in Hawaii. The related black hole of the quasar existed when the universe was about 690 million years old (about 5 percent of its currently known age of 13.80 billion years).
The quasar comes from a time known as "the epoch of reionization", when the universe emerged from its Dark Ages. Extensive amounts of dust and gas have been detected to be released from the quasar into the interstellar medium of its host galaxy.
ULAS J1342+0928 has a measured redshift of 7.54, which corresponds to a comoving distance of 29.36 billion light-years from Earth. As of 2017, it is the most distant quasar yet observed. The quasar emitted the light observed on Earth today less than 690 million years after the Big Bang, about 13.1 billion years ago.
The quasar's luminosity is estimated at 4×1013
solar luminosities. This energy output is generated by a supermassive black hole estimated at 8×108
solar masses. "This particular quasar is so bright that it will become a gold mine for follow-up studies and will be a crucial laboratory to study the early universe."
The light from ULAS J1342+0928 was emitted before the end of the theoretically-predicted transition of the intergalactic medium from an electrically neutral to an ionized state (the epoch of reionization). Quasars may have been an important energy source in this process, which marked the end of the cosmic Dark Ages, so observing a quasar from before the transition is of major interest to theoreticians. Because of their high ultraviolet luminosity, quasars also are some of the best sources for studying the reionization process. The discovery is also described as challenging theories of black hole formation, by having a supermassive black hole much larger than expected at such an early stage in the Universe's history, though this is not the first distant quasar to offer such a challenge.
"A black hole that grew to gargantuan size in the Universe's first billion years is by far the largest yet spotted from such an early date, researchers have announced. The object, discovered by astronomers in 2013, is 12 billion times as massive as the Sun, and six times greater than its largest-known contemporaries. Its existence poses a challenge for theories of the evolution of black holes, stars and galaxies, astronomers say. Light from the black hole took 12.9 billion years to reach Earth, so astronomers see the object as it was 900 million years after the Big Bang." "That "is actually a very short time" for a black hole to have grown so large."
"Now, researchers from the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy (MPIA) have discovered three quasars that challenge conventional wisdom on black hole growth. These quasars are extremely massive, but should not have had sufficient time to collect all that mass. The astronomers observed quasars whose light took nearly 13 billion years to reach Earth. In consequence, the observations show these quasars not as they are today, but as they were almost 13 billion years ago, less than a billion years after the big bang. The quasars in question have about a billion times the mass of the sun. All current theories of black hole growth postulate that, in order to grow that massive, the black holes would have needed to collect infalling matter, and shine brightly as quasars, for at least a hundred million years. But these three quasars proved to be have been active for a much shorter time, less than 100,000 years."
"This is a surprising result. We don't understand how these young quasars could have grown the supermassive black holes that power them in such a short time."
A small minority of sources argue that distant supermassive black holes whose large size is hard to explain so soon after the Big Bang, such as ULAS J1342+0928, may be evidence that our universe is the result of a Big Bounce, instead of a Big Bang, with these supermassive black holes being formed before the Big Bounce.
"It had reached its size just 690 million years after the point beyond which there is nothing. The most dominant scientific theory of recent years describes that point as the Big Bang — a spontaneous eruption of reality as we know it out of a quantum singularity. But another idea has recently been gaining weight: that the universe goes through periodic expansions and contractions — resulting in a “Big Bounce”. And the existence of early black holes has been predicted to be a key telltale as to whether or not the idea may be valid. This one is very big. To get to its size — 800 million times more mass than our Sun — it must have swallowed a lot of stuff. ... As far as we understand it, the universe simply wasn’t old enough at that time to generate such a monster."
"This new theory that accepts that the Universe is going through periodic expansions and contractions is called "Big Bounce""
z7 GSD 3811
For z7 GSD 3811: z = 7.66, light travel distance = 13.11 Gly, and it is a galaxy
z8 GND 5296
z8_GND_5296 is a dwarf galaxy discovered in October 2013 which has the highest redshift that has been confirmed through the Lyman-alpha emission line of hydrogen, placing it among the oldest and most distant known galaxies at approximately 13.1 billion light-years (4.0 Gpc) from Earth. It is "seen as it was at a time just 700 million years after the Big Bang [...] when the universe was only about 5 percent of its current age of 13.8 billion years". The galaxy is at a redshift of 7.51, and it is a neighbour to what was announced then as the second-most distant galaxy with a redshift of 7.2. The galaxy in its observable timeframe was producing stars at a phenomenal rate, equivalent in mass to about 330 Sun's per year.
- M. Gregg (3 March 2005). "The Impending Destruction of NGC 1427A". Baltimore, Maryland USA: Hubblesite.org. Retrieved 2016-11-05.
- "Active Galaxies and Quasars". NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). Retrieved 21 November 2013.
- Halliday, Ian (1969). "Advances in Astronomy Seyfert Galaxies and Quasars". Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada 63: 91.
- Galaxy Harassment
- "MUSE spies accreting giant structure around a quasar". www.eso.org. Retrieved 20 November 2017.
- Anemos (6 March 2006). "quasar". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retrieved 1 June 2019.
- Wu, Xue-Bing, et al. (2015). "An ultraluminous quasar with a twelve-billion-solar-mass black hole at redshift 6.30". Nature 518 (7540): 512–5. doi:10.1038/nature14241. PMID 25719667.
- Bahcall, J. N., et al. (1997). "Hubble Space Telescope Images of a Sample of 20 Nearby Luminous Quasars". The Astrophysical Journal 479 (2): 642–658. doi:10.1086/303926.
- Schmidt, Maarten; Schneider, Donald; Gunn, James (1995). "Spectroscopic CCD Surveys for Quasars at Large Redshift.IV.Evolution of the Luminosity Function from Quasars Detected by Their Lyman-Alpha Emission". The Astronomical Journal 110: 68. doi:10.1086/117497.
- Bañados, Eduardo, et al. (6 March 2018). "An 800-million-solar-mass black hole in a significantly neutral Universe at a redshift of 7.5". Nature 553 (7689): 473–476. doi:10.1038/nature25180. PMID 29211709.
- Choi, Charles Q. (6 December 2017). "Oldest Monster Black Hole Ever Found Is 800 Million Times More Massive Than the Sun". Space.com. Retrieved 6 December 2017.
- Landau, Elizabeth; Bañados, Eduardo (6 December 2017). "Found: Most Distant Black Hole". NASA. Retrieved 6 December 2017.
- Chiu, Hong-Yee (1964). "Gravitational collapse". Physics Today 17 (5): 21. doi:10.1063/1.3051610.
- 188.8.131.52 (20 June 2008). "blazar". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retrieved 1 June 2019.
- -sche (26 October 2015). "blazar". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retrieved 1 June 2019.
- Długosz (29 June 2004). "blazar". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retrieved 1 June 2019.
- Urry, C. M.; Padovani, P. (1995). "Unified Schemes for Radio-Loud Active Galactic Nuclei". Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific 107: 803. doi:10.1086/133630.
- Urry, C. M.; Scarpa, R.; O'Dowd, M.; Falomo, R.; Pesce, J. E.; Treves, A. (2000). "The Hubble Space Telescope Survey of BL Lacertae Objects. II. Host Galaxies". The Astrophysical Journal 532 (2): 816. doi:10.1086/308616.
- Overbye, Dennis (12 July 2018). "It Came From a Black Hole, and Landed in Antarctica - For the first time, astronomers followed cosmic neutrinos into the fire-spitting heart of a supermassive blazar". The New York Times. Retrieved 13 July 2018.
- "Neutrino that struck Antarctica traced to galaxy 3.7bn light years away". The Guardian. 12 July 2018. Retrieved 12 July 2018.
- "Source of cosmic 'ghost' particle revealed". BBC. 12 July 2018. Retrieved 12 July 2018.
- Mutante (5 December 2010). "BL Lacertae object". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retrieved 1 June 2019.
- Padovani, Paolo; Giommi, Paolo (15 December 1995). "A Sample-Oriented Catalogue of BL Lacertae Objects". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 277 (4): 1477–1490. doi:10.1093/mnras/277.4.1477. http://ned.ipac.caltech.edu/level5/Padovani/Padovani_contents.html.
- Falomo, Renato (2014). "An Optical View of BL Lacertae Objects". The Astronomy and Astrophysics Review: 44. doi:10.1007/s00159-014-0073-z. https://arxiv.org/pdf/1407.7615.pdf.
- Marscher, A P (24 April 2008). "The inner jet of an active galactic nucleus as revealed by a radio-to-gamma-ray outburst". Nature 452 (7190): 966–969. doi:10.1038/nature06895. PMID 18432239. https://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/62749/1/nature06895.pdf.
- Urry, Megan (1995). "Unified Schemes for Radio-Loud Active Galactic Nuclei". Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. doi:10.1086/133630.
- "A spiral snowflake". spacetelescope.org. Retrieved 9 May 2016.
- Peterson, Bradley M. (1997). An Introduction to Active Galactic Nuclei. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-47911-0.
- Petrov, G. T., ed. (2004). "Active Galaxy Nuclei". Bulgarian Academy of Sciences/Institute of Astronomy. Retrieved 9 December 2013.
- Maiolino, R.; Rieke, G. H. (1995). "Low-Luminosity and Obscured Seyfert Nuclei in Nearby Galaxies". The Astrophysical Journal 454: 95–105. doi:10.1086/176468.
- Soper, D. E. "Seyfert Galaxies". University of Oregon. Archived from the original on 23 October 2013. Retrieved 11 October 2013.
- Seyfert, Carl K. (1943). "Nuclear Emission in Spiral Nebulae". The Astrophysical Journal 97: 28–40. doi:10.1086/144488.
- Adams, Thomas F. (1977). "A Survey of the Seyfert Galaxies Based on Large-Scale Image-Tube Plate". The Astrophysical Journal Supplement 33: 19–34. doi:10.1086/190416.
- Weedman, D. W. (1973). "A Photometric Study of Markarian Galaxies". The Astrophysical Journal 183: 29–40. doi:10.1086/152205.
- Osterbrock, D. E.; Koski, A. T. (1976). "NGC 4151 and Markarian 6: Two intermediate-type Seyfert galaxies". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 176: 61–66. doi:10.1093/mnras/176.1.61p.
- Osterbrock, D. E.; Martel, A. (1993). "Spectroscopic study of the CfA sample of Seyfert galaxies". The Astrophysical Journal 414 (2): 552–562. doi:10.1086/173102.
- Shlosman, I. (6 May 1999). "Seyfert Galaxies". University of Kentucky. Retrieved 30 October 2013.
- Popping, Gergö (18 July 2008). "AGN host galaxies and their environment" (PDF). University of Groningen. Retrieved 9 December 2013.
- Armitage, Phil (2004). "Astrophysics 2, lecture 27: Active galaxies - the Unified Model" (PDF). ASTR 3830 Lecture Notes. University of Colorado Boulder. Retrieved 10 November 2013.
- Massi, M. "Active Galaxies" (PDF). Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy. Retrieved 10 November 2013.
- Morgan, Siobahn. "Distant and Weird Galaxies". Astronomy Course Notes and Supplementary Material. University of Northern Iowa. Retrieved 10 October 2013.
- Pradhan, Anil K.; Nahar, Sultana N. (2011). Atomic Astrophysics and Spectroscopy. Cambridge University Press. pp. 278–304. ISBN 978-0-521-82536-8.
- Osterbrock, D. E. (1981). "Seyfert galaxies with weak broad H alpha emission lines". The Astrophysical Journal 249: 462–470. doi:10.1086/159306.
- "Seyfert galaxies". California Institute of Technology. Retrieved 10 October 2013.
- Osterbrock, D. E.; Pogge, R. W. (1985). "The spectra of narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies". The Astrophysical Journal 297: 166–176. doi:10.1086/163513.
- "Nasa/Ipac Extragalactic Database". Retrieved 2006-11-27.
- "New General Catalog Objects: NGC 4050 - 4099". cseligman.com. Retrieved 9 November 2017.
- Denney, K. D.; Watson, L. C.; Peterson, B. M.; Pogge, R. W.; Atlee, D. W.; Bentz, M. C.; Bird, J. C.; Brokofsky, D. J. et al. (2009). "A revised broad-line region radius and black hole mass for the narrow-line Seyfert 1 NGC 4051". The Astrophysical Journal 702 (2): 1353–1366. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/702/2/1353.
- Suganuma, Masahiro; Yoshii, Yuzuru; Kobayashi, Yukiyasu; Minezaki, Takeo; Enya, Keigo; Tomita, Hiroyuki; Aoki, Tsutomu; Koshida, Shintaro et al. (2006). "Reverberation Measurements of the Inner Radius of the Dust Torus in Nearby Seyfert 1 Galaxies". The Astrophysical Journal 639 (1): 46–63. doi:10.1086/499326. ISSN 0004-637X.
- "NGC 4051". Retrieved 9 November 2017.
- "Now you se it ...". New Scientist (2145): 23. 1 August 1998.
- Tully, R. Brent; Verheijen, Marc A. W.; Pierce, Michael J.; Huang, Jia-Sheng; Wainscoat, Richard J. (December 1996). "The Ursa Major Cluster of Galaxies.I.Cluster Definition and Photometric Data" (in en). The Astronomical Journal 112: 2471. doi:10.1086/118196. ISSN 0004-6256.
- P. Fouque, E. Gourgoulhon, P. Chamaraux, G. Paturel; Gourgoulhon; Chamaraux; Paturel (1992). "Groups of galaxies within 80 Mpc. II - The catalogue of groups and group members". Astronomy and Astrophysics Supplement 93: 211–233.
- "The Ursa Major Groups". www.atlasoftheuniverse.com. Retrieved 2018-04-20.
- Magain, P. et al. (2005), Discovery of a bright quasar without a massive host galaxy, Nature, 437, 381
- Hoffman, L. and Loeb, A. (2005), Three-Body Kick to a Bright Quasar out of Its Galaxy During a Merger, arXiv:astro-ph/0511242
- Haehnelt, M. et al. (2005), Possible evidence for the ejection of a supermassive black hole from an ongoing merger of galaxies, arXiv:astro-ph/0511245
- Merritt, David, et al. (April 2006). "The nature of the HE0450-2958 system". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 367: 1746–1750. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2006.10093.x.
- Kim, M. et al. (2006), The Host Galaxy of the Quasar HE 0450-2958, The Astrophysical Journal, 658, 107
- Zhou, X.-L. et al. (2007), X-Ray Properties of the Quasar HE 0450-2958, The Astronomical Journal, 133, 432
- Feain, I. et al. (2007), Dressing a Naked Quasar: Star Formation and Active Galactic Nucleus Feedback in HE 0450-2958, The Astrophysical Journal, 662, 872
- Elbaz.D. et al. (2009) Quasar induced galaxy formation: a new paradigm? Astronomy & Astrophysics 507, 1359–1374
- "Astronomers Eye Ultra-Young, Bright Galaxy in Early Universe". nasa.gov. 2008-02-12. Retrieved 2008-02-25.
- "Astronomers Uncover One of the Youngest and Brightest Galaxies in the Early Universe". Space Telescope Science Institute Baltimore, Md. / nasa.gov. 2008-02-12. Retrieved 2008-02-25.
- "heic0805: Hubble finds strong contender for galaxy distance record". ESA/Hubble. 2008-02-12. Retrieved 2008-04-04.
- L.D.Bradley et al. - Through the Looking Glass: Bright, Highly Magnified Galaxy Candidates at z ~ 7 behind A1703 The Astrophysical Journal (Impact Factor: 5.99). 02/2012; 747(1):3. DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/747/1/3 [Retrieved 2015-11-02]
- "Hubble Finds Distant Galaxy Through Cosmic Magnifying Glass". NASA.
- Zitrin, Adi; Zheng, Wei; Broadhurst, Tom; Moustakas, John; Lam, Daniel; Shu, Xinwen; Huang, Xingxing; Diego, Jose M. et al. (2014). "A GEOMETRICALLY SUPPORTED z ∼ 10 CANDIDATE MULTIPLY IMAGED BY THE HUBBLE FRONTIER FIELDS CLUSTER A2744". The Astrophysical Journal 793 (1): L12. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/793/1/L12. http://hub.hku.hk/bitstream/10722/206809/1/content.pdf.
- "Ancient Stardust Sheds Light on the First Stars - Most distant object ever observed by ALMA". www.eso.org. Retrieved 9 March 2017.
- R. Barrena, W. Boschin, M. Girardi, and M. Spolaor (July 2007). "The dynamical status of the galaxy cluster Abell 115". Astronomy & Astrophysics 469 (3): 861–872. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20077407. https://www.aanda.org/articles/aa/pdf/2007/27/aa7407-07.pdf. Retrieved 1 March 2019.
- Vanzella (2011). "Spectroscopic Confirmation of Two Lyman Break Galaxies at Redshift Beyond 7". The Astrophysical Journal Letters 730 (2): L35. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/730/2/L35.
- Amos, Jonathan (March 3, 2016). "Hubble sets new cosmic distance record". BBC News. BBC News. Retrieved March 3, 2016.
- Wall, Mike (5 August 2015). "Ancient Galaxy Is Most Distant Ever Found". Space.com.
- "A new record: Keck Observatory measures most distant galaxy". W. M. Keck Observatory. Astronomy Now. 6 August 2015.
- Winkler, Mario De Leo (15 July 2015). "The Farthest Object in the Universe". Huffington Post.
- O'Callaghan, Jonathan; Zolfagharifard, Ellie (17 July 2015). "A galaxy that rally IS far, far away: Astronomers confirm star system 13.1 billion light-years away is the most distant known in the universe". London: Daily Mail.
- Pyle, Rod (3 September 2015). "Farthest Galaxy Detected". Caltech.
- "Farthest Galaxy Detected | Caltech". Retrieved 2015-09-08.
- Oesch, P.A. (3 May 2015). "A Spectroscopic Redshift Measurement for a Luminous Lyman Break Galaxy at z=7.730 using Keck/MOSFIRE". The Astrophysical Journal 804 (2): L30. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/804/2/L30.
- Villard, Ray; Chou, Felicia (5 May 2015). "Astronomers Set a New Galaxy Distance Record". HubbleSite. Retrieved 7 May 2015.
- Borenstein, Seth (5 May 2015). "Astronomers find farthest galaxy: 13.1 billion light-years". AP News. Retrieved 6 May 2015.
- Overbye, Dennis (5 May 2015). "Astronomers Measure Distance to Farthest Galaxy Yet". New York Times. Retrieved 6 May 2015.
- Cofield, Calla (5 May 2015). "This Galaxy Far, Far Away Is the Farthest One Yet Found". Space.com. Retrieved 7 May 2015.
- Staff (5 May 2015). "Astronomers unveil the farthest galaxy". Phys.org. Retrieved 6 May 2015.
- Lemonick, Michael D.; 06, National Geographic PUBLISHED May (2015-05-06). "Farthest Galaxy Spotted Yet Is 13 Billion Light-Years Away". National Geographic News. Retrieved 2015-06-18.
- "Press Release".
- Fontana, A.; Vanzella, E.; Pentericci, L.; Castellano, M.; Giavalisco, M.; Grazian, A.; Boutsia, K.; Cristiani, S. et al. (2010). "The lack of intense Lyman~alpha in ultradeep spectra of z = 7 candidates in GOODS-S: Imprint of reionization?". The Astrophysical Journal 725 (2): L205. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/725/2/L205.
- "NASA Telescopes Help Find Rare Galaxy at Dawn of Time" NASA. Retrieved 2015-09-22.
- "NASA – NASA Telescopes Help Find Rare Galaxy at Dawn of Time".
- "Hubble Team Breaks Cosmic Distance Record - Fast Facts". HubbleSite. March 3, 2016. STScI-2016-07. Retrieved March 4, 2016.
- Klotz, Irene (March 3, 2016). "Hubble Spies Most Distant, Oldest Galaxy Ever". Discovery News. Retrieved March 3, 2016.
- Drake, Nadia (March 3, 2016). "Astronomers Spot Most Distant Galaxy—At Least For Now". National Geographic. No Place Like Home. Retrieved March 4, 2016.
- "Hubble Team Breaks Cosmic Distance Record". NASA. March 3, 2016. Retrieved March 10, 2016.
- Oesch, P. A.; Brammer, G.; van Dokkum, et al., P. (March 2016). "A Remarkably Luminous Galaxy at z=11.1 Measured with Hubble Space Telescope Grism Spectroscopy". The Astrophysical Journal 819 (2): 129. doi:10.3847/0004-637X/819/2/129.
- Amos, Jonathan (March 3, 2016). "Hubble sets new cosmic distance record". BBC News. Retrieved March 3, 2016.
- Griffin, Andrew (4 March 2016). "Most distant object in the universe spotted by Hubble Space Telescope, shattering record for the farthest known galaxy". The Independent. Retrieved 17 December 2017.
- Wright, Edward L. (August 2, 2013). "Why the Light Travel Time Distance should not be used in Press Releases". University of California, Los Angeles. Retrieved March 10, 2016.
- Borenstein, Seth (March 3, 2016). "Astronomers Spot Record Distant Galaxy From Early Cosmos". Associated Press. Archived from the original on March 6, 2016. Retrieved May 1, 2016.
- "GN-z11: Astronomers push Hubble Space Telescope to limits to observe most remote galaxy ever seen". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. March 3, 2016. Retrieved March 10, 2016.
- "Hubble breaks cosmic distance record". SpaceTelescope.org. March 3, 2016. heic1604. Retrieved March 3, 2016.
- "Hubble Team Breaks Cosmic Distance Record". HubbleSite.org. March 3, 2016. STScI-2016-07. Retrieved March 3, 2016.
- Shelton, Jim (March 3, 2016). "Shattering the cosmic distance record, once again". Yale University. Retrieved March 4, 2016.
- E. M. Hu et al. (2001). "A Redshift z = 6.56 Galaxy behind the Cluster Abell 370". The Astrophysical Journal Letters 568 (2): L75–L79. doi:10.1086/340424. http://www.iop.org/EJ/article/1538-4357/568/2/L75/16083.html.
- Halton Arp; David Russell (2001). "A Possible Relationship between Quasars and Clusters of Galaxies". The Astrophysical Journal 549 (2): 802–819. doi:10.1086/319438. http://www.iop.org/EJ/article/0004-637X/549/2/802/51780.html.
- Press release, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, September 13, 2006
- BBC News, Most distant galaxy detected, Tuesday, 25 March 2003, 14:28 GMT
- SpaceRef, Subaru Telescope Detects the Most Distant Galaxy Yet and Expects Many More, Monday, March 24, 2003
- New Scientist, New record for Universe's most distant object, 17:19 14 March 2002
- BBC News, Far away stars light early cosmos, Thursday, 14 March 2002, 11:38 GMT
- The Astrophysical Journal Letters, 568:L75–L79, April 1, 2002 ;A Redshift z = 6.56 Galaxy behind the Cluster Abell 370; doi:10.1086/340424
- "K2.1 HCM 6A — Discovery of a redshift z = 6.56 galaxy lying behind the cluster Abell 370". Hera.ph1.uni-koeln.de. 2008-04-14. Archived from the original on 2011-05-18. Retrieved 2010-10-22.
- Josh Simon (2005). Dark Matter in Dwarf Galaxies: Observational Tests of the Cold Dark Matter Paradigm on Small Scales. pp. 4273. Archived from the original on 2006-09-13. https://web.archive.org/web/20060913084945/http://www.astro.caltech.edu/~jsimon/thesis/jdsthesis.pdf.
- Battersby, Stephen (2003-10-20). "Astronomers find first 'dark galaxy'". New Scientist. Retrieved December 22, 2012.
- Hogan, Jenny (2006). "Journey to the birth of the Universe". Nature 443 (7108): 128–129. doi:10.1038/443128a. PMID 16971914.
- Iye, Masanori; Ota, Kazuaki; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Furusawa, Hisanori; Hashimoto, Tetsuya; Hattori, Takashi; Matsuda, Yuichi; Morokuma, Tomoki; Ouchi, Masami; et al. (2006), "A galaxy at a redshift z = 6.96", Nature, 443 (7108): 186–188, arXiv:astro-ph/0609393v1, Bibcode:2006Natur.443..186I, doi:10.1038/nature05104, PMID 16971942
- Press release, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, September 13, 2006
- Rhoads, James E.; Hibon, Pascale; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Cooper, Michael; Weiner, Benjamin (20 June 2012). "A Lyman Alpha Galaxy at Redshift z=6.944 in the COSMOS Field". The Astrophysical Journal 752 (2): L28. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/752/2/L28.
- "Hubble helps find candidate for most distant object in the Universe yet observed". ESA/Hubble Press Release. Retrieved 15 February 2013.
- "NASA Great Observatories Find Candidate for Most Distant Galaxy Yet Known". Space Telescope Science Institute. November 15, 2012. Retrieved November 17, 2012.
- Coe, Dan; Zitrin, Adi; Carrasco, Mauricio; Shu, Xinwen; Zheng, Wei; Postman, Marc; Bradley, Larry; Koekemoer, Anton et al. (2013). "CLASH: Three Strongly Lensed Images of a Candidate z ≈ 11 Galaxy". The Astrophysical Journal 762 (1): 32. doi:10.1088/0004-637x/762/1/32.
- Coe, Dan (November 15, 2012). "CLASH: Three Strongly Lensed Images of a Candidate z ~ 11 Galaxy". The Astrophysical Journal 762 (1): 32. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/762/1/32.
- "Hubble spots three magnified views of most distant known galaxy". Hubble Space Telescope. November 15, 2012. Retrieved November 17, 2012.
- D. Coe. Hubble Spies ...]. Astrophysical Journal. Retrieved 2015-11-02.
- Hashimoto, et al., Takuya (May 2018). "The onset of star formation 250 million years after the Big Bang". Nature]] 557 (7705): 392-395. doi:10.1038/s41586-018-0117-z. PMID 29769675.
- Lira, Nicolás; et al. (15 May 2018). "ALMA Finds Most-Distant Oxygen in the Universe". ALMA Observatory. Retrieved 6 September 2018. Explicit use of et al. in:
- "NASA – NASA Telescopes Spy Ultra-Distant Galaxy".
- Zheng, W.; Postman, M.; Zitrin, A.; Moustakas, J.; Shu, X.; Jouvel, S.; Høst, O.; Molino, A. et al. (2012). "A magnified young galaxy from about 500 million years after the Big Bang". Nature 489 (7416): 406–408. doi:10.1038/nature11446. PMID 22996554.
- Minkowski R., 1957, in IAU Symp 4, Radio astronomy, p107
- Gillmon K., Sanders J.S., Fabian A.C., An X-ray absorption analysis of the high-velocity system in NGC 1275, 2004, MNRAS, 348, 159
- Gallagher, John S., III; Lee, M.; Canning, R.; Fabian, A.; O'Connell, R. W.; Sanders, J.; Zweibel, E. (2010). "Dusty Gas and New Stars: Disruption of the High Velocity Intruder Galaxy Falling Towards NGC 1275". Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society 42: 552.
- Reynolds, Christopher S. (28 February 2013). "Astrophysics: Black holes in a spin". Nature 494 (7438): 432–433. doi:10.1038/494432a. PMID 23446411. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v494/n7438/full/494432a.html.
- Taniguchi, Yoshiaki; Ajiki, Masaru; Nagao, Tohru; Shioya, Yasuhiro; Murayama, Takashi; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Kodaira, Keiichi; Kaifu, Norio et al. (2005). "The SUBARU Deep Field Project: Lymanα Emitters at a Redshift of 6.6". Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan 57: 165–182. doi:10.1093/pasj/57.1.165. http://pasj.asj.or.jp/v57/n1/570114/57012649.pdf.
- Kodaira, K.; Taniguchi, Y.; Kashikawa, N.; Kaifu, N.; Ando, H.; Karoji, H.; Ajiki, Masaru; Akiyama, Masayuki et al. (2003). "The Discovery of Two Lyman$α$ Emitters Beyond Redshift 6 in the Subaru Deep Field". Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan 55 (2): L17. doi:10.1093/pasj/55.2.L17.
- Taniguchi, Yoshi (23 June 2008). "Star Forming Galaxies at z > 5". Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union 3 (S250): 429. doi:10.1017/S1743921308020796.
- Salmon, Brett; Coe, Dan; Bradley, Larry; Bradač, Marusa; Huang, Kuang-Han; Strait, Victoria; Oesch, Pascal; Paterno-Mahler, Rachel et al. (2018). "A Candidate z∼10 Galaxy Strongly Lensed into a Spatially Resolved Arc". The Astrophysical Journal 864: L22. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/aadc10.
- Thirty Meter Telescope, TMT - SXDF-NB1006-2 |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130524151017/http://www.tmt.org/gallery/miscellaneous/sxdf-nb1006-2 |date=2013-05-24 , NAOJ (accessed 16 November 2012)
- SPACE.com, "Newfound Galaxy May Be Most Distant Ever Seen", 14 June 2012 (accessed 18 December 2012)
- Perkins, Sid (2016-06-16). "Ancient galaxy holds oldest oxygen in universe / Science / AAAS". Science. doi:10.1126/science.aag0615. http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2016/06/ancient-galaxy-holds-oldest-oxygen-universe?et_rid=33785738&et_cid=567570.
- "ESA Science & Technology: The Hubble eXtreme Deep Field (annotated)".
- David Shiga. "Dim galaxy is most distant object yet found". New Scientist.
- Bunker, Andrew J.; Caruana, Joseph; Wilkins, Stephen M.; Stanway, Elizabeth R.; Lorenzoni, Silvio; Lacy, Mark; Jarvis, Matt J.; Hickey, Samantha (2013). "VLT/XSHOOTER and Subaru/MOIRCS spectroscopy of HUDF.YD3: no evidence for Lyman &". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 430 (4): 3314. doi:10.1093/mnras/stt132.
- Steve Warren; Daniel Mortlock, et al (May 2011). "Photometry of the z=7.08 quasar ULAS J1120+0641". Spitzer Proposals 80114: 80114.
- Jackson, Nicholas (30 June 2011). "Early Quasar Is Brightest Object Ever Found in the Universe". The Atlantic. Retrieved 30 June 2011.
- Hopkins, P. F.; Richards, G. T.; Hernquist, L. (2007). "An Observational Determination of the Bolometric Quasar Luminosity Function". The Astrophysical Journal 654 (2): 731–753. doi:10.1086/509629.
- ESO (2011-06-29). "Most distant quasar found". Astronomy Magazine. Retrieved 2011-06-30.
- Amos, Jonathan (30 June 2011). "'Monster' driving cosmic beacon". BBC News. Retrieved 30 June 2011.
- Brown, Mark (2011-06-30). "Infancy of Universe Seen in Brightest Quasar Yet". Wired News. Retrieved 30 June 2011.
- Alicia Chang (2011-06-30). "Scientists discover brightest, earliest quasar". Associated Press. Retrieved 2011-07-01.
- Flock, Elizabeth (30 June 2011). "Quasar found from dawn of time". Washington Post. Retrieved 30 June 2011.
- John Matson (2011-06-29). "Brilliant, but Distant: Most Far-Flung Known Quasar Offers Glimpse into Early Universe". Scientific American. Retrieved 2011-06-30.
- Willott, C. (2011). "Cosmology: A monster in the early Universe". Nature 474 (7353): 583–584. doi:10.1038/474583a. PMID 21720357. preprint of this paper
- Matthew Francis (5 December 2012). "Ancient quasar imaged when the Universe lacked heavy metal". Ars Technica. Retrieved March 15, 2013.
- Decarli, Roberto; et al. (September 2017). "Rest-frame optical photometry of a z-7.54 quasar and its environment". CalTech. Retrieved 6 December 2017. Explicit use of et al. in:
- Staff. "Finding the constellation which contains given sky coordinates". djm.com. Retrieved 6 December 2017.
- Venemans, Bram P., et al. (6 December 2017). "Copious Amounts of Dust and Gas in a z = 7.5 Quasar Host Galaxy". The Astrophysical Journal Letters 851 (1). http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.3847/2041-8213/aa943a. Retrieved 6 December 2017.
- Grush, Loren (6 December 2017). "The most distant supermassive black hole ever found holds secrets to the early Universe - We're seeing how it looked when the Universe was a toddler". TheVerge. Retrieved 6 December 2017.
- Bañados, Eduardo (2017). "Eduardo Bañados - Bio/CV". Carnegie Institution for Science. Retrieved 7 December 2017.
- Matson, John (29 June 2011). "Brilliant, but Distant: Most Far-Flung Known Quasar Offers Glimpse into Early Universe". Scientific American. Retrieved 7 December 2017.
- Willott, C. (2011). "Cosmology: A monster in the early Universe". Nature 474 (7353): 583–584. doi:10.1038/474583a. PMID 21720357. preprint of this paper
- Davide Castelvecchi and Xue-Bing Wu (25 February 2015). "Young black hole had monstrous growth spurt". Nature. Retrieved 9 December 2017.
- Christina Eilers (11 May 2015). "Discovery in the early universe poses black hole growth puzzle". Phys.org. Retrieved 9 December 2017.
- Jamie Seidel (7 December 2017). "Black hole at the dawn of time challenges our understanding of how the universe was formed". News Corp Australia. Retrieved 9 December 2017.
- Youmagazine staff (8 December 2017). "A Black Hole that is more ancient than the Universe" (in Greek). You Magazine (Greece). Retrieved 9 December 2017.
- Song, M.; Finkelstein, S. L.; Livermore, R. C.; Capak, P. L.; Dickinson, M.; Fontana, A. (2016). "Keck/MOSFIRE Spectroscopy of z = 7–8 Galaxies: Lyman-alpha Emission from a Galaxy at z = 7.66". The Astrophysical Journal 826 (2): 113. doi:10.3847/0004-637X/826/2/113.
- Kim, Meeri (23 October 2013). "Newly identified galaxy is the most distant ever confirmed". The Washington Post. Retrieved 22 October 2014.
- Finkelstein, S. L.; Papovich, C.; Dickinson, M.; Song, M.; Tilvi, V. et al. (2013). "A galaxy rapidly forming stars 700 million years after the Big Bang at redshift 7.51". Nature 502 (7472): 524–527. doi:10.1038/nature12657. PMID 24153304.
- "NAME FIGS GN1 1292". Retrieved 6 October 2016.
- Shukla, Mihir (26 October 2013). "Farthest galaxy ever seen discovered by UT researchers". The Horn. Retrieved 30 October 2013.
- Francis, Matthew (23 October 2013). "Taking Measure: A 'New' Most Distant Galaxy". Universe Today. Retrieved 30 October 2013.
- Johnson, Rebecca (23 October 2013). "Texas Astronomer Discovers Most Distant Known Galaxy". University of Texas at Austin.