Gases above Io's surface produced a ghostly glow that could be seen at visible wavelengths (red, green, and violet). Credit: NASA/JPL/University of Arizona.

Color astronomy is a lecture as part of the radiation astronomy department course development of principles of radiation astronomy.

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## Quiz

1 Which of the following are or likely to be relatively common red minerals?

 crocoite rhodolite cinnabar hematite eudialyte

2 True or False, MACHO is a general name for any kind of astronomical body that might explain the apparent presence of dark matter in galaxy halos.

 TRUE FALSE

3 Soil samples from the mare of the Moon reflect primarily cyan due to the presence in the soils of what?

4 Historically, orange astronomy is not known for which of the following?

 Alpha Centauri B Epsilon Eridani Saturn K spectral type stars the Bayer designation for a star the Indian city of Pondicherry in December 1689

5 True or False, Neon has an emission line in the blue.

 TRUE FALSE

6 Complete the text:

 Match up the violet or violet containing image with the object letter: Sun - A Venus - B Earth - C Moon - D Mars - E Jupiter - F Ganymede - G Io - H Saturn - I Dione - J Titan - K Uranus - L Ariel - M Miranda - N Triton - O Eta Carinae - P NGC 5584 - Q . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7 True or False, Beryllium has an emission line in the cyan.

 TRUE FALSE

8 Which of the following are green radiation astronomy phenomena associated with the Sun?

 the color of the upper rim as seen from Earth an excess brightness at or near the edge of the Sun the iron XIV green line neutron emission polar coronal holes meteor emission changes in the line-blanketing

9 True or False, The Hubble Space Telescope currently uses the Wide Field Planetary Camera (PC-2) with its F492M filter among others for green astronomy.

 TRUE FALSE

10 Which orange astronomy phenomena are associated with globular clusters?

 a yellow-orange filter (F606W) many older K-type stars spherical collection of stars orbit the cores of galaxies some of the more ancient stars

11 True or False, Of some 824 red giant stars, lithium is detected in several stars.

 TRUE FALSE

12 One of the substances discovered in the tail of Halley's comet by spectroscopic analysis is the toxic gas

13 Yes or No, Violet astronomy is the radiation astronomy over the wavelength band 380-450 nm.

 Yes No

14 Which of the following is not a characteristic of green astronomy?

 boron wavelength range of 495-570 nm chlorophyll greenstones phytoplankton

15 True or False, Fluorine has an emission line in the blue.

 TRUE FALSE

16 Which of the following are radiation astronomy phenomena associated with the rocky-object Io?

 surface regions reflecting or emitting violet or purple an excess brightness at or near the edge red regions that may be phosphorus neutron emission polar coronal holes meteor emission rotation

17 True or False, Boron has an emission line in the blue.

 TRUE FALSE

18 Why is much of the surface of Mars covered with red iron oxide dust when the rocks that compose much of its surface are blue or violet?

 Mars has been systematically bombarded with small iron-nickel meteorites or micrometeorites that oxidize in its atmosphere Mars has been frequently bombarded with hematite containing micrometeorites asteroid impacts on Mars may have forced iron from near its core into the atmosphere and onto the surface as hematite dust that oxidized Mars is like Earth in surface hematite composition, but Earth has much more water precipitation from iron-rich water

19 True or False, The orange portion of the visible spectrum is from 590 to 620 nm in wavelength.

 TRUE FALSE

20 Which of the following are phenomena associated with the orange system?

 titanium yttrium navels a number of emission lines very close together many impact craters on Io ScO

21 True or False, Hydrogen has an emission line in the yellow.

 TRUE FALSE

22 Before the current era and perhaps before 6,000 b2k which classical planet may have been green?

23 True or False, Fluorine has a number of lines in the orange.

 TRUE FALSE

24 Which of the following is not a prominent feature associated with the yellowness response?

 M cone cells a green light source L cones "bluish green" 493-498 nm "yellowish green" 530-559 nm "yellow green" 559-570 nm

25 True or False, To date, all of the reported hypervelocity stars (HVSs), which are believed to be ejected from the Galactic center, are blue.

 TRUE FALSE

26 Which of the following is not a phenomenon associated with violet astronomy?

 photographs of the planet Venus taken in 1927 the purple haze within a few arcseconds of the central star of the Homunculus the faintness of carbon stars the stellar abundance of aluminum adaptive optics the helium beta line

27 True or False, The Hβ emission line does not appear when the F492M filter is used on the Hubble Space Telescope because its wavelength is 486.1 nm.

 TRUE FALSE

28 Complete the text:

 Match up the radiation letter with each of the detector possibilities below: Optical rays - L Visual rays - M Violet rays - N Blue rays - O Cyan rays - P Green rays - Q Yellow rays - R Orange rays - S Red rays - T multialkali (Na-K-Sb-Cs) photocathode materials . F547M . F675W . broad-band filter centered at 404 nm . F588N . thallium bromide (TlBr) crystals . F606W . 18 micrometers FWHM at 490 nm . wide-gap II-VI semiconductor ZnO doped with Co2+ (Zn1-xCoxO) .

29 True or False, Carbon has an emission line in the blue.

 TRUE FALSE

30 Alpha Centauri A as a star has what green astronomy property?

 it's a primordial population III star it passes once a year across the Lockman Hole silicates have been discovered in its interior structure it has a surface temperature of 5790 K optical reflectance studies have found evidence of magnesium it has a surface temperature of ~700 K

31 Light at the extreme red end of the visible spectrum, between red and infra-red light is called

 light.

32 True or False, An aurora seen from Australia may be a first blue radiation source.

 TRUE FALSE

33 Which of the following are the differences between a star and an astronomical yellow source?

 a star may emit predominantly green rays an astronomical yellow source is spherical a yellow star is an astronomical yellow source a star with nuclear fusion in its chromosphere emits neutrinos, but a yellow source with no nuclear fusion ongoing does not a yellow source may be cloud like an astronomical yellow source my be a rocky object

34 Yes or No, In 1926 there were no national observatories (except the Naval Observatory), very little chance for guest observing elsewhere, no radio astronomy, no X-ray astronomy, no satellite astronomy, and very little infrared or even red astronomy!

 Yes No

35 Complete the text:

 Capella B has a surface temperature of approximately , is spectral type , has an orbital period with Capella A of about , and is a variable.

36 True or False, The XRS aboard the MESSENGER spacecraft maps mineral composition.

 TRUE FALSE

37 Tarapacaite is a natural mineral pigment composed of what likely source of yellow?

38 Purpurite is a natural mineral pigment composed of what likely source of violet or purple?

39 True or False, Any small luminous green dot appearing in the cloudless portion of the night sky, especially with a fixed location relative to other such dots is most likely to be an active galactic nucleus.

 TRUE FALSE

40 When ionization cones are present, what green characteristics are usually readily observed?

 O III green emission line green continua biconical structure a common cone axis and apex ionized gas neon clouds

41 True or False, Nitrogen has an emission line in the blue.

 TRUE FALSE

42 Which of the following are radiation astronomy phenomena associated with the gaseous-object Neptune?

 Voyager 2 blue rays clouds neutron emission polar coronal holes meteor emission rotation

43 Red-giant stars have (or theoretically may have) these in common:

 potential 22Ne helium-burning shells non-standard neutrino losses Lithium red line N stars display F abundances up to 30 times the solar system value RGB and AGB stars a radius between 200 and 800 times that of the Sun

44 True or False, Any small luminous blue dot appearing in the cloudless portion of the night sky, especially with a fixed location relative to other such dots is most likely to be an active galactic nucleus.

 TRUE FALSE

45 For web colors the RGB decimal code (0 255 0) is what color?

46 True or False, Cosmological redshift is seen due to the expansion of the universe, and sufficiently distant light sources (generally more than a few million light years away) show redshift corresponding to the rate of increase of their distance from Earth.

 TRUE FALSE

47 Complete the text:

 Match up the radiation type with the satellite: meteor - A cosmic ray - B neutral atoms - C neutron - D proton - E electron - F positron - G neutrino - H gamma ray - I X-ray - J ultraviolet - K optical - L visual - M violet - N blue - O cyan - P green - Q yellow - R orange - S red - T infrared - U submillimeter - V microwave - W radio - X radar - Y superluminal - Z . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

48 Complete the text:

 Match up the item letter with each of the possibilities below: superluminals - A radios - B radars - C microwaves - D submillimeters - E infrareds - F reds - G oranges - H deuterium enrichment of cometary water interstellar-comet connection . a macroscopic superstring . force of life . rings of Saturn . volcanic activity throughout Vesta . a silicon composite bolometer fed by a Winston cone . present-day fluctuations an order of magnitude larger .

49 True or False, In hexadecimal code, a hex triplet, #008000 or 00 80 00 is green.

 TRUE FALSE

50 Which of the following is not a prominent feature associated with the greenness response?

 M cone cells a green light source L cones "bluish green" 493-498 nm "yellowish green" 530-559 nm "yellow green" 559-570 nm

51 Green earth is a natural pigment composed of what likely source of green?

52 True or False, The planet Saturn exhibits a pale yellow hue due to ammonia crystals in its upper atmosphere.

 TRUE FALSE

53 Which of the following are associated with lunar red glasses?

 produced in a volcanic fire-fountain composed of three chemical groups lthe presence of crocoite the most Mg-rich group (A) was produced by partial melting of Ti-rich cumulates at a depth of about 480 km derived from a magma by fractional crystallization

54 True or False, In 1866, after the new observatory had been completed, Schjellerup assembled a catalog of red stars.

 TRUE FALSE

55 The extent of the Hα absorption trough along the major axes of quenched spirals is what?

 more truncated than the distribution of the Hα emission line for H I deficient galaxies contributed to by the new stellar population less truncated than the distribution of the Hα emission line for H I deficient galaxies due to the quenching disks building up from the outside in

56 Complete the text:

 Match up the radiation object with the likely source: - L - M - N - O - P - Q - R - S - T a Craters of the Moon volcano . violet image of Venus . active galactic nuclear region of NGC 5728 . cosmic-ray bombardment of the Moon's surface . blue lights from Io . neutrino profile of the solar octant . planetary nebula NGC 7048 . ultraviolet image of the Earth . a neutron star in a binary system .

57 True or False, There are green or green mineral containing meteorites.

 TRUE FALSE

58 Which of the following is not a phenomenon usually associated with solar wanderers?

 green aurora oxygen production of 7Be carbon or C2 airglow nitrogen olivine

59 Complete the text:

 "In the green, the of the pure composition qualitatively appears a better to the shape of the observed polarization curves."

60 True or False, The silicates used to model the cometary coma dust are olivene (Mg-rich is green) and the pyroxene, asbestos.

 TRUE FALSE

61 Which of the following is not a phenomenon associated with a comet?

 airglow elongated dust particles high albedo olivine Rayleighs coronal mass ejection

62 True or False, The V 2 rocket was first used as a sounding rocket for yellow astronomy before being converted to a weapon.

 TRUE FALSE

63 Using the equation ${\displaystyle {\frac {c2}{\lambda T}}{\frac {1}{e^{\frac {c2}{\lambda T}}-1}}e^{\frac {c2}{\lambda T}}-5=0}$ what temperature corresponds approximately to a Planckian peak wavelength of 476 nm (Use c2 = 1.438833 cm K.)?

 6440 K 6300 K 5170 K 6100 K 5870 K 6250 K

64 True or False, Oxygen has an emission line in the blue.

 TRUE FALSE

65 With respect to protoplanetary disks what green mineral has been found?

66 Which of the following are theoretical radiation astronomy phenomena associated with the Earth?

 a core which emits neutrinos a charged particle wind which emanates out the polar ionosphere holes gravity near the barycenter for the Earth-Moon system the swirls of tan, green, blue, and white are most likely sediment in the water coronal clouds chlorophyll-containing phytoplankton aloft in the upper atmosphere

67 True or False, A green light coming from a nebula may be due to oxygen illuminated by a stellar wind.

 TRUE FALSE

68 Using the equation ${\displaystyle {\frac {c2}{\lambda T}}{\frac {1}{e^{\frac {c2}{\lambda T}}-1}}e^{\frac {c2}{\lambda T}}-5=0}$ what temperature corresponds approximately to a Planckian peak wavelength of 580 nm?

 5140 K 5800 K 5170 K 6000 K 5870 K 5250 K

69 Which of the following emission/absorption phenomena are associated with green astronomy?

 Helium lines at 501 and 505 nm the strong C2 (1,2) band nitrogen emission in plasmas at 566.934 nm from N VIII Helium emission line at 5876 Å neutral iron line at 526.96 nm Calcium yellow line at 569.4 nm

70 Green astronomy observation is performed all around the surface of the Earth by?

71 True or False, Bremsstrahlung radiation may be a source of the green continuum.

 TRUE FALSE

72 Which of the following are phenomena usually associated with fluorine emission?

 fluorine emission lines in the green are relatively weak fluorine lines in the near infrared are usually much stronger than the green lines F I has lines in the green F II has lines in the green F III has at least one line in the green the Fraunhofer E line

73 The chromium +1 ion has an emission line often observed in solar what?

74 True or False, Ground-based observations around the solar limb of the Fe 530.3 line vary greatly among themselves.

 TRUE FALSE

75 Which of the following are likely associated with a green emission line control group?

 rocky objects high peak to background plasma objects a G2V photosphere rotation watery surface spots

76 An emission line occurring in the solar corona at 511.603 nm is likely to be from what?

77 Which of the following are minerals that can readily or often occur orange, or yellow-orange in color?

 orpiment crocoite malachite realgar magnetite calcite

78 True or False, The striking absence of green emission above both polar regions at activity minimum is likely due to iron deficiency.

 TRUE FALSE

79 Which of the following are characteristic of solar green astronomy?

 limb faculae polar coronal holes black body temperature of the photosphere the electron neutrino iron (Fe XIV) green line neutrons

80 Venus at times shows the oxygen green line emission with an intensity equal to what?

81 True or False, Airglow is the emission of light by atoms and molecules in the upper atmosphere after they are excited by X-ray radiation.

 TRUE FALSE

82 Which geographical phenomena are associated with Iapetus?

 dark territory of Cassini Regio manifesting intense magnetic fields equatorial ridge that bisects Cassini Regio global "color dichotomy" global brightness dichotomy different color hues leading vs. the trailing side color hues

83 A fine spray of small, icy particles detected in green light is emanating from what surrounding, warm, geologically unique province of Enceladus?

84 True or False, A plume of water ice particles emanating from Enceladus is reaching altitudes as high as 400 km above the surface.

 TRUE FALSE

85 Phenomena associated with the green vapor above Io are?

 collisions with energetic charged particles Jupiter's magnetic field aurora-like behavior dense plumes of volcanic vapor Galileo spacecraft Io is in eclipse

86 The Na I green lines at 568.2 and 568.8 nm arise in the what?

87 True or False, Stars of spectral classes F and G, such as our sun, have color temperatures that make them look "greenish".

 TRUE FALSE

88 Which of the following are green observatories in orbit around the Earth?

 Chandra X-ray Observatory Big Bear TRACE Kodaikanal the Hubble Lomnický štít McMath-Pierce SOFIA Rosetta

89 True or False, The orange color of the Namib Desert develops over time as iron in the sand is oxidized.

 TRUE FALSE

90 McDonald Observatory is located in.

91 True or False, Some observed properties of the Sun still defy explanation, such as the degree of Li depletion: the solar Li abundance is roughly a factor of 200 below the meteoritic abundance. This has been confirmed using the lithium 555.2 nm line.

 TRUE FALSE

92 Which of the following are associated with the McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope?

 a launch location Fabry-Perot interferometer a heliostat a distinctive diagonal shaft that continues underground a theoretical resolution of 0.07" NOAA designations

93 Complete the text:

 Methane possesses prominent in the visible and near-infrared (IR) making aquamarine or in color.

94 "Carroll et al. (1976) detected a number of coincidences between laboratory lines of FeH and weak unidentified what?

95 True or False, The pale green patterns tinting the water along the Namibian coast in late February 2012 indicated high concentrations of sulfur.

 TRUE FALSE

96 The auroral green line at 557.7 nm has been suggested as originating from which of the following elemental emission lines?

 solid nitrogen mixtures of oxygen and helium pure helium pure oxygen neon and oxygen mixtures mercury iron

97 What are pale green when viewed through the water of the Persian Gulf fringing the shoreline and islands of the UAE in a Landsat image?

98 True or False, From a satellite's vantage point, the wash of green that appears across the forests of the eastern United States is one of the most noticeable signs of winter's passing.

 TRUE FALSE

99 Which of the following strongly influence phytoplankton blooms in the northern Arabian Sea?

 seasonal wind shifts the monsoon southwesterly winds large-scale ocean circulation northeast winds in winter landlocked to the north

100 What underwater events are the milky green swirls in the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of El Hierro due to?

101 True or False, The Mauna Kea Observatories are used for scientific research across the electromagnetic spectrum from visible light to radio, and comprise the largest such facility in the world.

 TRUE FALSE

102 Which of the following are associated with greenstone belts?

 metamorphosed mafic sequences ultramafic volcanic sequences Archaean and Proterozoic cratons chlorite Humphreys series Rydberg series green hue of metamorphic minerals

103 True or False, The O I 557.7 nm line occurs in some meteor wake spectra generally confined to the height interval of 80 - 90 km.

 TRUE FALSE

104 Which of the following phenomena are associated with earthshine?

 reflected earthlight the Moon's night side the tachocline a test of vegetation the Pacific Ocean ashen light

105 True or False, The zodiacal light has components in the green that are linearly polarized.

 TRUE FALSE

106 Which of the following are characteristic of interstellar extinction?

 redder color indices closer stars more affected color excess observed color index minus intrinsic color index red shift blue shift

107 True or False, There are clear trends in the significant day-to-day and month-to-month changes in the zodiacal light.

 TRUE FALSE

108 Which of the following is not a characteristic of radiation?

 throwing a beam a stream of charged or neutral particles the process of calculating the energy of a beam sending out a traveling ray a secondary hazard

109 True or False, A principle is a law or rule that has to be followed.

 TRUE FALSE

110 Using the equation ${\displaystyle {\frac {c2}{\lambda T}}{\frac {1}{e^{\frac {c2}{\lambda T}}-1}}e^{\frac {c2}{\lambda T}}-5=0}$ what temperature corresponds approximately to a Planckian peak wavelength of 510 nm?

 5700 K 5800 K 5900 K 6000 K 5870 K 5880 K

111 True or False, In the first derivative of Planck's equation to generate a wavelength, temperature pair like (495 nm, 6100 K), the constant c2 has units of nm K.

 TRUE FALSE

112 If Osiris in ancient Egyptian mythology/observational astronomy corresponds to Saturn, and Horus is the son of Osiris, what classical planet does Horus correspond to?

 the green planet Mercury Mars Uranus Venus Jupiter

113 A cyan color can result from a freshly excavated high-Ti?

114 True or False, Telluric mercury lines are light polution lines occurring in the Martian atmosphere.

 TRUE FALSE

115 Which of the following are characteristic of the telluric mercury green line?

 546.1 nm light pollution at the Calar Alto observatory a decay product of uranium mercury vapour lamps tropospheric scattering y-band of the ubvy Strömgren photometric system

116 True or False, Green radiation bursts are the most luminous electromagnetic events known to occur in the universe.

 TRUE FALSE

117 Which of the following is not a phenomenon associated with optical green astronomy?

 actuators may be a part of active optics the Spitzer satellite is the first device in space ever to detect optical green bursts the Moon an emission with a wavelength of 520 nm adaptive optics airglow emissions

118 Yes or No, Boron has an emission line in the yellow.

 Yes No

119 Cyanogen is a natural poisonous gas composed of what likely source of cyan?

120 True or False, The rocky surface of the planet Venus can be detected when Venus is observed using green astronomy.

 TRUE FALSE

121 Complete the text:

 A filter of type F588N allows the transmission of rays.

122 Which of the following is not a phenomenon associated with green astronomy?

 photographs of the planet Venus taken in 1999 Alpha Centauri A ionization cones a moderately intense aluminum line at 5593.302 Å a xenon emission line at 541.915 nm the lithium beta line

123 True or False, The dark green filter improves imaging of cloud patterns on Venus.

 TRUE FALSE

124 Which of the following are theoretical radiation astronomy phenomena associated with a satellite in orbit around the Earth?

 background radiation a charged particle wind which emanates out of a beam line gravity near the barycenter for the Earth-Moon system swirls of tan, green, blue, and white in the water electric arcs chlorophyll-containing phytoplankton aloft in the upper atmosphere

125 Observations of comets have benefited greatly from what phenomena of green astronomy?

 elongated dust particles the Rosetta spacecraft O (1S) metastable line methane possesses prominent absorption bands in the visible airglow the light of the neutral CN-radical

126 True or False, Ultraviolet radiation from young massive stars carves and heats the surfaces of cold hydrogen gas clouds. The warmed surfaces glow orange and red.

 TRUE FALSE

127 Which of the following is a phenomenon associated with yellow astronomy?

 Jupiter sodium line emission sunspots on the Sun an emission with a wavelength of 420 nm phosphorus TiO

128 The atmosphere of Titan which has a natural orange color is composed largely of?

129 True or False, Olivine is a silicate mineral that may be detected in cometary coma dust with green astronomy.

 TRUE FALSE

130 Which of the following is a phenomenon associated with nebulae?

 green light oxygen line emission 297.2 nm line aboard HST the use of the PC-2 and F547M phosphorus TiO

131 True or False, The red shift cannot affect green stars.

 TRUE FALSE

132 Which of the following is not a phenomenon associated with green astronomy?

 a stellar class G dwarf the hydrogen Balmer beta line the photosphere of the Sun an emission with a wavelength of 618 nm "ionization cones" boron ion emission

133 True or False, The Earth's atmosphere does not transmit green radiation between 480 and 500 nm in wavelength because of water vapor.

 TRUE FALSE

134 Green astronomy may help to detect what type of astronomical object?

 a stellar class G dwarf the hydrogen Balmer alpha line the photosphere of the Sun extrasolar planets lithium the CMB

135 Yes or No, Boron has an emission line in the cyan.

 Yes No

136 Observations of comets have benefited greatly from what phenomenon of cyan astronomy?

 Cherenkov radiation the electric blue glow of lightning gas-expansion velocity decreases with increasing heliocentric distance methane possesses prominent absorption bands in the visible adaptive optics the light of the neutral CN-radical

137 Yes or No, Beryllium has an emission line in the blue.

 Yes No

138 Which of the following emission/absorption phenomena are associated with yellow astronomy?

 nitrogen emission line at 575.5 nm the strong C2 (1,2) band nitrogen emission in plasmas at 566.934 nm from N VIII helium emission line at 5876 Å neutral iron line at 526.96 nm calcium yellow line at 569.4 nm

139 True or False, The position of the Sun can be determined directly with the use of green astronomy.

 TRUE FALSE

140 Green astronomy has helped to verify what famous theories?

 Cherenkov radiation the universe consists primarily of perfect vacuum tachyonic gamma rays extrasolar planets warp drive general relativity quantum mechanics

141 True or False, A green metallic or stony object that is the remains of a meteor is called a meteoroid.

 TRUE FALSE

142 Various green radiation observatories occur at different altitudes and geographic locations due to what effect?

 the presence of oceans on the Earth locally available carving tools light pollution most astronomical objects are observed at night currently dormant volcanoes seldom erupt human habitation increases near an astronomical observatory

143 True or False, The V 2 rocket was first used as a sounding rocket for green astronomy before being converted to a weapon.

 TRUE FALSE

144 Moldavite is a mineral that may be associated with what green astronomy phenomenon?

 predicting the end of the Earth determine the accuracy of local computers meteorite impacts demonstrating that Venus was once a comet predict when currently dormant volcanoes will erupt green fireballs

145 True or False, The emission of synchrotron light from the Sun may more accurately fit the spectral radiance of the Sun than black body radiation.

 TRUE FALSE

146

What is the blue-radiation source [hint: planet] in the image at right?

147 Which of the following are theoretical radiation astronomy phenomena associated with a laboratory on Earth?

 a core which emits neutrinos a charged particle wind which emanates out of a beam line gravity near the barycenter for the Earth-Moon system swirls of tan, green, blue, and white in the water electric arcs chlorophyll-containing phytoplankton aloft in the upper atmosphere

148 True or False, Green Bremsstrahlung radiation is not detected from the Sun because the photosphere isn't ionized enough to produce it.

 TRUE FALSE

149 Which of the following is involved in planetary astronomy more so than planetary science?

 the occurrence of green rock types on the surface of rocky objects the Earth and other rocky objects have a green mineral containing mantle checking equations about complex systems the advantages of a 559 nm band pass digging holes in the surface of the Moon surface temperatures low enough to produce methane lakes

150 True or False, Lithium has an emission line in the blue.

 TRUE FALSE

151 What green astronomy phenomena are associated with Mars?

 it may help with faster-than-light travel O(1S) lines ice polar caps the Greenwich meridian it demonstrates that a power law is better than an exponential law

152 True or False, The Mars Exploration Rover uses its green filter to take panoramic mosaics.

 TRUE FALSE

153 Which of the following is not a green characteristic of solar active regions?

 iron green spectral lines are 1.4 % shallower at solar maximum coronal clouds spot central meridian passage a surface coverage of at least 95%.

154 Azurite is a natural pigment composed of what likely source of blue?

155 During the late 1600s the sunspot cycle lost its usual intensity and became what?

156 True or False, Naked sunspots seen in Hβ which are devoid of plage are never associated with coronal holes.

 TRUE FALSE

157 Which of the following is not a prominent contributor associated with the bluish color of water on Earth?

 the blue sky chlorophyll dissolved organic matter cyanobacteria decomposition processes from dead organic matter such as plants highly organic soils

158 The Sun as a star has what green geographical property?

 it's a primordial population III star it passes once a year across the Lockman Hole silicates have been discovered in its interior structure optical reflectance studies have found evidence of magnesium it has a surface temperature of ~700 K polar coronal holes it has a longitude and latitude grid system for locating active regions

159 Complete the text:

 Regarding a blue haze layer near the south polar region of Titan, the difference in color above and nearer the could be due to of the haze.

160 True or False, Helium has an emission line in the blue.

 TRUE FALSE

161 Complete the text:

 "In 1999, observations of the Venus with the telescope showed that the 5577 Å oxygen green line was a ".

162 True or False, The PC-1 F502N is centered at 501.85 nm with a band pass of 2.97 nm.

 TRUE FALSE

163 A terrestrial planet is composed primarily of?

164 Complete the text:

 Match up the blue object with the possibilities below: Sun - H Mercury - I Venus - J Earth - K Meteorite on Mars - L Pallas - M Comet Holmes - N Europa - O Io - P Saturn - Q Enceladus - R Tethys - S Titan - T Neptune - U Abell 370 - V SN 1987A - W Crab Nebula - X . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

165 When close binary stars are present, what characteristics are readily observed?

 iron XIV green line facular excess brightness starspots magnetic poles flares neon clouds

166 The population of coronal loops can be directly linked with the?

167 True or False, Coronal loops project into the coronal cloud, through the transition region and the chromosphere.

 TRUE FALSE

168 Which of the following is not a prominent contributor associated with a variable star?

 star spots chromospheric activity rotation brightness fluctuations flares iron XIV green line

169 Astronauts onboard the International Space Station used a Nikon digital camera to take pictures of what green astronomy phenomenon?

170 Yes or No, Hydrogen has an emission line in the cyan.

 Yes No

171 Which chemical phenomena are associated with the Earth?

 quartz is the second most abundant mineral an atmosphere containing CO2 green, red, blue, and yellow airglow the production and escape of hot H+ ions oxygen emissions helium ions

172 True or False, Chemiluminescence caused mainly by oxygen and nitrogen reacting with hydroxyl ions at heights of a few hundred kilometers contributes to airglow.

 TRUE FALSE

173 Which of the following is not a phenomenon usually associated with regions?

 a connected part of a space a tract of green fields definite extent of a corn field Capella B temporal change in green radiation flux weather

174 Yes or No, Hydrogen has an emission line in the blue.

 Yes No

175 Complete the text:

 "Auroras result from emissions of in the Earth's upper , above 80 km (50 mi), from ionized atoms regaining an electron, and and atoms returning from as excited state to state.

176 True or False, Oxygen emissions can be green or brownish-red depending on the amount of energy absorbed.

 TRUE FALSE

177 Complete the text:

 The swirls of tan, green, blue, and white are most likely in the water. Some of the color may come from .

178 Phenomena associated with some brown dwarfs are which of the following?

 lithium a temperature well below the stellar range methane absorption the lithium test X-rays T dwarfs

## Hypotheses

1. Color astronomy studies all the astronomical objects of the Solar System.