Radiation astronomy/Courses/Principles/Hourly 3

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This is a composite image of the Whirlpool Galaxy (also known as M51). Credit: Joint Astronomy Centre, University of British Columbia and NASA/HST (STScI).

Principles of radiation astronomy is a course of forty-eight lectures, sixteen mini-lectures for quiz sections, three hourly quizzes that are timed at an hour, a mid-term that covers the first half of the course, and a final which covers everything in the course. This is the third of three hourlies. It covers the third sixteen lectures, the third set of five mini-lectures, problem sets, lessons, and laboratories.

You are free to take this quiz based on these at any time.

To improve your score, read and study the lectures and the rest, the links contained within, listed under See also, External links, and in the {{principles of radiation astronomy}} template. This should give you adequate background to get 100 %.

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To master the information and use only your memory while taking the quiz, try rewriting the information from more familiar points of view, or be creative with association.

Enjoy learning by doing!

Quiz[edit | edit source]


1 Complete the text:

Match up the likely surface fusion activity with the image:
coronal clouds - B
solar flare - C
neutrinos from the solar octant - D
coronal loops - E
prominences - F
Neusun1 superk1.jpg

Coronal Mass Ejection.gif

SDO first light.png

Rhessi0269 web.jpg

Solar flare (TRACE).gif

Sun in X-rays Recovered.png


2 Which of the following is not a spectral class B star?

Tau Canis Majoris

3 Complete the text:

Magnetic fields can be created in

stratified (non-convective) layers in a

rotating star.

4 Yes or No, Special relativity well describes the vertical precession of Mercury's orbit around the Sun.


5 Which of the following are associated with planetary nebula as a standard candle?

observations made through a narrow band 5007 filter
internal extinction
star forming regions
relatively dust-free environments
found in galaxies of all Hubble types
almost as luminous as the brightest red supergiants

6 True or False, Alpha Sagittarii is a known (SIMBAD) ultraviolet source.


7 Supernovae of Type Ia lack hydrogen lines and helium lines in their optical spectra; during the first month after maximum light they do have a strong absorption feature produced by the red doublet (λ6347, λ6371 Å) of singly ionized?


8 Which of the following sunspot phenomena are associated with the Maunder minimum?

extensively long quiet Sun
lowest 14C concentration from as far back as 1100 BP.
a period of lower-than-average European temperatures
a surface coverage of about 88%
only about 50 sunspots during one 30-year period
11-year cycles

9 Complete the text:

Match up the item letter with each of the possibilities below:
Hydrogen - H, or D
Helium - He
Lithium - Li
Beryllium - Be
Boron - B
Carbon - C
Nitrogen - N
Oxygen - O
Fluorine - F
Neon - Ne
consumed in chromosphere fusion to produce lithium and neutrinos

isotope fusion in the chromosphere producing neutrinos

fusion in the chromosphere producing the most neutrinos

a factor of ~200 below meteorite abundance in the Sun's photosphere

detected with X-rays on the Moon

an organic form detected in Allan Hills 84001 probably from Mars

detected marginally on Venus with Chandra

found in the X-ray spectra of comets

consumed to produce beryllium and neutrinos

a surface impurity on meteorites


10 Which of the following is a prominent feature associated with solar clouds?

coronal mass ejections
magnetic clouds
coronal clouds
magnetic field lines

11 Complete the text:

Match up the observation with the binary star:
Sirius A and B - A
Algol A and B - B
Albireo - C
WISE J1049-5319 - D
Mizar A - E
Minkowski 2-9 - F

Sirius A and B Hubble photo.jpg

Planetary Nebula M2-9.jpg


MizarA npoi big.gif

Algol AB movie imaged with the CHARA interferometer - labeled.gif


12 Which of the following is not a spectral class A star?

Sirius A

13 True or False, A parallax measurement by the satellite Hipparcos indicated a distance of 197 ± 45 pc to the star Betelgeuse published in 2008.


14 Which of the following are X-radiation astronomy phenomena associated with stellar surface fusion?

luminosities below ~3 x 1038 erg/s
a few SSS with luminosities ≥1039 erg/s
synchrotron radiation
a photosphere
a polar diameter that exceeds ever so slightly the equatorial diameter at solar cycle minimum
super soft X-rays
hot active regions with temperatures hot enough to fuse hydrogen
sunspots at the feet of coronal loops

15 Complete the text:

The nuclear processes that produce cosmogenic 36Cl in rocks are

, neutron

, and


16 True or False, The chemical element radium has been mapped by a gamma-ray spectrometer over the rocky surface of the Moon.


17 The orange band from molecular calcium chloride is observed in the spectra of many stars of what type?

18 Which of the following is not a phenomenon usually associated with sunspots?

solar photosphere
a hole in the granulated photosphere
production of 7Be
solar cycle
flip-flop cycle

19 Complete the text:



originate in magnetically

around visible


20 Which phenomena are associated with the dynamo of Uranus?

axisymmetric magnetic field
sulfur volcanoes
water oceans
bipolar magnetotail
detached bow shock
obtuse rotation

21 True or False, Water ice has been detected on the surface of an asteroid.


22 The first astronomical superluminal source in the constellation Indus is likely to be which of the following?

the Sun
the Small Magellanic Cloud
Scorpius X-1
the Large Magellanic Cloud
a Seyfert 1 galaxy

23 Which of the following are associated with surface brightness fluctuations as a standard candle?

characteristic mottling
discreteness of the stars
measurable bumpiness in surface brightness
incipient resolution
easy to recognize

24 Complete the text:

Match up the type of star with each of the characteristics below:
solar twin - A
solar analog - B
solar type - C
double star - D
binary - E
visual binary - F
astrometric binary - G
spectroscopic binary - H
eclipsing binary - I
detached binary - J
semidetached binary - K
contact binary - L
common-envelope binary - M
area of gravitational pull exceeds the other component

same line of sight

wobbling around a point

no close companion with an orbital period of ten days or less

resolved binary using visual astronomy

periodic variation in radial velocity

each component fills the other's area of gravitational pull

F8V through K2V

unstable mass transfer from one to the other

mutual eclipses

two orbiting around each other

no stellar companion

one component does not exceed the gravitational pull area


25 True or False, Planck's equation is integrable analytically.


26 Which of the following are associated with the stellar active region control group?

solar cycle
closed magnetic structures
solar wind
long-lived loop arcades
helmet streamers
the Sun

27 Complete the text:

Match up the letter for the object name with the radio or radar image below:
Sun - A
Mercury - B
Venus - C
Earth - D
Moon (South Pole) - E
Moon (North Pole) - F
Moon (850 micron thermal emission) - G
Mars (North Pole cross section) - H
Toustatis - I
Jupiter - J
Saturn - K
Titan - L
Interstellar medium - M
Milky Way - N
3C 98 - O
3C 31 - P
3C 380 - Q
Moon (self radiation) - R
NGC 4151 - S
GRS 1915 - T
M87 - U
3C 279 - V
IRC+10216 - W
Boomerang nebula - X
R Sculptoris - Y
PIA10008 Seas and Lakes on Titan.jpg

3C 380 bent.jpg

The Moon's North Pole.jpg

Curious spiral spotted by ALMA around red giant star R Sculptoris (data visualisation).jpg

Bhexplode merlin big.gif


Permanently Shadowed Polar Craters.jpg

Ghostly 'Boomerang'.jpg


PIA13164 North Polar Cap Cross Section, Annotated Version.jpg

Moon 4panels2 col.jpg

M87 jet Hubble.gif


3c279 mosaic lo.jpg

PIA07872 Saturn's rings in radio.jpg

Radio galaxy 3C98.png


Jupiter radio image.jpg

Moon at 850 microns.gif

Radio galaxy 3C31.png


Venus globe.jpg


Moon South Pole.jpg



28 Which of the following are associated with red clump stars as a standard candle?

many examples within reach of parallax measurements
internal extinction
star forming regions
sufficiently bright
local group galaxies
almost as luminous as the brightest red supergiants

29 Phenomena associated with apparent superluminal motion are

an optical illusion
the object partly moving in the direction of the observer
large amounts of mass moving at close to half the speed of light
speed calculations assume it does not move in the direction of the observer
velocities close to the speed of light relative to our reference frame

30 Which stars of the alpha Centauri system are known to have stellar active regions?

Proxima Centauri
Alpha Centauri B
Barnard's star
Alpha Centauri A
Rigel Kent
Alpha Centauri C
Alpha Centauri D

31 Complete the text:

A three-color (850, 650, and 350 GHz) single-pixel

system has been installed on the

Submillimeter Telescope (ASTE) and several massive star forming regions were mapped to derive submillimeter SEDs of these sources.

32 Which of the following are associated with Type-Ia supernovae as a standard candle?

lack silicon lines
lack hydrogen lines
lack helium lines
lack lithium lines
expanding photosphere method
almost as luminous as the brightest red supergiants

33 True or False, Microwave radiation ranges from 1 micron to 1 mm.


34 WNM is an acronym for what?

35 Imaging brown dwarfs involve which of the following:

far-infrared (submillimeter) observations at 350 microns
neutrino detection
heating of the nearby gas and dust
near-infrared covering 1.3 and 2.2 microns
infrared covering 4.5 and 8.0 microns

36 AGNs may be used as standard candles because?

they are extremely luminous
can be observed at very large distances
they emit their own light signature
GeV gamma rays
reverberation mapping
tight relationship between the luminosity of an AGN and the radius of its broad line region

37 Complete the text:

Match up the item letter with each of the possibilities below:
Sun - A
Mercury - B
Venus - C
Earth - D
Comets - E
Mars - F
Jupiter - G
Saturn - H
Auroral currents on the order of 106 Amps

Fluorescent radiation from oxygen at ~130 km above the surface

Faint halo of X-rays extending out some 7,000 km

Solar wind lighting up with X-rays

Bright X-ray arcs at low energy

Major source of hard X-rays

X-ray emission concentrated near the equator

Low surface iron content in minerals


38 Which of the following are associated with X-radiation?

spans three decades in wavelength
spans three decades in frequency
spans three decades in energy
emitted by 26Al
coronal clouds
60 keV electromagnetic radiation
90 eV electromagnetic radiation
visually dark source

39 A NASA Hubble image of the Ring Nebula contains which of the following?

very hot helium blue
ionized oxygen emitting green
red light from ionized nitrogen
oxygen forbidden line emission
a forbidden line of sulfur

40 Which of the following is not a spectral class F star?


41 Complete the text:

Match up the type of silicate with the name:
cyclosilicate - A
inosilicate - B
orthosilicate - C
sorosilicate - D
phyllosilicate - E
tectosilicate - F
structurally isolated double tetrahedra

single chain of tetrahedra

a continuous framework of tetrahedra

a ring of linked tetrahedra

a two-dimensional sheet of tetrahedra

isolated tetrahedra


42 Which phenomena are associated with the heliosphere?

a region of space where the interstellar medium is blown away by the solar wind
a bubble in space
virtually all the material emanates from the Sun itself
Voyager 2
Voyager 1
the termination shock

43 Complete the text:

Match up the type of speed effect with each of the possibilities below:
superluminal - A
luminal - B
subluminal - C
transluminal - D
tachyons - E
tardyons - F
speeds which cross the speed of light

speed equal to that of light

particles moving at speeds slower than light

speed less than light

particles moving at speeds faster than light

speed greater than light


44 Which of the following are associated with globular clusters as a standard candle?

characteristic mottling
luminosity functions
turnover point
incipient resolution
dispersion of the distribution
easy to recognize
log-normal function

45 Phenomena associated with a solar analog star are

no stellar companion
temperature within 500 K solar
metallicity of 50-200% solar
orbital period of greater than 11 d
K0V permitted
K1V permitted

46 Chemistry phenomena associated with the Lockman Hole are

neutral hydrogen
dust grains
X-ray sources

47 True or False, At present the Sun is not a submillimeter source in the constellation Carina.


48 Which of the following are associated with standard candles?

Cepheid variables
Type Ia supernovae
the Sun
stellar spectral type
absolute magnitude
Tully-Fisher relation

49 Muon radiography can indeed produce useful images of the internal structure of?


50 The Sun as a star has what chemical property?

it's a primordial population III star
it passes once a year across the Lockman Hole
silicates have been discovered in its interior structure
optical reflectance studies have found evidence of magnesium
it has a metallicity
it has a surface temperature of ~700 K

51 Which of the following are associated with classical Cepheids as a standard candle?

characteristic mottling
young, disk objects
recent star formation
incipient resolution
pulsation phenomenon
easy to recognize
correction for absorption

52 True or False, A column density is the number of units of matter observed along a line of sight that has an area of observation.


53 When plasma is present, what characteristic is readily observed?

the magnetic north pole
neutral neodymium atoms
temperatures below 104 K
solar positron events

54 Complete the text:

Match up the altitude region with its altitude:
troposphere - A
stratosphere - B
mesosphere - C
thermosphere - D
exosphere - E
58 to 68 km

surface to between 8,000 and 18,000 m

143 km to 153 km

10,818 to 10,828 km

818 km to 828 km


55 True or False, Like all elementary particles, the muon has a corresponding antiparticle of opposite spin but equal mass and charge (+1).


56 Complete the text:

Match up the standard candle with a representative image:
Tully-Fisher relation - A
surface brightness fluctuations - B
absolute magnitude - C
globular clusters - D
active galactic nuclei - E
Type Ia supernova - F
classical Cepheid variable - G
novae - H
planetary nebula - I

Maximum magnitude-rate of decline for novae.gif

B-, R-, I-, and H-band Tully-Fisher relations.gif

Blackbody spectral density.gif

SN2005ke labels.jpg

A further away schematic galaxy.gif


Planetary nebulae H-R.gif

Luminosity function for globular clusters.gif


57 Which of the following are phenomena associated with the orange system?

a number of emission lines very close together
many impact craters on Io

58 True or False, The character, sign, or symbol ⊚, ⨀, ⦿, or ⊙ may represent Saturn.


59 Complete the text:

Match up the muonic device with its image below:
muon telescope - A
proton accelerator - B
neutron telescope - C
Baikal Neutrino Telescope NT200 - D
muon spectrometer - E
IceCube - F
Veritas - H
compact solenoid - K
Solar neutron detector.jpg

VERITAS array.jpg






Scherrer Insitute proton accelerator.jpg

HiFi muon spectrometer.jpg

Hegra and not bob tubbs 2001.jpg

Figs nt200+goldplated.png


60 True or False, Submillimeter radiation ranges from 100 µm to 1 mm.


61 Complete the text:

Match up the form or type of quartz with the effect:
alpha quartz - A
coesite - B
cristobalite - C
stishovite - D
seifertite - E
tridymite - F
10 GPa and above 1200°C

2-3 gigapascals and 700°C

22-460°C tabular crystals

trigonal tectosilicate

35 GPa to 40 GPa orthorhombic

1470°C cubic or tetragonal form


62 Which of the following are associated with solar limb faculae?

calcium emission lines
TiO absorption lines
chromium emission lines
Fe emission lines
a decrease in redness
emission lines of Ti

63 True or False, Radio rays have wavelengths of one millimeter or more.


64 A thin-section of a meteorite that may be analyzed has which of the following?

a great many light gray and dark gray chondrules present
large grain cross sections making sizing easy
an available sizing or magnification marker
independent verification as a meteorite
correctable diameters and relative abundances
optical conditions

65 Which of the following are theoretical radiation astronomy phenomena associated with a star?

possible orbits
a hyperbolic orbit
nuclear fusion at its core
nuclear fusion in its chromosphere
near the barycenter of its planetary system
electric arcs
impact craters
radar signature

66 True or False, Radio observations taken by the Bernese Multibeam Radiometer for KOSMA (BEMRAK) at submillimeter wavelengths show an impulsive component that starts simultaneously with high-energy proton acceleration and the production of pions.


67 Phenomena associated with some brown dwarfs are which of the following?

a temperature well below the stellar range
methane absorption
the lithium test
T dwarfs

68 Which of the following are associated with the envelope of the polarization current density?

emission of electromagnetic radiation from a superluminal charged particle
intensity of some components decays as the inverse of the distance from the source
non-spherically-decaying sources
emission contains very high frequencies not present in the synthesis of the source
non-spherically decaying components of the radiation do not violate energy conservation
strong electromagnetic fields are compensated by weak fields elsewhere

69 Handling cosmic rays when using a submillimeter bolometer as a detector involve which of the following:

a rapid rise in temperature
not practical to prevent cosmic-ray events
understanding their behavior
operating in a relatively high cosmic-ray flux

70 Which of the following are associated with SOFIA?

the atmosphere of the Earth
the stratosphere
a rocket
a balloon
a Boeing 747
infrared astronomy

71 Complete the text:

Charged-current charged pion production is a process in which a

interacts with an atomic

and produces a

, a charged

and recoiling nuclear fragments.

72 Complete the text:

Match up the stellar image with the radiation astronomy:
meteor astronomy - A
neutrino astronomy - B
gamma-ray astronomy - C
X-ray astronomy - D
ultraviolet astronomy - E
visual astronomy - F
violet astronomy - G
blue astronomy - H
yellow astronomy - I
red astronomy - J
orange astronomy - K
infrared astronomy - L
radio astronomy - M
280557main oblate purplesun HI.jpg


Coronal Mass Ejection.gif

Sun image through solar telescope.jpg

Sun in X-rays Recovered.png



Neusun1 superk1.jpg

Orange Sun in Boracay, Philippines.jpg


Latest nsoHe.gif

Blueberrysun friedman 1296.jpg

Gamma sun1.jpg


73 Which of the following are associated with AMANDA's search for monopoles?

its large volume
equivalent charge
amount of Cherenkov light
square of the charge
passing through the Earth
large monopole mass

74 Piezonuclear reactions associated with fission may include

occurring in inert and non-radioactive elements
high pressure
brittle fracture
solids under compression
low-energy reactions
take place in nuclei with an atomic weight ≤ iron

75 Complete the text:

Match up the superluminal detector with the image:
Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope - A
International Ultraviolet Explorer - B
C. Donald Shane telescope - C
2.3m Bok Telescope - D
LHCb - F
AMS-02 - G
Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer - 02.jpg


Astro1 sts35 big.jpg



VLA larger.JPG

International Ultraviolet Explorer.gif


76 Which chemical phenomenon are associated with the Earth?

quartz is the second most abundant mineral
an atmosphere containing CO2
green, red, blue, and yellow airglow
the production and escape of hot H+ ions
oxygen emissions
helium ions

77 Phenomena associated with some meteorites?

have a gaseous surface
long nickel-iron crystals

78 Nuclear fission and nuclear fusion may be connected by which of the following?

means for concentrating actinide elements and for separating actinide elements from reactor poisons exist
thermonuclear fusion reactions in stars are ignited by nuclear fission energy
dark matter
the feasibility of thermal neutron fission and fast neutron fission in planetary and protostellar matter may be calculated from nuclear reactor theory
brown dwarfs

79 Which of the following are associated with the geodynamo of Mars?

plate tectonics in its past
Mars is spheroidal
stripes of crustal magnetism
it appears to be in hydrostatic equilibrium
transform faults
two natural satelites
the direction of the magnetic field changes dramatically from place to place

80 Complete the text:

Match up the item letter with each of the possibilities below:
Balloons - A
Sounding rockets - B
Aircraft assisted launches - C
Orbital rocketry - D
Shuttle payload - E
Heliocentric rocketry - F
Exploratory rocketry - G
Lunar rover - H
Ranger 5

microcalorimeter arrays

MeV Auroral X-ray Imaging and Spectroscopy

Lunokhod 2



Broad Band X-Ray Telescope

Solar Heliospheric Observatory


81 Which of the following are associated with a horizontal coordinate system?

local horizon
lower hemisphere
a great circle

82 Complete the text:

Match up the sounding rocket with each of the images below:
Nike-Black Brant VC - A
V 2 - B
Vertikal 1 - C
Nike-Asp - D
Skylark - E
Veronique - F
Black Brant XII - G
Viking - H
Terrier Sandhawk - I
Veronique french sounding rocket.jpg


Terrier-Sandhawk rocket, Kauai Test Facility (1976).jpg

Nike-Black Brant VC XQC launch.gif

Viking rocket after launch.jpg



RAE Skylark.jpg



83 High-energy particle acceleration during an energetic solar flare may involve which of the following at submillimeter wavelengths:

a rapid rise in temperature
a gradual, long-lasting component
large apparent source sizes
synchrotron emission
a magnetic field strength of ≥ 200 Gauss
a close correlation in time and space of radio emission with pion production

84 Which of the following are associated with the Earth's radius?

the delta of the Mississippi river is higher than its source
a unit of distance in astronomy and geology
falls between the equatorial maximum and the polar minimum
the geoid length
a balloon
McMurdo Station

85 Complete the text:

Match up the type of radiation with each of the superluminal possibilities below:
meteors - A
electrons - B
neutrinos - C
gamma rays - D
X-rays - E
opticals - F
superluminal signal transfer

sychrotron emission through the optical into the X-ray regime

conelike illumination pattern

electroweak Cherenkov radiation

index of refraction is often greater than 1



86 Which of the following are associated with the dynamo of the Sun?

plate tectonics in its past
dipole magnetic field
it is spheroidal
stripes of crustal magnetism
a circular electric current flowing deep within the star
it appears to be in hydrostatic equilibrium
transform faults
shear between different parts of the Sun
two natural satellites
it has a radiative zone

87 Complete the text:

Match up the approximate luminosity class with each of the stellar class possibilities below:
0 - A
I - B
II - C
IV - E
V - F
VI - G


white dwarfs


bright giants





88 Anomalous dispersion is associated with which of the following?

refractive index
decrease in index
Scorpius X-1
group velocity can be boosted to beyond the velocity of its constituent waves
resonance of ionized hydrogen

89 Complete the text:

Match up the altitude with its concept:
altitude - A
meters above sea level - B
indicated altitude - C
absolute altitude - D
true altitude - E
height - F
pressure altitude - G
density altitude - H
altitude in terms of distance above a certain point


usually a vertical distance measurement

altitude in terms of the density of the air

the altimeter reading

altitude in terms of air pressure

altitude in elevation above sea level

distance above the ground directly


90 Which chemical species have an enhanced abundance at the north polar region of Jupiter relative to midlatitudes?


91 Considering that many rock types bear a striking resemblance to meteorites which are the one or few ways to differentiate a meteorite from a terrestrial rock?

the Ca/Si ratio
the Al/Si ratio
enstatite rather than diopside
oxygen isotope ratios
observed orbit and fall with verified recovery

92 Which of the following is associated with the first superluminal motion phenomenon in our galaxy?

the Spring of 1994
4,000 light-years away
VLT observations
GRS 1915
Jodrell Bank

93 The heavier element lines that occur in the spectrum of Vega are

lanthanum (La)
calcium (Ca)
uranium (U)
titanium (Ti)
silicon (Si)
iron (Fe)

94 What are the requirements for a dynamo to occur and subsequently operate?

plate tectonics in its past
an electrically conductive fluid medium
a spheroidal object
stripes of crustal magnetism
local magnetohydrodynamic instabilities
transform faults
shear between different parts
two natural satelites
an energy source

95 Complete the text:

Match up the effective temperature with its spectral class:
O - A
B - B
A - C
F - D
G - E
K - F
M - G
L - H
T - I
Y - J
7,000 K

2,000 K

15,000 K

4,000 K

400 K

9,000 K

3,000 K

5,500 K

45,000 K

1,000 K

96 Which of the following is involved in planetary astronomy more so than planetary science?

the occurrence of rock types on the surface of rocky objects
the Earth and other rocky objects may have a mantle
checking equations about complex systems
the advantages of radar
digging holes in the surface of the Moon
surface temperatures low enough to produce methane lakes

97 True or False, The very fast neon nova GK Persei rivalled the brightness of Vega at the peak of its outburst in 1901.


98 Complete the text:

Match up the item letter with each of the possibilities below:
Chemistry - A
Geography - B
History - C
Mathematics - D
Physics - E
Science - F
Technology - G
Geology - H
solar eclipses

a spatial frequency of occurrence or extent

radio observations revealed a radio corona around the Sun

elemental abundances

microcalorimeter arrays

The Ariel V /3 A/ catalogue of X-ray sources. II - Sources at high galactic latitude |b| > 10°

Carancas meteorite

a thermal bremsstrahlung source may fit


99 Which of the following is not an astronomical superluminal source?

3C 345
3C 48
3C 263
3C 179
3C 245
3C 279

100 True or False, Coronal clouds, type IIIg, form in space above a spot area and rain streamers upon it.


101 Complete the text:

Match up the observation with the phenomena:
B1828+487 - A
PKS0521-36 - B
Fanaroff-Riley (FR) type II radio source - C
prototypical type 2 Seyfert - D
Frank–Tamm formula - E
a type 1 Seyfert - F

3C 380 bent.jpg



Advanced Test Reactor.jpg

PKS0521-36 2 cm.gif


102 True or False, Ray angle deviation and dispersion through a prism can be determined by tracing a sample ray through the element and using Snell's law at each interface.


103 Which of the following are associated with muon astronomy?

high-energy cosmic rays
secondary and tertiary cosmic rays
nuclear interactions between neutrons and quartz
nuclear interactions between muons and calcite
production rates of a few atoms per gram of rock per year
build-up of cosmogenic nuclides through time

104 Complete the text:

Match up the white dwarf classification with its distinctive characteristic:
DA - A
DB - B
DC - C
DO - D
DQ - E
DX - F
DZ - G
a helium-rich atmosphere, indicated He II spectral lines

a helium-rich atmosphere, indicated He I spectral lines

spectral lines are insufficiently clear to classify

no strong spectral lines

a metal-rich atmosphere

a carbon-rich atmosphere

a hydrogen-rich atmosphere


105 True or False, 3C 295 is a galaxy cluster filled with a vast cloud of 50 MK gas and plasma.


106 Complete the text:

Match up the characteristics with the type of dynamo:
disc dynamo - A
geodynamo - B
radiative dynamo - C
α dynamo - D
Ω dynamo - E
radiative α-Ω dynamo - F
Taylor-Spruit dynamo - G

pinch-type instabilites

molten outer core

turbulence, a radiative layer, and differential rotation

radiative layers

differential rotation

a rotating cylinder


107 Which of the following are characteristic of Mercury

inclinations as high as 50°

108 Complete the text:

Match up the type of stellar surface fusion with each of the possibilities below:
symbiotic nova - A
recurrent nova - B
flare star (flaring) - C
accretion - D
coronal loops - E
amplitude of between 9 and 11 magnitudes

a close companion star that overflows its Roche lobe

about every 20 years

unpredictable dramatic increases in brightness for a few minutes

the basic structure of the lower corona and transition region

109 Complete the text:

Match up the likely type of star fission with each of the possibilities below:
a triple-component stellar multiple - A
massive star fission - B
semidetached binary - C
a separating close contact binary - D
ZAMS system - E
tight, circular orbit, impossible to tell eclipses - F
lobate star - G
coronal mass ejection - H
BH Centauri

Plaskett's Star (HR 2422)


W Ursae Majoris

Beta Lyrae

V1010 Ophiuchi

object is confirmed to be co-moving



Hypotheses[edit | edit source]

  1. Students taking the quiz may be fewer in number than those reading the lectures.

See also[edit | edit source]

External links[edit | edit source]