Radiation astronomy/Courses/Principles/Syllabus/Spring

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Samples from comet Wild 2 have been returned to Earth by NASA's Stardust spacecraft. Credit: Erica Hupp/ Merrilee Fellows and William Jeffs, NASA.{{free media}}

For those wishing to take a formally structured undergraduate university semester-length course, this is the Spring offering for principles of radiation astronomy. Resource titles here are conventional although the actual resource may appear slightly different. For example, X-ray astronomy has been changed to Radiation astronomy/X-rays which is a suggestion for naming resources. See Wikiversity:Naming conventions which is a proposal. There are no consensus approved naming conventions at Wikiversity. Re-directs will automatically take you to each resource.

General course details may be found at the Syllabus.

"Scientists have found minerals formed near the sun or other stars in the samples returned to Earth by NASA's Stardust spacecraft in January [2006]."[1]

"The interesting thing is we are finding these high-temperature minerals in materials from the coldest place in the solar system."[2]

"We have found very high-temperature minerals, which supports a particular model where strong bipolar jets coming out of the early sun propelled material formed near to the sun outward to the outer reaches of the solar system."[3]

"It seems that comets are not composed entirely of volatile rich materials but rather are a mixture of materials formed at all temperature ranges, at places very near the early sun and at places very remote from it."[3]

Spring hits for 30 d period[edit | edit source]

For some 219 course resources such as laboratories (L), lectures, mini-lectures, lessons, problems, and quizzes, the total hits over the 219 elements was 9302 for the last full week in February combined with the first full three weeks in March.

The breakdown per course elements was laboratories (L), 1.96 %, lectures, 76.1 %, lessons, 4.38 %, problems, 2.57 %, or quizzes, 14.9 %.

Highest individual course element is Mathematical astronomy at 1,007.

January 3, 2022, Monday[edit | edit source]

This image is a composite of several types of radiation astronomy: radio, infrared, visual, ultraviolet, soft and hard X-ray. Credit: NASA.{{free media}}

January 4, 2022, Tuesday[edit | edit source]

The invisible cloud is plummeting toward our galaxy at nearly 700,000 miles per hour. Credit: Saxton/Lockman/NRAO/AUI/NSF/Mellinger.{{free media}}

January 5, 2022, Wednesday[edit | edit source]

The universe within 1 billion light-years (307 Mpc) of Earth is shown to contain the local superclusters, galaxy filaments and voids. Credit: Richard Powell.{{free media}}

January 6, 2022, Thursday[edit | edit source]

This is a visual image of lambda Boötis. Credit: Aladin at SIMBAD.{{free media}}
  • Problem set: Energy phantoms, solutions including work steps due on January 13, 2022.

January 7, 2022, Friday[edit | edit source]

The irregular galaxy NGC 1427A is passing through the Fornax cluster at nearly 600 kilometers per second (400 miles per second). Credit: NASA, ESA, and The Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA).{{free media}}

January 10, 2022, Monday[edit | edit source]

This Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) image of the spiral galaxy Messier 81 is in ultraviolet light. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/J. Huchra (Harvard-Smithsonian CfA).{{free media}}

January 11, 2022, Tuesday[edit | edit source]

The image contains a series of radio images at successive epochs using the VLBA of the jet in the broad-line radio galaxy 3C 111. Credit: M. Kadler, E. Ros, M. Perucho, Y. Y. Kovalev, D. C. Homan, I. Agudo, K. I. Kellermann, M. F. Aller, H. D. Aller, M. L. Lister, and J. A. Zensus.{{fairuse}}
  • Laboratory: Cratering, report is due on January 18, 2022.

January 12, 2022, Wednesday[edit | edit source]

This color picture was made by combining several exposures taken on the night of December 28th 1994 at the 0.9 m telescope of the Kitt Peak National Observatory. Credit: N.A.Sharp/NOAO/AURA/NSF.{{fairuse}}

January 13, 2022, Thursday[edit | edit source]

This is an image of NGC 1679 in Caelum. It is a spiral galaxy located two degrees south of Zeta Caeli. Credit: NASA/ESA (Wikisky).{{fairuse}}

January 14, 2022, Friday[edit | edit source]

This is a Hubble Space Telescope Image of NGC 4414. Credit: Hubble Heritage Team (AURA/STScI/NASA).{{free media}}

January 17, 2022, Monday[edit | edit source]

The Hubble Space Telescope image shows four high-velocity, runaway stars plowing through their local interstellar medium. Credit: NASA - Hubble's Advanced Camera for Surveys.{{free media}}

January 18, 2022, Tuesday[edit | edit source]

This is a real visual image of the red giant Mira by the Hubble Space Telescope. Credit: Margarita Karovska (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics) and NASA.{{free media}}

January 19, 2022, Wednesday[edit | edit source]

On July 19, 2012, an eruption occurred on the sun that produced a moderately powerful solar flare and a dazzling magnetic display known as coronal rain. Credit: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Music: 'Thunderbolt' by Lars Leonhard, courtesy of artist.{{free media}}

January 20, 2022, Thursday[edit | edit source]

This is a color composite image of NGC 7662. Credit: Judy Schmidt.{{free media}}

January 21, 2022, Friday[edit | edit source]

The diagram shows scattered disc objects out to 100 AU. Credit: Eurocommuter.{{free media}}

January 24, 2022, Monday[edit | edit source]

This is a multicolor image from the Pan-STARRS1 telescope of the free-floating planet PSO J318.5-22, in the constellation of Capricornus. Credit: N. Metcalfe & Pan-STARRS 1 Science Consortium.{{free media}}

January 25, 2022, Tuesday[edit | edit source]

This graphic shows the distance from the Oort cloud to the rest of the Solar System and two of the nearest stars measured in astronomical units (AU). Credit: NASA / JPL-Caltech.{{free media}}

January 26, 2022, Wednesday[edit | edit source]

This image shows a cumulus cloud above Lechtaler Alps, Austria. Credit: Glg.{{free media}}

January 27, 2022, Thursday[edit | edit source]

This star is listed in SIMBAD as having spectral type G. Credit: Aladin at SIMBAD.{{fairuse}}

January 28, 2022, Friday[edit | edit source]

Known objects in the Kuiper belt, are derived from data from the Minor Planet Center. Credit: WilyD.{{free media}}

January 31, 2022, Monday[edit | edit source]

Asteroids in the solar system are categorized by size and number. Credit: Marco Colombo, DensityDesign Research Lab.{{free media}}

February 1, 2022, Tuesday[edit | edit source]

This image shows Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Credit: ESA/Rosetta/MPS for OSIRIS Team MPS/UPD/LAM/IAA/SSO/INTA/ UPM/DASP/IDA.{{fairuse}}

February 2, 2022, Wednesday[edit | edit source]

An atmospheric river forms over Hawai'i then heads toward California 10-11 April 2017. Credit: UW-CIMSS.{{fairuse}}

February 3, 2022, Thursday[edit | edit source]

This infrared image from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope shows the nebula nicknamed "the Dragonfish". Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Univ. of Toronto.{{free media}}

February 4, 2022, Friday[edit | edit source]

This Sin-Kamen (Blue Rock) near Lake Pleshcheyevo used to be a Meryan shrine Credit: Viktorianec.{{free media}}

February 7, 2022, Monday[edit | edit source]

This is an image of the mineral pitchblende, or uraninite. Credit: Geomartin.{{free media}}

February 8, 2022, Tuesday[edit | edit source]

Representation of upper-atmospheric lightning and electrical-discharge phenomena are displayed. Credit: Abestrobi.{{free media}}
  • Laboratory: Galaxies, report is due on February 15, 2022.
  • Hourly: Principles of radiation astronomy/Hourly 1 for lectures 1-16. Questions may include quiz section lectures, lessons, problem sets, and laboratories up to today but not today's laboratory or quiz section lecture.

February 9, 2022, Wednesday[edit | edit source]

This is a scanned photograph of the bolide EN131090, originally captured on a glass photographic plate. Credit: European Fireball Network.{{free media}}

February 10, 2022, Thursday[edit | edit source]

This is a visual image of NGC 2788A near the edge of the constellation Volans. Credit: Aladin at SIMBAD.{{fairuse}}

February 11, 2022, Friday[edit | edit source]

The Aurigid meteor shower is observed by a group of astronomers on a NASA mission at 47,000 feet. Credit: Jeremie Vaubaillon, Caltech, NASA.{{free media}}

February 14, 2022, Monday[edit | edit source]

This is a fireball meteor trail with some burning still visible above the Urals city of Chelyabinsk, Russia, on February 15, 2013. Credit: Reuters/www.chelyabinsk.ru.{{fairuse}}

February 15, 2022, Tuesday[edit | edit source]

The image shows the first film ever of a meteor plunging down at terminal velocity. Credit: Anders Helstrup / Dark Flight, montage, Hans Erik Foss Amundsen.{{fairuse}}}

February 16, 2022, Wednesday[edit | edit source]

The image shows the Orion nebula surrounded by a ring of dust. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/T. Megeath(University of Toledo).{{free media}}

February 17, 2022, Thursday[edit | edit source]

Cloud bands are clearly visible on Jupiter. Credit: NASA/JPL/USGS.{{free media}}
  • Problem set: Unusual units, solutions including work steps due on February 24, 2022.

February 18, 2022, Friday[edit | edit source]

Malaspina Glacier in southeastern Alaska is considered the classic example of a piedmont glacier. Credit: NASA.{{free media}}

February 21, 2022, Monday[edit | edit source]

This image shows a late-summer rainstorm in the village Lunde, The north of Funen, Denmark. Credit: Malene Thyssen.{{free media}}

February 22, 2022, Tuesday[edit | edit source]

Shown here is a portion of the SPIRE spectrum of VY Canis Majoris (VY CMa). Credit: ESA/NASA/JPL-Caltech.{{fairuse}}

February 23, 2022, Wednesday[edit | edit source]

Phase shift induced by free-streaming neutrinos and other light relics in the spectrum of baryon acoustic oscillations. Credit: Daniel Baumann, Florian Beutler, Raphael Flauger, Daniel Green, Anže Slosar, Mariana Vargas-Magaña, Benjamin Wallisch & Christophe Yèche.{{fairuse}}

February 24, 2022, Thursday[edit | edit source]

Positron astronomy results have been obtained using the INTEGRAL spectrometer SPI shown. Credit: Medialab, ESA.{{fairuse}}

February 25, 2022, Friday[edit | edit source]

The image shows the hydrogen concentrations on the Moon detected by the Lunar Prospector. Credit: NASA.{{free media}}

February 28, 2022, Monday[edit | edit source]

This is an artist's rendering of the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) satellite. Credit: NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center Conceptual Image Lab.{{free media}}

March 1, 2022, Tuesday[edit | edit source]

This is an image obtained from muon radiography of Japan's Asama volcano. Credit: H T M Tanaka.{{fairuse}}
  • Laboratory: Meteorites, report is due on March 8, 2022.

This quiz is for lectures up through and including optical astronomy (1-24), the prior weeks laboratories, quiz section lectures from the course beginning through and including interplanetary medium, lessons and problem sets through and including those due previously to today.

March 2, 2022, Wednesday[edit | edit source]

Cosmic Ray Intensity (blue) and Sunspot Number (green) is shown from 1951 to 2006. Credit: University of New Hampshire.{{fairuse}}

March 3, 2022, Thursday[edit | edit source]

The image shows 54 Piscium, its red dwarf companion and a Saturn-sized planet. One of these may be a radio source. Credit: NASA / JPL-Caltech / T. Pyle (SSC).{{free media}}

March 4, 2022, Friday[edit | edit source]

Alpha particle is detected in an isopropanol cloud chamber. Credit: Cloudylabs.{{free media}}

March 7, 2022, Monday[edit | edit source]

The eight toroid magnets can be seen surrounding the calorimeter that is later moved into the middle of the detector. Credit: Maximilien Brice.{{free media}}

March 8, 2022, Tuesday[edit | edit source]

"This graph shows the neutrons detected by a neutron detector at the University of Oulu in Finland from May 16 through May 18, 2012. The peak on May 17 represents an increase in the number of neutrons detected, a phenomenon dubbed a ground level enhancement or GLE. This was the first GLE since December of 2006. Credit: University of Oulu/NASA's Integrated Space Weather Analysis System"[4].{{free media}}

March 9, 2022, Wednesday[edit | edit source]

This image is the first direct observation of a neutron star in visible light. The neutron star is RX J185635-3754. Credit: Fred Walter (State University of New York at Stony Brook) and NASA.{{free media}}

March 10, 2022, Thursday[edit | edit source]

Sirius is the brightest star as seen from Earth, apart from the Sun. Credit: Mellostorm.{{free media}}
  • Problem set: Cosmic circuits, solutions including work steps due on March 17, 2022.

March 11, 2022, Friday[edit | edit source]

The diagram shows a possible proton collision with an atmosphere molecule. Credit: Magnus Manske.{{free media}}

March 14, 2022, Monday[edit | edit source]

This "neutrino image" of the Sun is produced by using the Super-Kamiokande to detect the neutrinos from nuclear fusion coming from the Sun. Credit: R. Svoboda and K. Gordan (LSU).{{fairuse}}

March 15, 2022, Tuesday[edit | edit source]

Compilation is shown of the measurements of the total extragalactic gamma-ray intensity between 1 keV and 820 GeV, with different components from current models. Credit: The e-ASTROGAM Collaboration.{{free media}}

March 16, 2022, Wednesday[edit | edit source]

The Moon's cosmic ray shadow, as seen in secondary muons generated by cosmic rays in the atmosphere, and detected 700 meters below ground, at the Soudan II detector. Credit: J. H. Cobb et al. (The Soudan 2 Collaboration). {{fairuse}}

March 17, 2022, Thursday[edit | edit source]

Observations made with the APEX telescope reveal the cold dusty clouds from which stars form. Credit: ESO/APEX/T. Preibisch et al. (Submillimetre); N. Smith, University of Minnesota/NOAO/AURA/NSF (Optical).{{fairuse}}
  • Problem set: Column densities, solutions including work steps due on March 24, 2022.

March 18, 2022, Friday[edit | edit source]

Flux (Φ) of 8B solar neutrinos which are μ or τ flavor vs the flux of electron neutrinos (Φe) deduced from the three neutrino reactions in the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO). Credit: Ahmad et al..{{fairuse}}

March 21, 2022, Monday[edit | edit source]

The simulation attempts to answer how thunderstorms launch particle beams into space. Credit: NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center.{{free media}}

March 22, 2022, Tuesday[edit | edit source]

Auroras are mostly caused by energetic electrons precipitating into the atmosphere.[5] Credit: Samuel Blanc[1].{{free media}}

March 23, 2022, Wednesday[edit | edit source]

Observation of positrons from a terrestrial gamma ray flash is performed by the Fermi gamma ray telescope. Credit: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.{{free media}}

March 24, 2022, Thursday[edit | edit source]

This is an Aladin at SIMBAD image of ICRF J230343.5-680737, a Seyfert 1 galaxy in the constellation Indus. Credit: Aladin at SIMBAD.{{fairuse}}

March 25, 2022, Friday[edit | edit source]

This is a colour composite image of RCW120. Credit: ESO/APEX/DSS2/ SuperCosmos/ Deharveng(LAM)/ Zavagno(LAM).{{free media}}

March 28, 2022, Monday[edit | edit source]

The electric vectors of PKS0521-36 show clear structure and alignment. Credit: Keel.{{fairuse}}

March 29, 2022, Tuesday[edit | edit source]

A mechanism is suggested for anomalous cosmic rays (ACRs) of the acceleration of pick-up ions at the solar wind termination shock. Credit: Eric R. Christian.{{fairuse}}

March 30, 2022, Wednesday[edit | edit source]

The Moon is seen by the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, in gamma rays of greater than 20 MeV. Credit: D. J. Thompson, D. L. Bertsch (NASA/GSFC), D. J. Morris (UNH), R. Mukherjee (NASA/GSFC/USRA).{{free media}}

March 31, 2022, Thursday[edit | edit source]

These two photographs were made by combining data from NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer spacecraft and the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory in Chile. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/JHU.{{free media}}

April 1, 2022, Friday[edit | edit source]

This is a montage of ten years' worth of Yohkoh SXT images, demonstrating the variation in solar activity during a sunspot cycle, from after August 30, 1991, to September 6, 2001. Credit: David Chenette, Joseph B. Gurman, Loren W. Acton.{{free media}}

April 4, 2022, Monday[edit | edit source]

This is a false-color image of the Sun's corona as seen in extreme ultraviolet (at 17.1 nm) by the Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Telescope aboard Stereo B. Credit: NASA.{{fairuse}}

April 5, 2022, Tuesday[edit | edit source]

This is an optical image of U Camelopardalis from the Hubble Space Telescope. Credit: ESA/Hubble, NASA and H. Olofsson (Onsala Space Observatory).{{free media}}

April 6, 2022, Wednesday[edit | edit source]

Lhotse is seen from the climb up to Chhukung Ri. Credit: Jamie O'Shaughnessy.{{free media}}

April 7, 2022, Thursday[edit | edit source]

This is an image of the Sun using an H I violet band pass filter. Credit: NASA.{{fairuse}}

April 8, 2022, Friday[edit | edit source]

This image of Venus is taken through a violet filter by the Galileo spacecraft on February 14, 1990. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech.{{free media}}

April 11, 2022, Monday[edit | edit source]

Neptune's south pole is photographed by Voyager 2. Credit: NASA.{{free media}}

April 12, 2022, Tuesday[edit | edit source]

Messier 83 in Hydra is shown in the image. Credit: David Malin, Anglo-Australian Observatory.{{fairuse}}

April 13, 2022, Wednesday[edit | edit source]

Northern Lights are usually green, but in this image there is the very rare blue light. Credit: Varjisakka.{{free media}}

April 14, 2022, Thursday[edit | edit source]

This is an X-ray image of the Andromeda galaxy. Credit: ESA/XMM-Newton/EPIC/W. Pietsch.{{fairuse}}
  • Problem set: Radiation dosage, solutions including work steps due on April 21, 2022.

April 15, 2022, Friday[edit | edit source]

This photo of yellow and green auroras shows convincingly that yellow is a distinctive result of the auroral process. Credit: Belinda Witzenhausen.{{fair use}}

April 18, 2022, Monday[edit | edit source]

This is a wide-field image in the region of NGC 3603 taken on the ground by the Digitized Sky Survey 2. Credit: NASA, ESA, and the Digitized Sky Survey 2.{{free media}}

April 19, 2022, Tuesday[edit | edit source]

The Red Rectangle is a proto-planetary nebula. Here is the Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) image. Broadband red light is shown in red. Credit: JPL/NASA.{{free media}}

April 20, 2022, Wednesday[edit | edit source]

The mid-infrared image of the Moon was taken during a 1996 lunar eclipse by the SPIRIT-III instrument aboard the orbiting Midcourse Space Experiment satellite. Credit: DCATT Team, MSX Project, BMDO (Ballistic Missile Defense Organization of the US DoD).{{free media}}

April 21, 2022, Thursday[edit | edit source]

NGC 6741 is the Phantom Streak Nebula. Credit: ESA/Hubble and NASA.{{fairuse}}
  • Problem set: Star jumping, solutions including work steps due on April 28, 2022.

April 22, 2022, Friday[edit | edit source]

This image shows two young brown dwarfs, objects that fall somewhere between planets and stars in terms of their temperature and mass. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/D. Barrado [CAB/INTA-CSIC].{{free media}}

April 25, 2022, Monday[edit | edit source]

A view of the Milky Way galaxy in microwaves is captured by the European Space Agency's Planck satellite. Credit: ESA/NASA/JPL-Caltech.{{fairuse}}

April 26, 2022, Tuesday[edit | edit source]

This image is of asteroid 2012 LZ1 by the Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico using the Arecibo Planetary Radar. Credit: Arecibo Observatory.{{fairuse}}
  • Hourly: Principles of radiation astronomy/Hourly 3 for lectures 33-48, including quiz section lectures, lessons (except the last one), problem sets (except the last one), and laboratories not included in the first two hourlies.

April 27, 2022, Wednesday[edit | edit source]

This image has the radio image of Greg Taylor, NRAO, overlain on the X-ray image from Chandra. The radio source Hydra A originates in a galaxy near the center of the cluster. Optical observations show a few hundred galaxies in the cluster. Credit: NASA/CXC/SAO; Radio: NRAO.{{free media}}

April 28, 2022, Thursday[edit | edit source]

This is a composite image of the Whirlpool Galaxy (also known as M51). Credit: Joint Astronomy Centre, University of British Columbia and NASA/HST (STScI).{{fairuse}}

April 29, 2022, Friday[edit | edit source]

The images show LIGO and Livingston, Louisiana, measurement of gravitational waves. Credit: B. P. Abbott et al. (LIGO Scientific Collaboration and Virgo Collaboration).{{free media}}

May 2, 2022, Monday[edit | edit source]

5-GHz radio image shows Cygnus A (3C405). Credit: Martin J. Hardcastle.{{free media}}

May 3, 2022, Tuesday[edit | edit source]

This photo shows the Livingston LIGO detector. Credit: Caltech/MIT/LIGO Laboratory.{{free media}}

May 13, 2022, Friday[edit | edit source]

This image shows a pair of objects ejected from GRS 1915+105 moving apart at an apparently superluminal speed. Credit: Felix Mirabe, Saclay, France, and Luis Rodriguez, the National Autonomous University, Mexico City.{{free media}}

Alternate examinations that may be used by your college or university for credit (and a grade) in this course will be available from Wikiversity by courier for closed, proctored session testing of proficiency.

Hypotheses[edit | edit source]

  1. Courses offered in the Spring have higher student participation than ones offered in the Fall.

See also[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. Erica Hupp, Merrilee Fellows and William Jeffs (January 2006). "NASA's Stardust Findings May Alter View of Comet Formation". Pasadena, California USA: NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved 2016-11-22.
  2. Donald Brownlee (January 2006). "NASA's Stardust Findings May Alter View of Comet Formation". Pasadena, California USA: NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved 2016-11-22.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Michael Zolensky (January 2006). "NASA's Stardust Findings May Alter View of Comet Formation". Pasadena, California USA: NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved 2016-11-22.
  4. Karen C. Fox (May 31, 2012). Science Nugget: Catching Solar Particles Infiltrating Earth's Atmosphere. Greenbelt, Maryland: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/sunearth/news/particles-gle.html. Retrieved 2012-08-17. 
  5. S. Wolpert (July 24, 2008). Scientists solve 30-year-old aurora borealis mystery. University of California. http://www.universityofcalifornia.edu/news/article/18277. Retrieved 2008-10-11. 

External links[edit | edit source]

{{Charge ontology}}{{Chemistry resources}}{{Physics resources}}

{{Radiation astronomy resources}}{{Technology resources}}