Radiation astronomy/Courses/Principles/Midterm quiz

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These computer simulations show a swarm of dark matter clumps around our Milky Way galaxy. Credit: NASA, ESA, and T. Brown and J. Tumlinson (STScI).

Principles of radiation astronomy is a course of forty-eight lectures, sixteen mini-lectures for quiz sections, three hourly quizzes that are timed at an hour, a mid-term that covers the first half of the course, and a final which covers everything in the course. This is the mid-term quiz. It covers the first twenty-four lectures, the first eight mini-lectures, problem sets, lessons, and laboratories, except where noted in the course syllabus.

You are free to take this quiz based on these at any time.

To improve your score, read and study the lectures and the rest, the links contained within, listed under See also, and in the {{principles of radiation astronomy}} template. This should give you adequate background to get 100 %.

As a "learning by doing" resource, this quiz helps you to assess your knowledge and understanding of the information, and it is a quiz you may take over and over as a learning resource to improve your knowledge, understanding, test-taking skills, and your score.

A suggestion is to have the lectures and other resources available in a separate window.

To master the information and use only your memory while taking the quiz, try rewriting the information from more familiar points of view, or be creative with association.

The quiz is timed at 3 hours.

Enjoy learning by doing!

Quiz[edit]

Point added for a correct answer:   
Points for a wrong answer:
Ignore the questions' coefficients:

1

Yes or No, A calculation of energy is not possible unless a mass is involved.

Yes
No

2

Complete the text:

Bombardment by protostellar

may make the rock

of calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions

and chondrules radioactive, producing

found in meteorites that are difficult to obtain with other mechanisms.

3

Complete the text:

At the high end of the proton energy spectrum (above ≈ 1018 eV) the

radius deflection becomes

enough that proton astronomy becomes

.

4

Which of the following may be characteristic of magnetohydrodynamics?

driven by current gradients
neutral atoms
closed tube loops
twisted flux
open field lines
synchrotron radiation

5

True or False, Van Allen radiation belt electrons are constantly removed by collisions with atmospheric neutrals, losses to the magnetopause, and outward radial diffusion.

TRUE
FALSE

6

Complete the text:

Match up the type of cosmic-ray detector with each of the possibilities below:
visible tracks - A
diffusion cloud chamber - B
bubbles - C
a grid of uninsulated electric wires - D
similar to the Haverah Park experiment - E
fluorescence detectors - F
spark chamber

.
continuously sensitized to radiation

.
Pierre Auger Observatory

.
bubble chamber

.
Cherenkov detector

expansion cloud chamber

.

7

Complete the text:

An X-ray binary star exhibiting periodic and rapid increases in luminosity (typically a factor of 10 or greater) peaked in the X-ray regime is called an

.

8

Which of the following may be a type of X-ray binary?

a dwarf planet
a member of the Oort belt
a soft X-ray transient
the polar regions (North and South) of Jupiter
an X-ray burster
Hercules X-1
an X-ray emitting Be star

9

Spiral Galaxy M100.jpg
The galaxy image at the right has approximately which type of rotational symmetry??
one-fold - ⊙
two-fold - ⊖
three-fold - ▲
four-fold - ◈
five-fold - ✪
six-fold - ✱

10

True or False, Super soft X-ray sources have been detected in the Magellanic clouds.

TRUE
FALSE

11

Complete the text:

A non-SI unit of spectral X-ray flux density is called the

.

12

The generalization to self-gravitating continua is outlined focused on the classification problem of singularities and metamorphoses arising in the

.

13

Which of the following may be characteristic of a universe?

an origin
singularity
chaos
aether
local steady-state
uncountability
irrational numbers

14

True or False, The flux density or monochromatic flux, , of a source is the integral of the spectral radiance, , over the source solid angle:

.

TRUE
FALSE

15

Which of the following is not a characteristic of a laboratory?

catching a beam
one more degree of freedom than can be measured or controlled
it may appear as a dome over a small portion of the Earth your standing on
impervious to some traveling rays
a secondary-object hazard

16

True or False, Although the Earth's field is generally well approximated by a magnetic dipole with its axis near the rotational axis, there are occasional dramatic events where the North and South geomagnetic poles trade places.

TRUE
FALSE

17

Which of the following are characteristic of geomagnetic polar reversals?

the longer the period for reversal the longer the surface irradiation
the ionosphere seems to reach the surface
life-forms may suffer from radiation sickness
asteroids may strike the Earth that otherwise would not
the rotation of the Earth slows to a halt
poles of ice completely melt

18

Ionization within the Earth's atmosphere from cosmic rays has what property?

it's subject to solar eclipses
it increases underwater
cosmic rays do not penetrate the atmosphere
is higher at the base of the Eiffel tower rather than the top
is obscured by hot-air balloons
the ionization rate rises at rising elevation

19

NGC 2788A.jpg
True or False, The galaxy image at right, NGC 2788A is a likely first neutron source in Volans.
TRUE
FALSE

20

Which of the following appear to be true for galaxy symmetry?

a galaxy may have an axis of rotation that is one-fold
a galaxy may appear as a left-handed or right-handed helix even though mostly planar rather than helical
a galaxy may appear to have a two-fold axis of rotation
a galaxy may appear to have a five-fold axis of rotation with two arms on one side and three on the other
a galaxy may appear to have a three-fold axis of rotation
a galaxy may appear to have a four-fold axis of rotation with a different number of arms in each quadrant
a galaxy may appear to have a six-fold axis of rotation

21

Complete the text:

The three key parameters of a

waveform are its

,

and its

.

22

True or False, Theorists try to generate or modify models to take into account new data.

TRUE
FALSE

23

A possible solution to the discrepancy between the Spite plateau abundance and the predicted value of the primordial lithium abundance is lithium depletion through?

24

True or False, Neutrinos emanate from a neutron star because an atomic nucleus the size hypothesized for a neutron star is unstable and the neutrons decompose giving off neutrinos.

TRUE
FALSE

25

Complete the text:

Some neutrinos originating from the Sun may be produced by the

reactions occurring in and above the

. Differentiating these coronal cloud-induced neutrinos from the neutrino background and those theorized to be produced within the

of the Sun may someday be possible with neutrino astronomy.

26

Which of the following is not a characteristic of X-rays associated with neutron stars?

X-ray jets
X-ray binary
emission peaks indicative of neutron decay
X-ray burster
a low-mass X-ray binary

27

Complete the text:

Distance moduli have been estimated for NGC 6946 using its brightest

stars and its

ring.

28

True or False, The hot ionized medium (HIM) consists of a coronal cloud which emits X-rays.

TRUE
FALSE

29

Complete the text:

Match up the item letter with each of the possibilities below:
sources - A
339 - B
satellite - C
earlier designation - D
actual observation dates - E
4U - F
The catalog contains how many?

Prefix for sources detected during the final observation period

. The fourth is a catalog of X-ray

. Uhuru was a

. The catalog does not necessarily contain the

. It does not contain

.

30

Complete the text:

publication in print contains the identification of all of the first X-ray sources discovered for each of the 88 (or 89) constellations.

31

Which of the following are radiation astronomy phenomena associated with the rocky-object Io?

surface regions reflecting or emitting violet or purple
an excess brightness at or near the edge
red regions that may be phosphorus
neutron emission
polar coronal holes
meteor emission
rotation

32

Complete the text:

Match up the item letter with each of the possibilities below:
Intracluster medium - A
Mayall's object - B
M82 PAHs - C
Milky Way bubbles - D
Local Hot Bubble - E
Stephan's Quintet - F
UGC 8335 - G
Arp 272 - H
Hubble Interacting Galaxy UGC 8335 (2008-04-24).jpg

Outflow from M82 galaxy.jpg

.
Stephan's Quintet with annotation.jpg

.
Local bubble.jpg

.
800 nasa structure renderin2.jpg

.
A2199 Xray Optical.jpg

.
Hubble Interacting Galaxy NGC 6050 (2008-04-24).jpg

.
Hubble Interacting Galaxy Arp 148 (2008-04-24).jpg

.

33

True or False, The 35 astronomical X-ray sources detected by sounding rocket in 1967 was accomplished by the X-ray astronomy group at NRL.

TRUE
FALSE

34

Which of the following is not a characteristic of theoretical X-radiation astronomy?

a theory for any natural X-ray source
X-ray generation
theoretical X-ray emission
analytical models
computational numerical simulations

35

Which of the following are astronomical observatory phenomena associated with gamma-ray astronomy?

20 MeV electromagnetic radiation
the Second Small Astronomy Satellite (SAS-2)
micrometre-sized interstellar meteor particles
neutron irradiation
GRBs
meteor orbits
thorium on the Moon

36

True or False, It has recently been suggested by Cane et al. 2002 that a class of type III solar radio bursts, called type III-l, is reliably associated with intense solar energetic particle (SEP) events.

TRUE
FALSE

37

Complete the text:

Match up the item letter with each of the possibilities below:
Sun - A
Mercury - B
Venus - C
Earth - D
Comets - E
Mars - F
Jupiter - G
Saturn - H
Auroral currents on the order of 106 Amps

Fluorescent radiation from oxygen at ~130 km above the surface

.
Faint halo of X-rays extending out some 7,000 km

.
Solar wind lighting up with X-rays

.
Bright X-ray arcs at low energy

.
Major source of hard X-rays

.
X-ray emission concentrated near the equator

.
Low surface iron content in minerals

.

38

Object identification:

What "mystery object" made a sudden appearance on February 21, 2006, and was observed to have an X-ray glow around it by the X-ray observatory satellite XMM Newton in early August 2006?

39

Which of the following are X-radiation astronomy phenomena associated with the Sun?

a core which emits neutrinos
a solar wind which emanates out the polar coronal holes
gravity
the barycenter for the solar system
polar coronal holes
coronal clouds
its position
temperatures at or above 1 MK

40

True or False, The symbol may represent early Saturn.

TRUE
FALSE

41

Complete the text:

An astronomical X-ray source may have one or more

locations, plus associated

circles or

, from which

X-radiation has been

.

42

Which of the following appear to be true for NGC 6946?

a core which emits neutrinos
a face-on galaxy
a spiral galaxy
two-fold rotational symmetry
three spiral arms on each side
galaxy type Sab
no HII rings
approximately 23 million light years away

43

True or False, X-rays span approximately three decades in wavelength, frequency, and energy.

TRUE
FALSE

44

Which of the following is not a characteristic of radiation sensitivity?

susceptibility
a material inert to change
physical changes from radiation
chemical changes by radiation
radiation induced change to a material

45

Complete the text:

Match up the item letter with each of the possibilities below:
Sa - A
Sb - B
Sc - C
SBa - D
SBb - E
SBc - F
Irr - G
S0 - H
M101 hires STScI-PRC2006-10a.jpg

.
Ngc5866 hst big.png

.
M104 - Sombrero.jpg

.
Starburst in NGC 4449 (captured by the Hubble Space Telescope).jpg

.
NGC 7479 HST.jpg

.
NGC2841.jpg

.
The VLT goes lion hunting.jpg

.
NGC 2859.jpg

.

46

Which of the following are associated with the big bang neutrinos?

a launch location
relic neutrinos
of order of the photon density
the thermal energy at which neutrinos decouple
neutrinos dynamically dominate baryons
a contracting universe

47

True or False, To reflect at the 79 keV level, glass layers are multi-coated with W/SiC.

TRUE
FALSE

48

Which of the following are green radiation astronomy phenomena associated with the Sun?

the color of the upper rim as seen from Earth
an excess brightness at or near the edge of the Sun
the iron XIV green line
neutron emission
polar coronal holes
meteor emission
changes in the line-blanketing

49

X-ray emission dividing lines may be explained by low transition region densities leading to low emission in?

50

True or False, A more extensive galaxy classification scheme starting from the Hubble scheme indicates that an Sab galaxy is approximately in between Sa and Sb.

TRUE
FALSE

51

Which of the following is associated with the Sun as a possible first X-ray source?

lofting an X-ray detector with a V-2 rocket from White Sands Proving Grounds on August 5, 1948
in the late 1930s, "the presence of a very hot, tenuous gas surrounding the Sun ... was inferred indirectly from optical coronal lines of highly ionized species"
early theoretical estimates of black body radiation from the solar corona
“extensive 1/4 keV emission in the Galactic halo”
its overall redness has decreased
ionizing radiation that may originate deep within the Sun does not reach the bottom of a sunspot

52

Sprial galaxies have which of the following in common?

spiral arms
a spheroidal shape
may appear lenticular
is irregular
arms of younger stars
may contain star clusters
dust lanes

53

Complete the text:

While exceptions may occur, match up the star class letter with each of the X-ray possibilities below:
star class - O
star class - B
star class - A
star class - F
star class - G
star class - K
star class - M
LX >> Lv

.
constant X-ray luminosity across the class

independent of visual luminosity

.
LX ~ 10-3Lbol

.
abrupt onset of X-ray emission across the class

.
LX ~ 10-7Lbol

.
LX << 10-3Lbol

.

54

Which of the following are X-radiation astronomy phenomena associated with the NuSTAR spacecraft?

hard X-ray detectors
CdZnTe pixel detectors
CsI anti-coincidence shield
windowless < 3 keV soft X-ray detectors
1.5" strong source positioning
2 µs X-ray temporal resolution
900 eV at 68 keV spectral resolution
FOV at 68 keV of 6'

55

True or False, The NuSTAR observatory has a 10.14 m instrument focal length for its Wolter I telescopes.

TRUE
FALSE

56

Which of the following are characteristic of solar green astronomy?

limb faculae
polar coronal holes
black body temperature of the photosphere
the electron neutrino
iron (Fe XIV) green line
neutrons

57

True or False, A proton and neutron will have lower energy when their spins are anti-parallel, not parallel.

TRUE
FALSE

58

A collimated stream, spurt or flow of liquid or gas or plasma in a narrow cone of particles?

59

Which of the following is not a characteristic of outer space?

gaseous pressure much less than atmospheric pressure
similar to a laboratory vacuum
free space
imperfect vacuum
partial vacuum

60

That part of outer space between planets and their star(s) is called the?

61

Which of the following are characteristic of QED vacuum?

fluctuations
no photons
no matter particles
relative permittivity
relative permeability

62

Which of the following are characteristic of the first true astrophysical gamma-ray source?

a strong 2.223 MeV emission line
a solar flare
the formation of deuterium
the electron neutrino
OSO-3
neutrons

63

Complete the text:

X-ray astronomy consists of three fundamental parts: 1.

with respect to incoming X-rays, or X-radiation, 2.

, and 3. the

and associated

with respect to X-rays.

64

True or False, The weak speed of a charged particle can exceed the speed of light.

TRUE
FALSE

65

Which of the following are characteristic of positronium?

an exotic atom
a nucleus of neutronium
a decay product of a neutron
a weak interaction
an eletromagnetic interaction
a center of mass

66

True or False, α Phe is a likely positron source in the constellation Pictor.

TRUE
FALSE

67

The first astronomical X-ray source in the constellation Dorado is likely to be which of the following?

the Sun
the Small Magellanic Cloud
Scorpius X-1
the Large Magellanic Cloud
the Crab Nebula

68

Which of the following may supply power into the Crab Nebula?

an outflowing wind
particles into the pulsar
particles from the pulsar
electrons and positrons in the wind
particles coming out of the pulsar very close to light speed

69

True or False, The infrared spectra of olivine and enstatite are essentially unchanged after proton bombardment.

TRUE
FALSE

70

A first X-ray source located roughly 9000 light years away in the constellation Scorpius is

71

True or False, Terrestrial gamma-ray flashes pose a challenge to current theories of lightning, especially with the discovery of the clear signatures of neutrinos produced in lightning.

TRUE
FALSE

72

Complete the text:

Match up the item letter with each of the possibilities below:
Skylark - A
V-2 - B
Nike-Asp - C
Aerobee 150 - D
Black Brant XII - E
Vertikal - F
Terrier Sandhawk - G
Wallops Flight Facility

Woomera, Australia

.
Natal, Brazil

.
Kapustin Yar

.
White Sands Missile Range

.
Point Defiance

.
Barking Sands

.
White Sands Proving Grounds

.

73

True or False, By crossing symmetry an elastic scattering cross section with a nucleon implies annihilation of dark matter (DM) into hadrons inside the halo, resulting in an anti-proton flux that could be constrained by data from the PAMELA collaboration if one includes a large boost factor necessary to explain the PAMELA excess in the positron fraction.

TRUE
FALSE

74

The darker regions in X-rays at the North and South poles of the Sun are coronal holes, where the magnetic field lines are?

75

True or False, HR 4731, α2 Cru is an infrared source in the constellation Crux.

TRUE
FALSE

76

Which phenomena are associated with the heliosphere?

a region of space where the interstellar medium is blown away by the solar wind
a bubble in space
virtually all the material emanates from the Sun itself
Voyager 2
Voyager 1
the termination shock

77

True or False, For an object entering the heliosphere toward the Sun, if its mass and charge are a fraction of the Sun's, say 20 %, then the gravitational force between them is orders of magnitude greater than the electrostatic force at about 1,000 AU.

TRUE
FALSE

78

Which of the following X-ray phenomena is not a characteristic of the Helios satellites?

heliocentric orbit
short-lived (0.5 h) soft X-ray events
longer-lived X-ray events (3 h on average)
any steady X-ray source
XREs

79

True or False, For an object entering the heliosphere toward the Sun, if its mass and charge are a fraction of the Sun's, say 20 %, and its approach velocity is some 40 times the Sun's escape velocity, then the object will fly right through the solar system without achieving an orbit around the Sun, even if there are electric currents between the object and the Sun.

TRUE
FALSE

80

Complete the text:

The standard solar models have enjoyed tremendous success recently in terms of agreement between the predicted

and the results from

but some

of the Sun still defy explanation, such as the degree of

depletion.

81

3D Vector.svg
For standard basis, or unit, vectors (i, j, k) and vector components of a (ax, ay, az), what are the right ascension, declination, and value of a?
if the x-axis is the longitude of the Greenwich meridian, and ax equals ay, then RA equals 6h
if the x-axis is the longitude of the Greenwich meridian, and ax equals ay, then RA equals 3h
the value of a is given by
if ax equals ay equals az, then the declination is -45°
if ax equals ay equals az, then the declination is +45°

82

Complete the text:

The ratio of neutrons to 2.2-MeV

depends significantly on the direction of motion of the flare-accelerated particles with respect to the solar

.

83

If energy is the impetus behind all motion and activity, which of the following are associated with power?

a launch location
a rate of change of the impetus with time
photon density
an acceleration of the impetus
neutrinos dynamically dominating baryons
a rate of change of mass

84

Complete the text:

Match up the item letter with each of the X-ray angular resolution possibilities below:
Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer - A
XMM-Newton - B
Chandra X-ray Observatory - C
Swift - D
Astro-rivelatore Gamma ad Imagini Leggero (AGILE) - E
Solar Heliospheric Observatory - F
Suzaku - G
Koronas-Foton - H
2"

3"

.
~2'

.
1"

.
5.9'

.
7'

.
1"

.
0.5"

.

85

Complete the text:

For the direction of motion of flare-accelerated particles, consider three cases:

motion, upward-directed

towards the corona, and

-directed motion towards the photosphere.

86

Complete the text:

Match up the item letter with each of the possibilities below:
Scorpius X-1 - A
Serpens X-1 - B
Circinus X-1 - C
Virgo X-1 - D
Taurus X-1 - E
Cygnus X-1 - F
Cepheus X-1 - G
Sagittarius X-1 - H
Crab Nebula

Messier 87

.
2U 1744-26

.
Tychos's Nova SN 1572

.
Carina X-1 misprint

.
the first X-ray source widely accepted to be a black hole candidate

.
discovered in 1962 by a team under Riccardo Giacconi

.
not Caput

.

87

Which of the following are theoretical radiation astronomy phenomena associated with the Earth?

a core which emits neutrinos
a charged particle wind which emanates out the polar ionosphere holes
gravity
near the barycenter for the Earth-Moon system
the swirls of tan, green, blue, and white are most likely sediment in the water
coronal clouds
chlorophyll-containing phytoplankton aloft in the upper atmosphere

88

Which of the following are X-ray astronomy phenomena that may be associated with the Earth?

lightning
Van Allen radiation belts
electrons striking the ionosphere
the geocorona
ice cores
meteorites
diffuse X-ray background
hurricanes

89

True or False, The cosmic X-ray background has higher intensity than the cosmic radio background.

TRUE
FALSE

90

What negatively charged particles may be used as tracers of cosmic magnetic fields?

91

True or False, The observations of planetary motion agree with computed orbits to the accuracy of the observations.

TRUE
FALSE

92

Which of the following are characteristic of solar proton astronomy?

the solar wind
polar coronal holes
protons originating from the photosphere
the electron neutrino
GOES 11
neutrons

93

Complete the text:

Match up the item letter with each of the possibilities below:
Chemistry - A
Geography - B
History - C
Mathematics - D
Physics - E
Science - F
Technology - G
Geology - H
solar eclipses

a spatial frequency of occurrence or extent

.
radio observations revealed a radio corona around the Sun

.
elemental abundances

.
microcalorimeter arrays

.
The Ariel V /3 A/ catalogue of X-ray sources. II - Sources at high galactic latitude |b| > 10°

.
Carancas meteorite

.
a thermal bremsstrahlung source may fit

.

94

True or False, The spin carried by quarks is not sufficient to account for the total spin of protons.

TRUE
FALSE

95

Complete the text:

The photosphere of the Sun has an effective temperature of 5577 K yet its corona has an average temperature of

. The high temperature of the corona shows that it is heated by something other than direct

from the photosphere.

96

True or False, A quantum number that depends upon the relative number of strange quarks and anti-strange quarks is called a quarkness.

TRUE
FALSE

97

Complete the text:

The

effects of the grid

or external metal

determine the envelope for the

transmission peaks.

98

An Aerobee 150 sounding rocket flight on April 25, 1965, discovered how many candidate X-ray sources?

99

Which of the following is not a characteristic of X-radiation?

electromagnetic radiation
ionizing radiation
emitted by a few atomic nuclei
occurs when a positron and an electron annihilate each other
only penetrates so far into a gaseous-objects atmosphere

100

True or False, Super soft X-ray sources are in most cases only detected below 0.5 keV.

TRUE
FALSE

101

Which of the following is not a characteristic of super soft X-radiation?

electromagnetic radiation
ionizing radiation
usually hidden by interstellar absorption in the galactic disk
readily evident in external galaxies
have energies in the 0.09 to 2.5 keV range

102

True or False, Electron density applied to free radicals is spin density.

TRUE
FALSE

103

Intragalactic super soft X-ray sources may be heavily reddened by?

104

True or False, Wolter Type I X-ray optics uses three reflections to focus the incoming X-rays.

TRUE
FALSE

105

Which of the following are X-ray astronomy phenomena that may be associated with Jupiter?

lightning
aurora
a geocorona
minerals high in magnesium
solar X-rays
diffuse X-ray background
a sunward region
low-oxygen conditions

106

Which of the following is not a characteristic of astrognosy?

internal structure
element composition
distributions of plasma, gases, liquids, or solids
landscape
spheres
approximate concentricity

107

Complete the text:

Match up the type of Sun system astrogony with each of the possibilities below:
Babylonian epic story of creation - A
a primordial or first Greek god - B
the primeval chaos - C
creation of heaven and earth - D
Greek god personifying the sky - E
Cronus (Saturn) castrating his father - F
separation of the waters by a firmament

.
Chaos magno

.
Uranus

.
watery abyss

.
Ouranos

Enuma Elish

.

108

Which of the following are radiation astronomy phenomena associated with the Sun?

ultraviolet emission
X-ray emission
gamma-ray emission
neutron emission
7Be emission
meteor emission

109

True or False, Below EeV energies ultra high energy neutrons have boosted lifetimes.

TRUE
FALSE

110

Complete the text:

A composite

spectrum is approximately a

law over at least the ≈ 5 decade wavenumber range 10-13 m-1 < wavenumber < 10-8 m-1 and that may extend to

wavenumbers.

111

Complete the text:

The X-ray luminosity of the

group is an order of

fainter than that of the X-ray

.

112

Many elements emit or fluoresce specific wavelengths of X-rays which in turn allow their?

113

Complete the text:

Regarding a blue haze layer near the south polar region of Titan, the difference in color

above and

nearer the

could be due to

of the haze.

114

Which of the following are the differences between a star and an astronomical yellow source?

a star may emit predominantly green rays
an astronomical yellow source is spherical
a yellow star is an astronomical yellow source
a star with nuclear fusion in its chromosphere emits neutrinos, but a yellow source with no nuclear fusion ongoing does not
a yellow source may be cloud like
an astronomical yellow source my be a rocky object

115

True or False, Electrons in the Earth's magnetosphere are energized by neutral particles from the Sun.

TRUE
FALSE

116

If there was no nuclear force, all nuclei with two or more protons would fly apart because of the electromagnetic?

117

A natural X-ray source has been detected by an X-ray counter at a site on the ground (Earth) from what astronomical X-ray source?

the Sun
the ionosphere
the diffuse X-ray background
Serpens X-1
the Moon
lightning

118

True or False, As gamma rays are defined to be radiation emitted from radionuclides, there are no radionuclides that emit X-rays.

TRUE
FALSE

119

Which of the following is not a characteristic of X-radiation?

throwing a beam
a stream of charged or neutral rays
calculating the energy of a beam
sending out a traveling ray
a secondary-object hazard

120

True or False, A unit vector is a direction with a magnitude of one.

TRUE
FALSE

121

Which of the following is not an electron volt?

the angular momentum of the planet Mercury around the Sun
a unit of energy
a quantity that denotes the ability to do work
1.2 PeV
a unit dimensioned in mass, distance, and time
a unit not based on the Coulomb

122

Complete the text:

Match up the radiation type with the satellite:
meteor - A
cosmic ray - B
neutral atoms - C
neutron - D
proton - E
electron - F
positron - G
neutrino - H
gamma ray - I
X-ray - J
ultraviolet - K
optical - L
visual - M
violet - N
blue - O
cyan - P
green - Q
yellow - R
orange - S
red - T
infrared - U
submillimeter - V
microwave - W
radio - X
radar - Y
superluminal - Z
JUNO - PIA13746.jpg

.
RAE B.jpg

.
Chandra-spacecraft labeled-en.jpg

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Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer - 02.jpg

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Voyager.jpg

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GLAST on the payload attach fitting.jpg

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Mars-express-volcanoes-sm.jpg

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Nasasupports.jpg

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IBEX spacecraft.jpg

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STEREO spacecraft.gif

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GOES-P.jpg

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Aquarius SAC-D satellite.png

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STS-134 International Space Station after undocking.jpg

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Micrometeoroid hole.jpg

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Rosetta.jpg

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INTEGRAL-spacecraft410.jpg

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FUSE prelaunch crop.jpg

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Swas 1.jpg

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2001 mars odyssey wizja.jpg

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Spitzer space telescope pre-launch.jpg

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TERRA am1.jpg

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Galileo Energetic Particles Detector.jpg

Landsat7photo.jpg

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Pioneer 10 on its kickmotor.jpg

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Mariner 10.jpg

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HST-SM4.jpeg

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123

True or False, Solitary electrons constitute much of the remaining 1 % of cosmic rays.

TRUE
FALSE

124

Which of the following are X-radiation astronomy phenomena associated with stellar surface fusion?

luminosities below ~3 x 1038 erg/s
a few SSS with luminosities ≥1039 erg/s
synchrotron radiation
a photosphere
a polar diameter that exceeds ever so slightly the equatorial diameter at solar cycle minimum
super soft X-rays
hot active regions with temperatures hot enough to fuse hydrogen
sunspots at the feet of coronal loops

125

True or False, If stellar flares have origins similar to solar flares, then flare stars produce neutrons.

TRUE
FALSE

126

True or False, Only relativistic neutrons would be able to reach Earth from other stars before decaying.

TRUE
FALSE

127

True or False, An X-ray may have a wavelength as long as 10 nm.

TRUE
FALSE

128

Which of the following are associated with the IceCube Neutrino Observatory?

under ice
the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station
Digital Optical Modules
the counting house is on the surface above the array
the baryon neutrino
the electron neutrino

129

Before the current era and perhaps before 6,000 b2k which classical planet may have been observed as a pole star for the Earth?

130

True or False, Wolter Type II X-ray optics uses two reflections to focus the incoming X-rays.

TRUE
FALSE

131

Complete the text:

Match up the item letter with each of the possibilities below:
Optical bench - A
Focal length - B
CCD - C
Coded aperture - D
Grazing incidence - E
Modulator - F
Collimator - G
Normal incidence - H
a device for the movement of electrical charge

gold mirrors

.
narrows a beam

.
a measure of how strongly a system converges or diverges

.
reflective multilayer optics

.
varying amplitude, phase, or frequency

.
a flat grille

.
a platform used to support systems

.

132

True or False, Wolter Type III X-ray optics uses one reflection to focus the incoming X-rays.

TRUE
FALSE

133

Which of the following is not an astronomical X-ray source?

the planet Mercury
traces of the element gold in the Sun’s photosphere
the solar wind
Cepheus X-1
nucleosynthesis near the surface of the Sun
lightning on Jupiter

134

The evolution of organics to carbonaceous material induced by proton irradiation is a well established phenomenon independent of the type of original carbon containing material.

TRUE
FALSE

135

Which of the following is not a usual characteristic of X-ray optics?

grazing incidence mirrors
tungsten-silicon multilayer coatings
nested mirrors
an angular resolution
X-ray lens

136

Complete the text:

The multigrid collimator has the additional

inserted at a specified

position between the two grids,

approximately

to them, and

and rotated so that each third

lies in a plane defined by a wire in the outer grid and a wire in the

grid.

137

True or False, The electron reflectometer (ER) aboard the Lunar Prospector determines the location and strength of magnetic fields from the energy spectrum and direction of electrons.

TRUE
FALSE

138

True or False, The feature that makes deep inelastic lepton scattering and e+e- annihilation tractable is that these processes proceed via the electromagnetic and strong interactions.

TRUE
FALSE

139

Which of the following is associated with the diffuse X-ray background?

the Sun
rather consistently observed over a wide range of energies
an Aitoff-Hammer equal-area map in galactic coordinates
an isotropic X-ray background flux was obtained in 1956
an early high-energy end was obtained by instruments on board Ranger 3
super soft X-rays are absorbed by galactic neutral hydrogen

140

Which of the following are theoretical radiation astronomy phenomena associated with a laboratory on Earth?

a core which emits neutrinos
a charged particle wind which emanates out of a beam line
gravity
near the barycenter for the Earth-Moon system
swirls of tan, green, blue, and white in the water
electric arcs
chlorophyll-containing phytoplankton aloft in the upper atmosphere

141

Spin-charge separation has which characteristics?

a chargon
a spinon
taking place inside solids
extremely tight confinement
neutron affinity
X-ray absorption

142

True or False, The first extragalactic X-ray source is the radio galaxy Messier 88.

TRUE
FALSE

143

Which of the following are characteristic of high-velocity stars?

moving faster than 65 km/s
closer stars more affected
may point away from a stellar association
comet-like appearance
red shift
blue shift

144

An argon-37 atom is converted by a neutrino by the charged current interaction from what atom?

145

Complete the text:

Match up the item letter with each of the detectors or satellites below:
Bonner Ball Neutron Detector - A
Multi Mirror Telescope - B
MAGIC telescope - C
Explorer 11 - D
HEAO 3 - E
Helios - F
Pioneer 10 - G
Voyager 1 - H
Magicmirror.jpg

Voyager.jpg

.
BBND1.jpg

.
Pioneer 10 on its kickmotor.jpg

.
Helios - testing.png

.
Multi Mirror Telescope in 1981.jpg

.
HEAO-3.gif

.
Explorer 11 ground.gif

.

146

Which of the following phenomena are associated with the core of the Sun?

origin of the magnetic field
the convection zone
the tachocline
Solar neutrinos
radiative zone
gamma-rays

147

True or False, During large solar flares, the region near Mercury may be strongly illuminated with solar neutrons.

TRUE
FALSE

148

Which of the following is not a characteristic of X-radiation in the IGM?

X-rays come from the IGM
an X-ray background
shock heating
secondary ionizations and excitations
far more likely to be absorbed by He I rather than H I

149

Do we know enough about the intergalactic medium to trust measurements of background sources seen through foreground

?

150

Which of the following are units of distance?

meter
acre
chain
acorn
tympan
гектар
reach

151

Complete the text:

Match up the radiation letter with each of the detector possibilities below:
Meteors - A
Cosmic rays - B
Neutrons - C
Protons - D
Electrons - E
Positrons - F
Neutrinos - G
Muons - H
Gamma rays - I
X-rays - J
Ultraviolet rays - K
Optical rays - L
Visual rays - M
Violet rays - N
Blue rays - O
Cyan rays - P
Green rays - Q
Yellow rays - R
Orange rays - S
Red rays - T
Infrared rays - U
Submillimeter rays - V
Radio rays - W
Superluminal rays - X
multialkali (Na-K-Sb-Cs) photocathode materials

.
F547M

.
511 keV gamma-ray peak

.
F675W

.
broad-band filter centered at 404 nm

.
a cloud chamber

.
ring-imaging Cherenkov

.
coherers

.
effective area is larger by 104

.
F588N

.
pyroelectrics

.
a blemish about 8,000 km long

.
a metal-mesh achromatic half-wave plate

.
coated with lithium fluoride over aluminum

.
thallium bromide (TlBr) crystals

.
F606W

.
aluminum nitride

.
heavy water

.
18 micrometers FWHM at 490 nm

.
wide-gap II-VI semiconductor ZnO doped with Co2+ (Zn1-xCoxO)

.
a recoiling nucleus

high-purity germanium

.
magnetic deflection to separate out incoming ions

.
2.2-kilogauss magnet used to sweep out electrons

.

152

True or False, Neutron spectroscopy has detected hydrogen and thereby water on the Moon.

TRUE
FALSE

153

Which of the following may be characteristic of hydrogen deficiency in stars?

may have been consumed by nucleosynthesis
star formation in a cloud deficient in hydrogen
may point away from a stellar association
may have been formed by white dwarf mergers
may have had transfer of helium from the secondary to the primary
a possible massive convective event

154

The extent of the Hα absorption trough along the major axes of quenched spirals is what?

more truncated than the distribution of the Hα emission line for H I deficient galaxies
contributed to by the new stellar population
less truncated than the distribution of the Hα emission line for H I deficient galaxies
due to the quenching
disks building up from the outside in

155

True or False, A small amount of aluminum-26 is produced by collisions of magnesium atoms with cosmic-ray protons.

TRUE
FALSE

156

Which of the following are radiation astronomy phenomena associated with the gaseous-object Neptune?

Voyager 2
blue rays
clouds
neutron emission
polar coronal holes
meteor emission
rotation

157

Complete the text:

Match up the item letter with each of the possibilities below:
Meteors - A
Cosmic rays - B
Neutrons - C
Protons - D
Electrons - E
Positrons - F
Gamma rays - G
Superluminals - H
X-ray jets

the index of refraction is often greater than 1 just below a resonance frequency

.
iron, nickel, cobalt, and traces of iridium

.
Sagittarius X-1

.
escape from a typical hard low-mass X-ray binary

.
collisions with argon atoms

.
X-rays are emitted as they slow down

.
Henry Moseley using X-ray spectra

.

158

Complete the text:

Cosmic rays with energies over the

energy of 5 x 1019

interact with

photons to produce

via the resonance.

159

As an analysis method NRA may be associated with which phenomena?

a concentration vs. depth distribution
charged particles in large clouds
target elements may undergo a nuclear reaction
projectile stopping power is unknown
proton elastic scattering
a nuclear method in materials science

160

Which of the following is not a characteristic of a theory?

catching a beam
one more degree of freedom than can be measured or controlled
it may appear as a dome over a small portion of the Earth your standing on
impervious to some traveling rays
a secondary-object hazard

161

On what date was GRB 970228 discovered?

August 22, 1997
February 28, 1997
September 7, 2002.28
1982 the 20th between July and September
2009 July 22nd and 8 hours
February 14, 2014

162

Which of the following are X-ray astronomy phenomena that may be associated with Saturn?

X-radiation concentrated near equator
reflection of solar X-rays
aurora
stronger than expected reflected solar X-rays
X-rays from rings
diffuse X-ray background
soft X-ray emission
fluorescence of solar X-rays

163

Neutrinos detected from the solar octant may be from nucleosynthesis within the coronal cloud in the near vicinity of the Sun or perhaps from nucleosynthesis occurring within what theoretical interior structure of the Sun?

164

Complete the text:

Match up the star pattern with the likely constellation:
Vol.png
- L
Eri.png
- M
Betelgeuse position in Orion.png
- N
UMa.jpg
- O
Dra.png
- P
Cas.png
- Q
Cru.png
- R
Phe.png
- S
Peg.png
- T
Volans

.
Cassiopeia

.
Pegasus

.
Orion

.
Crux

.
Ursa Major

.
Phoenix

.
Draco

.
Eridanus

.

165

True or False, Aluminum-26 is generally distributed out of the plane of the Milky Way.

TRUE
FALSE

166

Which of the following are involved in the weak force?

a core which emits neutrinos
Fermi's β-decay theory
26Al
undetectable with balloon-borne detectors
Gamow-Teller interactions
steady enough emission to be used as a standard for X-ray emission
observed with delta-rays in 1731
M. Fierz

167

True or False, A relativistic neutron may fly a megaparsec rather than undergo decay after about 14 minutes because its half-life may grow with energy.

TRUE
FALSE

168

Which of the following radiation astronomy phenomena are associated with the rocky object Mercury?

apparent impact craters
an excess brightness at or near the edge
the iron XIV line
neutron emission
polar coronal holes
meteor emission
changes in the line-blanketing

169

Complete the text:

Match up the item letter with each of the possibilities below:
Balloons - A
Sounding rockets - B
Aircraft assisted launches - C
Orbital rocketry - D
Shuttle payload - E
Heliocentric rocketry - F
Exploratory rocketry - G
Lunar rover - H
Ranger 5

microcalorimeter arrays

.
MeV Auroral X-ray Imaging and Spectroscopy

.
Lunokhod 2

.
ALEXIS

.
Ulysses

.
Broad Band X-Ray Telescope

.
Solar Heliospheric Observatory

.

170

True or False, Ranger 2 carried instruments that detected the X-ray background.

TRUE
FALSE

171

Ashen light is involved in which of the following?

earthshine
glow of the bright part of the lunar disk
light from different parts of Earth are mixed together
mimics the Earth as a single dot
neutron astronomy
X-ray astronomy

172

Complete the text:

Whether the thermal IGM is

or collisionless at scales smaller than the

scale depends on the effect of reduced

that is mediated by the plasma

.

173

Which of the following are theoretical radiation astronomy phenomena associated with the Sun?

a core which emits neutrinos
a solar wind which emanates out the polar coronal holes
gravity
the barycenter for the solar system
polar coronal holes
coronal clouds
its position

174

Complete the text:

Match up the star with the constellation:
Capella - A
Sirius - B
Deneb - C
Anser - D
Altair - E
Vega - F
Vulpecula

.
Canis Major

.
Lyra

.
Cygnus

.
Aquila

Auriga

.

175

Which of the following are theoretical X-ray astronomy phenomena associated with astrophysics?

a thermal plasma mechanism
idea of a close binary
synchrotron radiation
high-density wind extinction
a polar diameter that exceeds ever so slightly the equatorial diameter at solar cycle minimum
super soft X-rays
hot active regions with temperatures hot enough to fuse hydrogen
sunspots at the feet of coronal loops

176

The strong force is involved in which of the following phenomena?

s-waves
the sum of the spins
neutrinos
Pauli's exclusion principle
deuterium
radio waves

177

Observations of Io have benefitted greatly from what phenomenon?

a dense, opaque atmosphere
lightning
extensive meteorite cratering
a flattening out
liquid hydrocarbon lakes
the reflected light of allotropes and compounds of sulfur

178

Which of the following are phenomena associated with strong forces in the IGM?

stochastic acceleration
hottest clusters
scaling of the acceleration efficiency with IGM temperature
collisionless IGM
placid magnetic compressions
the smaller the mean free path
cold regions
least effective for inducing the instability

179

Complete the text:

Match up the item letter with each of the possibilities below:
superluminals - A
radios - B
radars - C
microwaves - D
submillimeters - E
infrareds - F
reds - G
oranges - H
deuterium enrichment of cometary water

interstellar-comet connection

.
a macroscopic superstring

.
force of life

.
rings of Saturn

.
volcanic activity throughout Vesta

.
a silicon composite bolometer fed by a Winston cone

.
present-day fluctuations an order of magnitude larger

.

180

True or False, Cancer is said to have been the place for the Akkadian Sun of the South.

TRUE
FALSE

181

Which of the following is not an astronomical X-ray source?

Io
Comet Lulin
the Moon
Carina X-1
Centaurus X-2
EZ Aquarii

182

Which of the following are X-ray astronomy phenomena associated with an entity?

discovers an X-ray source in Scorpius
a control group
synchrotron radiation
intergalactic medium
a polar diameter
super soft X-rays
hot active regions
sunspots at the feet of coronal loops

183

In which of the following constellations does the ecliptic and the Galaxy or the galactic plane occur?

Sagittarius
Ophiuchus
Aries
Ursa Minor
Scorpius or Scorpio
Draco
Taurus

184

True or False, The NRL and NASA established another rocket launching facility outside Natal, Brazil to detect X-ray sources in the southern hemisphere.

TRUE
FALSE

185

Complete the text:

Match up the observatory facility with the observatory:
Ondrejov Observatory - A
Okayama Astrophysical Observatory - B
Orbiting Astronomical Observatory - C
Metsähovi Radio Observatory - D
Tortugas Mountain Planetary Observatory - E
Pierre Auger Observatory - F
Observed quasar 3C 454.3 in the spring of 2005.

.
A solar telescope.

.
Detector components.

.
Data on AG Peg were obtained with the ultraviolet broad-band photometers on the second one.

.
The 0.6 m monitors cloud decks and equatorial activity.

A 188 cm telescope.

.

186

Complete the text:

To "narrow" can mean to

the spatial

of the beam to become

limit.

187

True or False, Due to the limited shielding provided by its relatively weak magnetic dipole moment, the surface of Mercury is everywhere subject to bombardment by cosmic rays.

TRUE
FALSE

188

Which of the following is not in the history of neutrino astronomy?

Enrico Fermi coined the term "neutrino"
Wolfgang Pauli postulated the muon neutrino
in the Cowan–Reines neutrino experiment, antineutrinos are created
a hydrogen bubble chamber was used to detect neutrinos
Niels Bohr was opposed to the neutrino interpretation of beta decay
a neutrino hitting a proton is detectable

189

Complete the text:

Ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) are

, nonnuclear X-ray sources with

above the

limit.

190

Which of the following phenomena are associated with Venus?

separate stars, Phosphorus, the morning star, and Hesperus, the evening star
locally available carving tools
the ionosphere was observed to become elongated downstream, rather like a long-tailed comet, during a rare period of very low density solar outflow
Lucifer, literally "Light-Bringer", and Vesper
currently dormant volcanoes only on the Sun-facing side
a breathable atmosphere

191

Complete the text:

Match up the distance-time phenomena with the image:
line of sight - A
an origin - B
a displacement - C
one billion light years - D
measuring - E
acceleration - F
Celestial swiss cheese.

.
A beautiful galaxy.

.
An elliptical orbit.

.
Closer than a route.

.
It's about the chains.

Getting the numbers.

.

192

Which of the following are characteristic of a β+ decay?

a mu neutrino
a positron emission
a decay product of a neutron
weak interaction
an electron neutrino
comes in mutable varieties

193

Which of the following is not a characteristic of a control group?

catching a beam
one more degree of freedom than can be measured or controlled
it may appear as a dome over a small portion of the Earth your standing on
impervious to some traveling rays
a secondary-object hazard

194

Complete the text:

Match up the celestial octant with the constellation:
NQ1 - A
NQ2 - B
NQ3 - C
NQ4 - D
SQ1 - E
SQ2 - F
SQ3 - G
SQ4 - H
Musca

.
Sagitta

.
Lynx

.
Pyxis

.
Piscis Austrinus

.
Corona Borealis

.
Pictor

.
Taurus

.

195

Which of the following is not a characteristic of the X-ray continuum?

Bragg peaks
may arise from an X-ray jet
may arise from the coronal cloud of an accretion disc
a power-law spectrum
a thermal emission at the lowest energies

196

Pick the characteristics of gamma-ray burst.

a strong 2.223 MeV emission line
flashes of gamma rays
associated with extremely energetic explosions
most luminous events known
can last from ten milliseconds to several minutes
followed by a longer-lived "afterglow"

197

Which of the following may be true for the first orange source in the constellation Cancer?

Cancer is along the zodiac so the Sun is a candidate
Jupiter
Uranus under special viewing conditions
intergalactic medium
Titan
beta Cancri
delta Cancri
60 Cancri

198

The Sun is a natural X-ray source because X-rays originate from what astronomical X-ray source?

a coronal cloud about the Sun
the diffuse X-ray background
sunspots
the photosphere
nucleosynthesis in the center of the Sun
lightning

199

ANTARES is the name of a neutrino detector designed to be used as a directional Neutrino Telescope residing under the

200

Complete the text:

Match up the item letter with each of the possibilities below:
Hydrogen - H, or D
Helium - He
Lithium - Li
Beryllium - Be
Boron - B
Carbon - C
Nitrogen - N
Oxygen - O
Fluorine - F
Neon - Ne
consumed in chromosphere fusion to produce lithium and neutrinos

.
isotope fusion in the chromosphere producing neutrinos

fusion in the chromosphere producing the most neutrinos

.
a factor of ~200 below meteorite abundance in the Sun's photosphere

.
detected with X-rays on the Moon

.
an organic form detected in Allan Hills 84001 probably from Mars

.
detected marginally on Venus with Chandra

.
found in the X-ray spectra of comets

.
consumed to produce beryllium and neutrinos

.
a surface impurity on meteorites

.

201

True or False, The bottom of a sunspot ~400 km deep is cooler than the bottom of the photosphere.

TRUE
FALSE

202

Complete the text:

X-ray emission dividing lines may be explained by changes in a

field

to that of an

topology, leading to a decrease of magnetically confined

.

203

Chemistry phenomena associated with astronomy are

at least three-quarters of the human genome
molecules
atmospheres
pressure
ions
plastic

204

Complete the text:

Match up the item letter with each of the possibilities below:
X-ray burster - A
gamma-ray burster - B
X-ray pulsar - C
SFXT - D
soft X-ray transient - E
diffuse X-ray background - F
power law afterglow

magnetized neutron star

.
absorbed by neutral hydrogen

.
Aquila X-1

.
Factor of 10 or greater luminosity increase

.
thermal bremsstrahlung

.

205

The MINOS experiment uses Fermilab's NuMI beam, which is an intense beam of neutrinos, that travels 455 miles (732 km) through the Earth to the?

206

Which of the following is not a characteristic of X-rays associated with atomic number?

emission lines
X-ray continuum
unique atomic structure
creating an electron hole
discrete energy levels

207

Complete the text:

A well-known black hole (or black hole candidate) and galactic X-ray source in the constellation Cygnus is

.

208

Complete the text:

Match up the item letter with each of the cosmogonic possibilities below:
interior models of the giant planets - A
high interest for cosmogony, geophysics and nuclear physics - B
hierarchical accumulation - C
clouds and globular clusters - D
cosmic helium abundance - E
deuterium fusion - F
a large deficiency of light elements - G
after galactic sized systems had collapsed - H
the motions of hydrogen

fornation of luminous quasars

.
stars with an initial mass less than the solar mass

.
rotating liquid drops

.
primordial is less than 26 per cent

.
a solar mixture of elements dominated by hydrogen and helium gas

.
around 13 Jupiter masses

.
smaller rocky objects

.

209

Which of the following are phenomena associated with electromagnetic cascades?

spectral and timing properties of astronomical sources
very high-energy γ-rays
the way from the source to the Earth
soft X-rays
redshifts
ambient radiation fields inside the γ-ray source
source stability
protons

210

The relative abundances of solar cosmic rays reflect those of the solar

211

Complete the text:

Match up the item letter with each of the possibilities below:
Moon - A
Eros - B
Io - C
Ganymede - D
Europa - E
Titan - F
X-ray producing electric arc, current spots

reflecting solar X-rays

.
soft X-ray emission

.
possible soft X-ray emission

.
synchrotron X-ray diffraction of methane hydrate up to 10GPa

.
ordinary chondrite composition

.

212

Which of the following are theoretical radiation astronomy phenomena associated with a star?

possible orbits
a hyperbolic orbit
nuclear fusion at its core
nuclear fusion in its chromosphere
near the barycenter of its planetary system
accretion
electric arcs
impact craters
radar signature

213

Complete the text:

Both

and

powered cataclysmic

have been observed to be X-ray sources.

214

Which of the following are X-ray astronomy phenomena that may be associated with a superluminal?

loops and rings in the X-ray emitting gas
an X-ray source
synchrotron radiation
Cherenkov radiation
signals with a velocity above c
super soft X-rays
hot active regions with temperatures hot enough to fuse hydrogen
starspots

215

When the Earth is viewed from space using X-ray astronomy what characteristic is readily observed?

the magnetic north pole
the Hudson Bay meteorite crater
the South Atlantic Anomaly
the Bermuda Triangle
solar positron events
electrons striking the ionosphere

216

Which of the following are X-ray astronomy phenomena that may be associated with the Sun?

coronal cloud
hot regions of 8–20 x 106 K
fluorescence of Jovian X-rays
lightning
X-rays from rings
collisions with the Jovian wind
soft X-ray emission
hard X-ray emission

217

True or False, Interstellar scintillation is fluctuations in the amplitude and phase of radio waves caused by scattering in the interstellar medium.

TRUE
FALSE

218

Complete the text:

Match up the coordinate system letter with each of the possibilities below:
triclinic coordinate system - A
monoclinic coordinate system - B
orthorhombic coordinate system - C
tetragonal coordinate system - D
rhombohedral coordinate system - E
hexagonal coordinate system - F
α = β = γ = 90° and a ≠ b ≠ c

.
a = b ≠ c and α = β = 90°, γ = 120°

.
a = b = c and α = β = γ < 120°, ≠ 90°

.
α = β = γ = 90° and a = b ≠ c

.
a ≠ b ≠ c and α ≠ β ≠ γ

.
a ≠ b ≠ c and for example α = β ≠ γ ≠ 90°

.

219

True or False, Aluminum-26 decays by either beta-plus or electron capture.

TRUE
FALSE

220

Which of the following are X-ray astronomy phenomena that may be associated with the Moon?

scattering of solar X-rays
reflection of solar X-rays
fluorescence of solar X-rays
lightning
X-rays from rings
collisions with solar wind
soft X-ray emission

221

Phenomena associated with the Milky Way are?

spiral arms
a spheroidal shape
a standard to differentiate dwarf galaxies
often referred to as the Galaxy
arms of younger stars
contains star clusters
dust lanes
extended red emission (ERE)
a faint galaxy heavy with dark matter may orbit it
larger than the Andromeda galaxy

222

Which of the following are X-ray astronomy phenomena associated with an entity?

a thermal plasma mechanism
a close binary
synchrotron radiation
high-density wind extinction
a polar diameter that exceeds ever so slightly the equatorial diameter at solar cycle minimum
super soft X-rays
hot active regions with temperatures hot enough to fuse hydrogen
sunspots at the feet of coronal loops

223

Sputnik I was involved in which of the following astronomies?

red astronomy
stellar astronomy
neutrino astronomy
radio astronomy
neutron astronomy
X-ray astronomy

224

Which of the following are radiation astronomy phenomena associated with the apparent liquid-object Earth?

rain
snow
hail
neutron emission
polar coronal holes
meteor emission
rotation

225

Complete the text:

Match up the type of source with each of the possibilities below:
a source - A
a source or apparent source detected or created at or near the time of the event or events - B
a source or apparent source that transforms or transduces anything originating from a primary source - C
a source or apparent source that selects (such as through selective absorption), distills, scatters, or reflects anything from a primary or secondary source - D
the point of origin of a ray, beam, or stream of small cross section traveling in a line - E
a natural source in the sky especially at night - F
a tertiary source

.
a primary source

.
an astronomical source

.
a secondary source

.
a radiation source

an entity from which something comes or is acquired

.

226

Background radiation may simply be any radiation that is?

227

Which of the following are X-ray astronomy phenomena that may be associated with Venus?

scattering of solar X-rays
reflection of solar X-rays
fluorescence of solar X-rays
lightning
X-rays from rings
diffuse X-ray background
soft X-ray emission

228

True or False, An entity in X-ray astronomy is either an X-ray source or an X-ray object.

TRUE
FALSE

229

Which of the following is not a characteristic of an entity in X-ray astronomy?

a theory for any natural X-ray source
X-ray generation
X-ray reflection
an analytical constant
a common or ancient name

230

Which of the following are X-ray astronomy phenomena that may be associated with Mercury?

lightning
surface composition
electrons striking the ionosphere
a geocorona
minerals high in magnesium
surface sulfur enrichment
diffuse X-ray background
low-oxygen conditions

231

Complete the text:

Match up the radiation object with the likely source:
Crmo volcanic bomb 20070516123632.jpg
- L
Circinus X-1.jpg
- M
Moon egret.jpg
- N
Neusun1 superk.jpg
- O
Earth in ultraviolet from the Moon (S72-40821).jpg
- P
PIA00072 Venus Cloud Patterns - colorized and filtered.jpg
- Q
Io Color Eclipse Movie - PIA03450.gif
- R
NGC 7048.jpg
- S
HST NGC 5728 -O III- emission-line image.jpg
- T
a Craters of the Moon volcano

.
violet image of Venus

.
active galactic nuclear region of NGC 5728

.
cosmic-ray bombardment of the Moon's surface

.
blue lights from Io

.
neutrino profile of the solar octant

.
planetary nebula NGC 7048

.
ultraviolet image of the Earth

.
a neutron star in a binary system

.

232

Which of the following are cold dark matter gamma rays?

expected signal comparable to background
annihilation radiation
a pronounced cosmic-ray halo
difficult to separate from a dark halo
dwarf spheroidals
weakly interacting massless particles

233

Complete the text:

A neutron star is a type of

that can result from the

of a

during a

supernova event.

234

Which of the following is not a characteristic of a sky?

catching a beam
a stream of charged or neutral particles
it may appear as a dome over the Earth your standing on
impervious to some traveling rays
a secondary-object hazard

235

A method used to count the number of X-rays of a specific wavelength diffracted by a crystal?

236

Electromagnetic radiation emitted by decelerating charged particles?

237

Complete the text:

Match up the item letter with each of the possibilities below:
synchrotron X-rays - A
power law - B
inverse Compton - C
thermal Bremsstrahlung - D
black body - E
cyclotron - F
Supergiant Fast X-ray Transients

Galactic diffuse emission

.
Crab nebula

.
continuum

.
accretion disk

.
strongly magnetized neutron stars

.

238

Which of the following are associated with electromagnetics?

angular momentum transfer
solar wind
protons
electrons
the baryon neutrino
charge neutralization

239

Which of the following refer to an aspect of current cosmogonic models?

fragmentation of asteroids
accretion
Mars
Jupiter
transformation by accretion
kilometer-size objects
hyperbolic comets
asteroid belt
bodies comparable in size to the Earth

240

Complete the text:

Diamond nanocrystals (size 100 nm) emit bright

at 600–800 nm when exposed to green and yellow photons. The photoluminescence, arising from excitation of the

defect centers created by proton-beam

and thermal annealing, closely resembles the extended red emission (ERE) bands observed in reflection nebulae and

nebulae. The central wavelength of the emission is 700 nm.

241

Complete the text:

An average neutron

is in neutrons cm-2 s-1 sr-1.

242

Which of the following is characteristic of the scattered disc

a distant region of the solar system
the dwarf planet Eris
orbital eccentricites ranging up to 0.8
inclinations as high as 50°
perihelia greater than 30 AU
Dysnomia

243

Complete the text:

Match up the theoretical astronomy idea with each of the possibilities below:
astronomical object - A
astronomical source - B
astronomical entity - C
star - D
interstellar medium - E
material - F
natural luminous body visible in the sky

.
naturally from which something comes

.
matter which may be shaped or manipulated

.
an independent, separate, or self-contained existence

.
the matter that exists in the space between the star systems

naturally in the sky especially at night

.

244

The incident beam may excite an electron in an inner shell, ejecting it from the shell while creating an?

245

Complete the text:

An electric dipole

may be in units of Coulomb meters.

246

Which of the following are X-ray astronomy phenomena that may be associated with Mars?

scattering of solar X-rays
reflection of solar X-rays
fluorescence of solar X-rays
lightning
X-rays from rings
collisions with solar wind
soft X-ray emission

247

What is a pfu?

a measure of neutron half-life suggested by Enrico Fermi
a particle flux
a unit per steradian (sr)
the number of bubbles generated in a hydrogen bubble chamber used to detect neutrinos
Niels Bohr was opposed to the pfu interpretation of beta decay
a measure of the scatter energy of a neutrino hitting a proton

248

The number and energy of the X-rays emitted from a specimen can be measured by an?

249

Which of the following are cosmogonical phenomenon associated with the Sun, or solar system?

watery abyss
aphrodite
Hermeneutes
cold dark matter
Heracles
unseen mass
Silver age

250

Complete the text:

Match up the item letter with each of the first astronomical source possibilities below:
Meteors - A
Cosmic rays - B
Neutrons - C
Protons - D
Electrons - E
Positrons - F
Gamma rays - G
Superluminals - H
cosmic rays

galactic nuclei

.
comets

.
electron-positron annihilation

.
weak force nuclear decay

.
AGNs

.
511 keV photon pair production

.
solar wind

.

251

Complete the text:

Match up the item letter with each of the possibilities below:
E0 - A
E1 - B
E2 - C
E3 - D
E4 - E
E5 - F
E6 - G
E7 - H
Maf1atlas.jpg

.
M32 Lanoue.png

.
Messier 105 2MASS.jpg

.
Ngc185 rgb combined.jpg

.
2MASS NGC 4125 JHK.jpg

.
NGC 1427 Hubble WikiSky.jpg

.
Messier 105.jpg

.
at left

.

252

Complete the text:

With the modulation collimator, the amplitude (

) of the incoming

is reduced by the presence of

diffraction gratings of

that block or greatly reduce that portion of the

incident upon the wires.

253

True or False, An error circle on the celestial sphere about a detected X-ray source is an X-ray object.

TRUE
FALSE

254

Which phenomenon are associated with cold dark matter?

unseen mass
a bubble in space
range of masses of galaxies
hot neutrinos
Einstein-de-Sitter 'flat' universe
the cosmological density parameter Ω

255

The cosmic infrared background (CIB) causes a significant attenuation for very high energy protons through inverse Compton scattering, photopion and electron-positron pair production.

TRUE
FALSE

256

Complete the text:

Match up the letter of the spherical object with each of the possibilities below:
Sun - A
Mercury - B
Venus - C
Earth - D
Moon - E
Mars - F
Ceres - G
Jupiter - H
Callisto - I
Europa - J
Ganymede - K
Io - L
Enceladus - M
Titan - N
Uranus - O
Titania - P
Neptune - Q
Triton - R
Pluto - S
Enceladus in the Visual.jpg

.
Triton moon mosaic Voyager 2 (large).jpg

.
Io highest resolution true color.jpg

.
Vg1 1567237.tiff

.
Ceres optimized.jpg

.
Europa-moon.jpg

.
Titania (moon) color cropped.jpg

.
Pluto animiert.gif

.
The Earth seen from Apollo 17.jpg

.
Uranus2.jpg

.
Moon Farside LRO.jpg

.
Callisto.jpg

.
Moon Ganymede by NOAA.jpg

.
Neptune.jpg

.
Two Halves of Titan.png

.
HI6563 fulldisk.jpg

.
2005-1103mars-full.jpg

.
Venus-real color.jpg

.
Mercury in color - Prockter07 centered.jpg

.

257

True or False, Inverse Compton scattering allows low energy electromagnetic radiation to become high energy electromagnetic radiation.

TRUE
FALSE

258

Which of the following are X-radiation astronomy phenomena associated with the Crab Nebula?

a core which emits neutrinos
low-energy X-rays detected by the Chandra X-ray Observatory
26Al
undetectable with balloon-borne detectors
hard X-rays
steady enough emission to be used as a standard for X-ray emission
observed with X-rays in 1731
Taurus X-1

259

Complete the text:

The

tracks in emulsion chambers have been used for

measurements of

nuclei above

in a series of balloon-borne experiments.

260

Complete the text:

Match up the imaging system letter with the image possibilities below:
Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (EGRET) - A
XMM Newton - B
Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope - C
Lunar Orbiter Gamma-Ray Spectrometer - D
BATSE - E
Mars Odyssey GRS - F
GLAST - G
Swift (X-ray/Gamma-ray mission) - H
Silicon Map Mars.jpg

Geminga-1.jpg

.
Moon egret.jpg

.
GRB 080319B.jpg

.

.
267641main allsky labeled HI.jpg

.
7107.tnl.jpg

.
Moonthorium-med.jpg

.

261

Which of the following is not a characteristic of an entity in X-ray astronomy?

a theory for any natural X-ray source
produces refereed journal articles on the CGB
X-ray generation
X-ray reflection
a common or ancient name

262

Which of the following is not a characteristic of SFXTs?

short outbursts
well fitted with a thermal synchrotron spectrum
OB supergiants
X-ray binaries
a growing number of transients

263

Random fluctuations in the intensity of radio waves of celestial origin, on a timescale of a few seconds is referred to as interplanetary?

264

Complete the text:

Ordinary glass is partially

to UVA but is

to shorter wavelengths, whereas silica or

glass, depending on quality, can be

even to vacuum UV wavelengths.

265

Focal ratio.svg
Which of the following are associated with the image at right?
the blue object represents a plano-convex lens
the blue object represents a plano-concave lens
a simple optical system
a focal length D
an objective lens
an aperture

266

Complete the text:

In most photography and all

, where the subject is essentially

far away, longer focal length (

optical power) leads to higher

and a narrower angle of view.

267

In a plano-convex lens the second radius of curvature is?

268

Aperture diagram.svg
In the image at right of decreasing aperture sizes, each aperture has how much light gathering area of the previous one?

269

True or False, The radius of the proton is 4 percent smaller than previously estimated.

TRUE
FALSE

270

Complete the text:

The spectral region bounded on the long wavelength side by the atmospheric

absorption and on the short wavelength side by the photoionization of interstellar

is the ultraviolet.

271

Lens aperture side.jpg
In the image at right, at what f-number is the lens aperture system set at?

272

A device that narrows a beam of particles or waves is a?

273

Complete the text:

Match up the object viewed in the ultraviolet with its image:
Sun's chromosphere- L
calcite - M
Venus - N
Jupiter's aurora - O
Jupiter - P
Io - Q
Saturn - R
Betelgeuse - S
Mira - T
LAB-1 - U
Messier 101 - V
STEREO B EUVI 171.jpg

.
Opo9913e.jpg

.
Mira the star-by Nasa alt crop.jpg

.
Venuspioneeruv.jpg

.
Aurora Saturn.jpg

.
Jupiter.Aurora.HST.UV.jpg

.
Lyman-alpha blob LAB-1.jpg

Betelgeuse star hubble-580x580.jpg

.
Hubble Space Telescope Image of Fragment BDGLNQ12R Impacts.jpg

.
Calcite LongWaveUV HAGAM.jpg

.
M101 UIT.gif

.

274

Which of the following radiation phenomena are associated with the ultraviolet?

He II lines
B I line
Be II lines
carbon III line
Hβ emission
oxygen O I lines

275

Complete the text:

Match up the description with each of the optical astronomy possibilities below:
Palomar's 5 m - L
adaptive optics poc - M
AO actuators - N
Mars Global Surveyor - O
star-forming regio - P
Warner & Swasey - Q
protoplanetary nebula - R
SkyMapper - S
Mauna Kea - T
full-color of Mercury - U
Hubble Space Telescope of carbon star - V
supernova remnant - W
HESS - X
line of sight - Y
HaleTelescope-MountPalomar.jpg

.
U Camelopardalis.jpeg

.
USNO Refractor 1904.jpg

.
Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope with moon.jpg

.
Sig07-009.jpg

.
GTC Active Optics Acutators.jpg

.
Mercury in color - Prockter07 centered.jpg

.
Egg Nebula HST.jpg

.
HESS-dark-full.jpg

.
Earth and Moon from Mars PIA04531.jpg

.
SkyMapper and 2.3m.jpg

.
Grand star-forming region R136 in NGC 2070 (visible and ultraviolet, captured by the Hubble Space Telescope).jpg

.
Supernova remnant IC 443.jpg

.
AO proof of concept.jpg

.

276

True or False, The Russian Okno system is an optoelectronic, manually operated system for monitoring and surveillance of space objects integrated to the KRONA system of space recognition.

TRUE
FALSE

277

The slowing down of a projectile proton due to the inelastic collisions between bound electrons in the medium and the proton moving through it?

278

True or False, An antiproton is a proton moving backward in time.

TRUE
FALSE

279

Complete the text:

The interstellar medium is the gas and

dust that pervade

space and is the matter that exists between the

within a

. It blends smoothly into the surrounding

medium.

280

Which of the following is not a characteristic of a meteor in X-ray astronomy?

a detection of iron or nickel
determination of quantitative proportions
X-ray reflection
X-ray scattering
a meteorite impact site

281

True or False, To fall into the class of intermediate X-ray binaries, the X-ray source must be intermediate in luminosity.

TRUE
FALSE

282

Complete the text:

An aerometeor is a

unit of air traveling or

through an atmosphere.

283

The use of the principle of line of sight allows what phenomenon to be determined?

the Moon is closer to the Earth than the Sun
the planet Mercury is nearer to the Earth than Venus
any cumulus cloud overhead follows the Sun across the sky
the plane of the Earth's orbit around the Sun is in the plane of the galaxy
the surface of the photosphere of the Sun is hotter than the surface of Mars
lightning always precedes rain

284

True or False, The surface of the Sun is a known source of neutrons.

TRUE
FALSE

285

Complete the text:

Lens-shaped

have long been known from

Age contexts.

286

Which of the following may be true regarding the interacting galaxies of UGC 9618?

the pair of galaxies appear to be interacting rather than a mere galaxy double
a lack of luminous sources at any wavelength in the interaction volume
asymmetry is approximately centered on the interaction volume
a common origin originally between them
the large X-ray output surrounding primarily the more central portion of the edge-on galaxy suggests a very high temperature galactic coronal cloud
the infrared portion of the composite image with ultraviolet strongly suggests that the edge-on galaxy is much cooler in general than the face-on galaxy
orange and yellow astronomy reveal that the edge-on galaxy may be composed of older or cooler stars
VV340A appears to be more than 33 % involved in the interaction

287

Complete the text:

An astronomical X-ray source catalog is a list or

of astronomical

that are X-ray

, typically grouped together because they share a common

, morphology,

, means of detection, or method of

.

288

Which of the following are X-radiation astronomy phenomena associated with the Ulysses spacecraft?

hard X-ray detectors
CsI(Tl) scintillators
soft X-ray detectors
windowless soft X-ray detectors
detected soft X-ray emission inside two solar radii over the poles
higher energy X-rays detected with a maximum at about five solar radii over the poles
observed X-rays in the 1980s
discovered Circinus X-1

289

True or False, The energy that occupies the same volume as the interstellar medium in the form of electromagnetic radiation is the interstellar radiation field.

TRUE
FALSE

290

True or False, If the energy of the incoming electrons is 700 MeV and the flux is 8.48 x 104 e- cm-2 s-1, then the interstellar electron influx is sufficient to heat the photosphere to its effective temperature and heat the coronal clouds to at least a few MK.

TRUE
FALSE

291

Which of the following are characteristic of interstellar extinction?

redder color indices
closer stars more affected
color excess
observed color index minus intrinsic color index
red shift
blue shift

292

Of the discovery of the first extrasolar X-ray source, the instrumentation had been designed for an attempt to observe X-rays from the

293

Which types of radiation astronomy directly observe the rocky-object surface of Venus?

meteor astronomy
cosmic-ray astronomy
neutron astronomy
proton astronomy
beta-ray astronomy
neutrino astronomy
gamma-ray astronomy
X-ray astronomy
ultraviolet astronomy
visual astronomy
infrared astronomy
submillimeter astronomy
radio astronomy
radar astronomy
microwave astronomy
superluminal astronomy

294

Which of the following is not characteristic of a neutrino?

neutrinos are affected by the weak nuclear force
produced by a positron annihilating an electron
a decay product of a neutron
produced by the near surface fusion on the Sun
may have a mass
comes in mutable varieties

295

Complete the text:

Match up the item letter with each of the possibilities below:
Einstein ring - A
stellar nebula - B
Andromeda galaxy - C
Triplet galaxies interacting - D
Hubble galaxies - E
Dark matter halo simulation - F
Fairall 9 (Seyfert galaxy in X-rays) - G
Tycho Brahe observatory, remotely controlled telescope, captured galaxy - H
Andromeda's Colorful Rings.jpg

.
Galax.png

.
A Horseshoe Einstein Ring from Hubble.JPG

.
SWIFT J0123.9-5846 Hard X-ray.jpg

.
Dark matter halo.png

.
AmCyc Nebula - Stellar Nebula.jpg

.
Dorian Gray.jpg

.
Cosmic Interactions.jpg

.

296

What are some of the characteristics of Jovian electrons?

hard spectrum
Jovian electrons near Earth are on their way to the Sun
an energy power law
flux increases with 27 day periodicities
at 1 AU, flux decreases exhibit a short-term modulation of 13 minutes
come in mutable varieties

297

Complete the text:

Any of many

in which something is related to something else by an equation of the form f(x) = a·xk is called a

.

298

Space radiation may be classified according to origin as?

galactic cosmic radiation
charged particles in large clouds
solar particle radiation
interaction with the geo-electric field
protons and electrons
geomagnetically trapped particle radiation

299

Which of the following is not a characteristic of the diffuse X-ray background?

a higher intensity than the CMB
isotropic X-ray flux
a wide range of energies
a general increase in intensity from the Galactic plane to the poles
a thermal emission at the lowest energies

300

Which of the following are X-ray astronomy phenomena that may be associated with comets?

lightning
solar wind
a sunward region
a geocorona
minerals high in magnesium
solar X-rays
diffuse X-ray background
low-oxygen conditions

301

Which of the following are associated with X-radiation?

spans three decades in wavelength
spans three decades in frequency
spans three decades in energy
emitted by 26Al
coronal clouds
60 keV electromagnetic radiation
90 eV electromagnetic radiation
visually dark source

302

Which of the following are radiation astronomy phenomena associated with the plasma-object the Sun?

coronal clouds
H1- ions
X-rays
neutron emission
polar coronal holes
meteor emission
rotation

303

Which of the following are determined by the CRS aboard Voyager 1?

origin
acceleration process
neutrinos
life history
dynamic contribution
nucleosynthesis
behavior in the interplanetary medium
X-rays
ultraviolets
visuals
trapped particle environment
a steady rise in May 2012 of collisions with high energy particles above 70 MeV
a dramatic drop in collisions in late August

Hypotheses[edit]

Main source: Hypotheses
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See also[edit]

External links[edit]