This is a piece of lithium metal floating in mineral oil. Credit: W. Oelen.

Alloys is an effort, in a lecture format, to describe the alloys that may be detected through radiation astronomy.

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## Quiz

1 Which of the following are diamond cubic metals or metalloids?

 manganese silicon osmium germanium platinum copper α-tin

2 Elyite has the chemical formula Pb4Cu(SO4)(OH)8. Which chalcogens are contained in the mineral?

 lead copper sulfur oxygen hydrogen plumbum

3 Complete the text:

 At volcanic locations, native sulfur can be seen flowing and it is .

4 Elpidite has the formula Na2ZrSi6O15·3H2O. As a chalcogen mineral it is also a

 .

5 Carnotite is a potassium uranium

6 Yes or No, The dominant group of Al–Si foundry alloys contain between 5 and 25 wt.% Si, with Mg, Ni and Cu additions.

 Yes No

7 Which of the following are hexagonal close-packed metals?

 manganese ε-iron cobalt below 450°C rhodium platinum copper rhenium

8 The type locality for native aluminum is the Tolbachik volcano, Kamchatka,

9 Complete the text:

 The mineral Lonsdaleite is a translucent, and is made from the atoms of but the arrangement of these atoms is different from the of carbon atoms in a .

10 Yes or No, In some 824 red giant stars, the Li I 670.78 nm line was detected in several stars, but only five objects presented a strong line.

 Yes No

11 The emission spectrum of atomic hydrogen is divided into a number of spectral series, with wavelengths given by the

 formula.

12 Yes or No, Let the symbol KREEP be an acronym for potassium (the chemical symbol is K), rare earth element (REE), and phosphorus (chemical symbol is P).

 Yes No

13 The use of lithium to distinguish candidate brown dwarfs from low-mass stars is commonly referred to as the lithium

 .

14 Which of the following are face-centered cubic metals at approximately room temperature?

 γ-cerium gallium aluminum germanium silicon lead aluminum

15 Yes or No, Aluminum is a metalloid element.

 Yes No

16 Which types of radiation astronomy directly observe the rocky-object surface of Venus?

 meteor astronomy cosmic-ray astronomy neutron astronomy proton astronomy beta-ray astronomy neutrino astronomy gamma-ray astronomy X-ray astronomy ultraviolet astronomy visual astronomy infrared astronomy submillimeter astronomy radio astronomy radar astronomy microwave astronomy superluminal astronomy

17 Yes or No, Some of the incontrovertible brown dwarf substellar objects are identified by the presence of the 670.8 nm lithium I line.

 Yes No

18 Which of the following are transition metals?

 lithium magnesium yttrium scandium iron copper technetium

19 A mineraloid is a substance that does not show or have

 .

20 Which of the following are actinide metals?

 lead copper actinium neptunium roentgenium uranium thorium

21 True or False, Emmonsite, or durdenite, has the formula Fe2(TeO3)3·2H2O. It is a tellurate mineral.

 TRUE FALSE

22 Which of the following are lanthanide metals?

 cerium yttrium aluminum protactinium lutetium lead neodymium

23 True or False, The difference between geochemical reactions and astrochemical reactions is that one is restricted to Earth.

 TRUE FALSE

24 Autunite occurs as an oxidizing product of uranium minerals in granite pegmatites and hydrothermal

 .

25 Yes or No, Silicon carbide does not occur naturally.

 Yes No

26 Carnotite is a mineral that may be associated with which phenomena?

 varying water content small amounts of calcium, barium, magnesium, iron, and sodium a bright to greenish yellow mineral demonstrating that Venus was once a comet amounts as low as one percent will color sandstone a bright yellow. an important uranium ore usually found in sedimentary rocks in arid climates

27 True or False, Due to the limited shielding provided by its relatively weak magnetic dipole moment, the surface of Mercury is everywhere subject to bombardment by cosmic rays.

 TRUE FALSE

28 Complete the text:

 Match up the item letter with each of the detectors or satellites below: Bonner Ball Neutron Detector - A Multi Mirror Telescope - B MAGIC telescope - C Explorer 11 - D HEAO 3 - E Helios - F Pioneer 10 - G Voyager 1 - H . . . . . . .

29 Yes or No, Abelsonites contain more carbon than hartites.

 Yes No

30 Limonite is an iron ore consisting of a mixture of hydrated iron(III) oxide-hydroxides in varying

 .

31 Yes or No, The spectral lines of lithium correspond to particular jumps of the electron between energy levels.

 Yes No

32 Bayerite is a polymorph of gibbsite and has the same chemical

33 True or False, Although originally defined as a single mineral, limonite is now recognized as a mixture of related hydrated iron oxide minerals, among them goethite, akaganeite, lepidocrocite, and jarosite.

 TRUE FALSE

34 Complete the text:

 Match up the item letter with each of the possibilities below: Meteors - A Cosmic rays - B Neutrons - C Protons - D Electrons - E Positrons - F Gamma rays - G Superluminals - H X-ray jets the index of refraction is often greater than 1 just below a resonance frequency . iron, nickel, cobalt, and traces of iridium . Sagittarius X-1 . escape from a typical hard low-mass X-ray binary . collisions with argon atoms . X-rays are emitted as they slow down . Henry Moseley using X-ray spectra .

35 Yes or No, A reaction for which no reaction intermediates have been detected or need to be postulated in order to describe the chemical reaction on a molecular scale is called an elementary reaction.

 Yes No

36 Where gold has been concentrated, it occurs as wires, dendritic crystals, twisted sheets, octahedral crystals, and variably-shaped

 .

37 True or False, Generally, geologic materials are isotopically lighter than natural water samples because of the preferential retention of 6Li in the solid phase.

 TRUE FALSE

38 Which geochemical phenomena are associated with magnesium?

 forsterite lightning dolomite whitlockite gypsum water worn, small, heavy, black, cubic crystals

39 True or False, A naturally occurring black glass is called an obsidian.

 TRUE FALSE

40 Complete the text:

 The standard solar have enjoyed tremendous success recently in terms of agreement between the predicted structure and the results from , but some observed properties of the Sun still defy explanation, such as the degree of { Li|lithium (i)} depletion, where the solar Li abundance is roughly a factor of below the meteoritic abundance.

41 Yes or No, The primary source of the world's thorium is the rare-earth, and thorium, phosphate mineral monazite.

 Yes No

42 A gamma-ray spectrum for autunite is likely to show peaks for Ra-226,

 and Bi-214.

43 Yes or No, Protactinium is an actinide element.

 Yes No

44 Match up the crystal with the mineral

 uraninite - A monazite - B pitchblende - C thorianite - D . . . .

45 Yes or No, Taylor Valley glaciers have the lowest lithium concentrations and lightest δ7Li values in the McMurdo Dry Valleys aquatic system.

 Yes No

46 Complete the text:

 Match up the radiation letter with each of the detector possibilities below: Meteors - A Cosmic rays - B Neutrons - C Protons - D Electrons - E Positrons - F Neutrinos - G Muons - H Gamma rays - I X-rays - J Ultraviolet rays - K Optical rays - L Visual rays - M Violet rays - N Blue rays - O Cyan rays - P Green rays - Q Yellow rays - R Orange rays - S Red rays - T Infrared rays - U Submillimeter rays - V Radio rays - W Superluminal rays - X multialkali (Na-K-Sb-Cs) photocathode materials . F547M . 511 keV gamma-ray peak . F675W . broad-band filter centered at 404 nm . a cloud chamber . ring-imaging Cherenkov . coherers . effective area is larger by 104 . F588N . pyroelectrics . a blemish about 8,000 km long . a metal-mesh achromatic half-wave plate . coated with lithium fluoride over aluminum . thallium bromide (TlBr) crystals . F606W . aluminum nitride . heavy water . 18 micrometers FWHM at 490 nm . wide-gap II-VI semiconductor ZnO doped with Co2+ (Zn1-xCoxO) . a recoiling nucleus high-purity germanium . magnetic deflection to separate out incoming ions . 2.2-kilogauss magnet used to sweep out electrons .

47 Yes or No, Thorium occurs in all granites.

 Yes No

48 Phenomena associated with torbernites?

 have a gaseous surface radioactive hydrated green copper uranyl phosphate mineral isostructural with the related uranium mineral, autunite the number of water hydration molecules can vary between 12 and 8 gives rise to a variety of metatorbernite when torbernite spontaneously dehydrates

49 True or False, Some violet satellite bands are caused by those lithium atoms which undergo an optical transition while a helium atom is nearby.

 TRUE FALSE

50 Complete the text:

 Bombardment by protostellar may make the rock of calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions and chondrules radioactive, producing found in meteorites that are difficult to obtain with other mechanisms.

51 True or False, Thorium is a silvery, radioactive, metallic element.

 TRUE FALSE

52 Complete the text:

 The extremely rare element technetium can be found in in very small quantities (about 0.2 ng/kg), produced by the fission of uranium-238.

53 Yes or No, Without another element present with which it reacts, lithium can occur as a metal.

 Yes No

54 Complete the text:

 Match up the type of cosmic-ray detector with each of the possibilities below: visible tracks - A diffusion cloud chamber - B bubbles - C a grid of uninsulated electric wires - D similar to the Haverah Park experiment - E fluorescence detectors - F spark chamber . continuously sensitized to radiation . Pierre Auger Observatory . bubble chamber . Cherenkov detector expansion cloud chamber .

55 True or False, Diamond is an carbonide element.

 TRUE FALSE

56 Chaoites are another hexagonal form of native

57 Complete the text:

 Cosmic rays with energies over the energy of 5 x 1019 interact with photons to produce via the ${\displaystyle \Delta }$ resonance.

## Hypotheses

1. There is at least one alloy unique to Earth.