Radiation astronomy/Courses/Principles/Hourly 1

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The pseudo-colour image is of the large-scale radio structure of the FRII radio galaxy 3C98. Lobes, jet and hotspot are labelled. Credit: .

Principles of radiation astronomy is a course of forty-eight lectures, sixteen mini-lectures for quiz sections, three hourly quizzes that are timed at an hour, a mid-term that covers the first half of the course, and a final which covers everything in the course. This is the first of three hourlies. It covers the first sixteen lectures, the first five mini-lectures, problem sets, lessons, and laboratories.

You are free to take this quiz based on these at any time.

To improve your score, read and study the lectures and the rest, the links contained within, listed under See also, External links and in the {{principles of radiation astronomy}} template. This should give you adequate background to get 100 %.

As a "learning by doing" resource, this quiz helps you to assess your knowledge and understanding of the information, and it is a quiz you may take over and over as a learning resource to improve your knowledge, understanding, test-taking skills, and your score.

Suggestion: Have the lecture available in a separate window.

To master the information and use only your memory while taking the quiz, try rewriting the information from more familiar points of view, or be creative with association.

Enjoy learning by doing!

Quiz[edit]







  

1

What is a pfu?

a measure of neutron half-life suggested by Enrico Fermi
a particle flux
a unit per steradian (sr)
the number of bubbles generated in a hydrogen bubble chamber used to detect neutrinos
Niels Bohr was opposed to the pfu interpretation of beta decay
a measure of the scatter energy of a neutrino hitting a proton

2

Which of the following are units of distance?

meter
acre
chain
acorn
tympan
гектар
reach

3

What may be the first astronomical source of the rocky objects in the solar system?

Jupiter
the solar wind
the diffuse X-ray background
Saturn
Mount Redoubt in Alaska
the asteroid belt
the former protoplanetary disc around the Sun
the Oort cloud
the Kuiper belt

4

Yes or No, The spin carried by quarks is sufficient to account for the total spin of protons.

Yes
No

5

Spin-charge separation has which characteristics?

a chargon
a spinon
taking place inside solids
extremely tight confinement
neutron affinity
X-ray absorption

6

Which of the following are characteristic of interstellar extinction?

redder color indices
closer stars more affected
color excess
observed color index minus intrinsic color index
red shift
blue shift

7

Galileo Deployment (high res).jpg
What is the blue-radiation source in the image at right?

8

What are some of the characteristics of Jovian electrons?

hard spectrum
Jovian electrons near Earth are on their way to the Sun
an energy power law
flux increases with 27 day periodicities
at 1 AU, flux decreases exhibit a short-term modulation of 13 minutes
come in mutable varieties

9

True or False, A theory may not be right but it should be testable.

TRUE
FALSE

10

Complete the text:

Match up the star with the constellation:
Capella - A
Sirius - B
Deneb - C
Anser - D
Altair - E
Vega - F
Vulpecula

.
Canis Major

.
Lyra

.
Cygnus

.
Aquila

Auriga

.

11

True or False, Although no tubular telescope has been found at ancient archaeological sites, ancient observers may have used air telescopes.

TRUE
FALSE

12

Complete the text:

Match up the item letter with each of the first astronomical source possibilities below:
Meteors - A
Cosmic rays - B
Neutrons - C
Protons - D
Electrons - E
Positrons - F
Gamma rays - G
Superluminals - H
cosmic rays

galactic nuclei

.
comets

.
electron-positron annihilation

.
weak force nuclear decay

.
AGNs

.
511 keV photon pair production

.
solar wind

.

13

Which of the following are theoretical radiation astronomy phenomena associated with the Earth?

a core which emits neutrinos
a charged particle wind which emanates out the polar ionosphere holes
gravity
near the barycenter for the Earth-Moon system
the swirls of tan, green, blue, and white are most likely sediment in the water
coronal clouds
chlorophyll-containing phytoplankton aloft in the upper atmosphere

14

Complete the text:

The zenith orientation faces

from Earth into space, while the nadir orientation faces straight

to Earth.

15

Which of the following are radiation astronomy phenomena associated with the Sun?

ultraviolet emission
X-ray emission
gamma-ray emission
neutron emission
7Be emission
meteor emission

16

Submillimeter radiances can be matched by models which include ice particles of?

17

Complete the text:

Match up the radiation type with the satellite:
meteor - A
cosmic ray - B
neutral atoms - C
neutron - D
proton - E
electron - F
positron - G
neutrino - H
gamma ray - I
X-ray - J
ultraviolet - K
optical - L
visual - M
violet - N
blue - O
cyan - P
green - Q
yellow - R
orange - S
red - T
infrared - U
submillimeter - V
microwave - W
radio - X
radar - Y
superluminal - Z
JUNO - PIA13746.jpg

.
RAE B.jpg

.
Chandra-spacecraft labeled-en.jpg

.
Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer - 02.jpg

.
Voyager.jpg

.
GLAST on the payload attach fitting.jpg

.
Mars-express-volcanoes-sm.jpg

.
Nasasupports.jpg

.
IBEX spacecraft.jpg

.
STEREO spacecraft.gif

.
GOES-P.jpg

.
Aquarius SAC-D satellite.png

.
STS-134 International Space Station after undocking.jpg

.
Micrometeoroid hole.jpg

.
Rosetta.jpg

.
INTEGRAL-spacecraft410.jpg

.
FUSE prelaunch crop.jpg

.
Swas 1.jpg

.
2001 mars odyssey wizja.jpg

.
Spitzer space telescope pre-launch.jpg

.
TERRA am1.jpg

.
Galileo Energetic Particles Detector.jpg

Landsat7photo.jpg

.
Pioneer 10 on its kickmotor.jpg

.
Mariner 10.jpg

.
HST-SM4.jpeg

.

18

Which of the following are determined by the CRS aboard Voyager 1?

origin
acceleration process
neutrinos
life history
dynamic contribution
nucleosynthesis
behavior in the interplanetary medium
X-rays
ultraviolets
visuals
trapped particle environment
a steady rise in May 2012 of collisions with high energy particles above 70 MeV
a dramatic drop in collisions in late August

19

An astronomical event occurred during the Cambrian, what does that mean?

students in the India must use Greenwich mean time
about 5 x 108 years ago
a high-powered robotic telescope was lost on the shuttle Cambrian
a student in Xinjiang has an abacus configured to the geologic time scale
on-site use of two high-powered telescopes is available
trilobites tried to communicate with Earth

20

Which of the following may be characteristic of magnetohydrodynamics?

driven by current gradients
neutral atoms
closed tube loops
twisted flux
open field lines
synchrotron radiation

21

Complete the text:

Match up the item letter with each of the detectors or satellites below:
Bonner Ball Neutron Detector - A
Multi Mirror Telescope - B
MAGIC telescope - C
Explorer 11 - D
HEAO 3 - E
Helios - F
Pioneer 10 - G
Voyager 1 - H
Magicmirror.jpg

Voyager.jpg

.
BBND1.jpg

.
Pioneer 10 on its kickmotor.jpg

.
Helios - testing.png

.
Multi Mirror Telescope in 1981.jpg

.
HEAO-3.gif

.
Explorer 11 ground.gif

.

22

Complete the text:

Match up the radiation letter with each of the detector possibilities below:
Meteors - A
Cosmic rays - B
Neutrons - C
Protons - D
Electrons - E
Positrons - F
Neutrinos - G
Muons - H
Gamma rays - I
X-rays - J
Ultraviolet rays - K
Optical rays - L
Visual rays - M
Violet rays - N
Blue rays - O
Cyan rays - P
Green rays - Q
Yellow rays - R
Orange rays - S
Red rays - T
Infrared rays - U
Submillimeter rays - V
Radio rays - W
Superluminal rays - X
multialkali (Na-K-Sb-Cs) photocathode materials

.
F547M

.
511 keV gamma-ray peak

.
F675W

.
broad-band filter centered at 404 nm

.
a cloud chamber

.
ring-imaging Cherenkov

.
coherers

.
effective area is larger by 104

.
F588N

.
pyroelectrics

.
a blemish about 8,000 km long

.
a metal-mesh achromatic half-wave plate

.
coated with lithium fluoride over aluminum

.
thallium bromide (TlBr) crystals

.
F606W

.
aluminum nitride

.
heavy water

.
18 micrometers FWHM at 490 nm

.
wide-gap II-VI semiconductor ZnO doped with Co2+ (Zn1-xCoxO)

.
a recoiling nucleus

high-purity germanium

.
magnetic deflection to separate out incoming ions

.
2.2-kilogauss magnet used to sweep out electrons

.

23

True or False, A theoretical observatory decides which systems, for example, among virtual stellar systems, should be recognizable, and which not.

TRUE
FALSE

24

Complete the text:

Match up the item letter with each of the possibilities below:
Meteors - A
Cosmic rays - B
Neutrons - C
Protons - D
Electrons - E
Positrons - F
Gamma rays - G
Superluminals - H
X-ray jets

the index of refraction is often greater than 1 just below a resonance frequency

.
iron, nickel, cobalt, and traces of iridium

.
Sagittarius X-1

.
escape from a typical hard low-mass X-ray binary

.
collisions with argon atoms

.
X-rays are emitted as they slow down

.
Henry Moseley using X-ray spectra

.

25

Ionization within the Earth's atmosphere from cosmic rays has what property?

it's subject to solar eclipses
it increases underwater
cosmic rays do not penetrate the atmosphere
is higher at the base of the Eiffel tower rather than the top
is obscured by hot-air balloons
the ionization rate rises at rising elevation

26

3D Vector.svg
For standard basis, or unit, vectors (i, j, k) and vector components of a (ax, ay, az), what are the right ascension, declination, and value of a?

if the x-axis is the longitude of the Greenwich meridian, and ax equals ay, then RA equals 6h
if the x-axis is the longitude of the Greenwich meridian, and ax equals ay, then RA equals 3h
the value of a is given by
if ax equals ay equals az, then the declination is -45°
if ax equals ay equals az, then the declination is +45°

27

True or False, The flux density or monochromatic flux, , of a source is the integral of the spectral radiance, , over the source solid angle:

.

TRUE
FALSE

28

Which of the following are associated with electromagnetics?

angular momentum transfer
solar wind
protons
electrons
the baryon neutrino
charge neutralization

29

The strong force is involved in which of the following phenomena?

s-waves
the sum of the spins
neutrinos
Pauli's exclusion principle
deuterium
radio waves

30

Which of the following is not a characteristic of a theory?

catching a beam
one more degree of freedom than can be measured or controlled
it may appear as a dome over a small portion of the Earth your standing on
impervious to some traveling rays
a secondary-object hazard

31

True or False, The weak speed of a charged particle can exceed the speed of light.

TRUE
FALSE

32

Which of the following are temporal observatories in orbit around the Earth?

Chandra X-ray Observatory
Big Bear
TRACE
Kodaikanal
the Hubble
Lomnický štít
McMath-Pierce
SOFIA
Rosetta

33

True or False, The feature that makes deep inelastic lepton scattering and e+e- annihilation tractable is that these processes proceed via the electromagnetic and strong interactions.

TRUE
FALSE

34

Which of the following are involved in the weak force?

a core which emits neutrinos
Fermi's β-decay theory
26Al
undetectable with balloon-borne detectors
Gamow-Teller interactions
steady enough emission to be used as a standard for X-ray emission
observed with delta-rays in 1731
M. Fierz

35

Complete the text:

Match up the star pattern with the likely constellation:
Vol.png
- L
Eri.png
- M
Betelgeuse position in Orion.png
- N
UMa.jpg
- O
Dra.png
- P
Cas.png
- Q
Cru.png
- R
Phe.png
- S
Peg.png
- T
Volans

.
Cassiopeia

.
Pegasus

.
Orion

.
Crux

.
Ursa Major

.
Phoenix

.
Draco

.
Eridanus

.

36

True or False, A calculation of energy is not possible unless a mass is involved.

TRUE
FALSE

37

Complete the text:

Match up the item letter with each of the X-ray angular resolution possibilities below:
Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer - A
XMM-Newton - B
Chandra X-ray Observatory - C
Swift - D
Astro-rivelatore Gamma ad Imagini Leggero (AGILE) - E
Solar Heliospheric Observatory - F
Suzaku - G
Koronas-Foton - H
2"

3"

.
~2'

.
1"

.
5.9'

.
7'

.
1"

.
0.5"

.

38

Which of the following may be characteristic of orbital theory?

a hyperbolic pass
stellar association
may point away from a stellar association
eccentricity
obliquity
precession

39

Complete the text:

Match up the item letter with each of the possibilities below:
Balloons - A
Sounding rockets - B
Aircraft assisted launches - C
Orbital rocketry - D
Shuttle payload - E
Heliocentric rocketry - F
Exploratory rocketry - G
Lunar rover - H
Ranger 5

microcalorimeter arrays

.
MeV Auroral X-ray Imaging and Spectroscopy

.
Lunokhod 2

.
ALEXIS

.
Ulysses

.
Broad Band X-Ray Telescope

.
Solar Heliospheric Observatory

.

40

Which of the following are associated with the McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope?

a launch location
Kitt Peak National Observatory
a heliostat
a distinctive diagonal shaft that continues underground
a theoretical resolution of 0.07"
NOAA designations

41

Complete the text:

Match up the item letter with each of the possibilities below:
superluminals - A
radios - B
radars - C
microwaves - D
submillimeters - E
infrareds - F
reds - G
oranges - H
deuterium enrichment of cometary water

interstellar-comet connection

.
a macroscopic superstring

.
force of life

.
rings of Saturn

.
volcanic activity throughout Vesta

.
a silicon composite bolometer fed by a Winston cone

.
present-day fluctuations an order of magnitude larger

.

42

Which of the following are phenomena associated with grid systems?

geographic coordinates
the Royal Observatory in Greenwich
French Institut Géographique National (IGN) maps
a longitude meridian passing through Paris
a local center of civilization
altitude

43

In which of the following constellations does the ecliptic and the Galaxy or the galactic plane occur?

Sagittarius
Ophiuchus
Aries
Ursa Minor
Scorpius or Scorpio
Draco
Taurus

44

Which of the following may be the first astronomical source of the Earth?

the Sun
a meteor
the Moon
Saturn
the Zodiacal Light
the International Space Station
the former protoplanetary disc

45

Using HIFI instrument aboard the Herschel Space Observatory, the first detection of what ion occurred on March 1 and March 23, 2010?

46

A first astronomical source has?

a temporal distribution with at least one datum
a spectral distribution
a spatial distribution
a position or location
a geognosy
scientific or observational investigations

47

Which of the following are X-radiation astronomy phenomena associated with the Crab Nebula?

a core which emits neutrinos
low-energy X-rays detected by the Chandra X-ray Observatory
26Al
undetectable with balloon-borne detectors
hard X-rays
steady enough emission to be used as a standard for X-ray emission
observed with X-rays in 1731
Taurus X-1

48

Which of the following are associated with the IceCube Neutrino Observatory?

under ice
the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station
Digital Optical Modules
the counting house is on the surface above the array
the baryon neutrino
the electron neutrino

49

Complete the text:

Match up the observatory facility with the observatory:
Ondrejov Observatory - A
Okayama Astrophysical Observatory - B
Orbiting Astronomical Observatory - C
Metsähovi Radio Observatory - D
Tortugas Mountain Planetary Observatory - E
Pierre Auger Observatory - F
Observed quasar 3C 454.3 in the spring of 2005.

.
A solar telescope.

.
Detector components.

.
Data on AG Peg were obtained with the ultraviolet broad-band photometers on the second one.

.
The 0.6 m monitors cloud decks and equatorial activity.

A 188 cm telescope.

.

50

Which phenomena are associated with the heliosphere?

a region of space where the interstellar medium is blown away by the solar wind
a bubble in space
virtually all the material emanates from the Sun itself
Voyager 2
Voyager 1
the termination shock

51

Electromagnetic radiation emitted by accelerating charged particles?

52

The Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, provides?

students in the United States with free access
the Faulkes Telescope Project
a high-powered robotic telescope in Jamaica
a high-powered robotic telescope in Tasmania
on-site use of two high-powered telescopes
scientific investigations

53

Complete the text:

Match up the distance-time phenomena with the image:
line of sight - A
an origin - B
a displacement - C
one billion light years - D
measuring - E
acceleration - F
Celestial swiss cheese.

.
A beautiful galaxy.

.
An elliptical orbit.

.
Closer than a route.

.
It's about the chains.

Getting the numbers.

.

54

If energy is the impetus behind all motion and activity, which of the following are associated with power?

a launch location
a rate of change of the impetus with time
photon density
an acceleration of the impetus
neutrinos dynamically dominating baryons
a rate of change of mass

55

Which phenomenon are associated with acceleration?

a region of space where the interstellar medium is blown away by a supernova
a bubble
decreasing time
displacement
orbiting
rotation

56

Complete the text:

Match up the type of cosmic-ray detector with each of the possibilities below:
visible tracks - A
diffusion cloud chamber - B
bubbles - C
a grid of uninsulated electric wires - D
similar to the Haverah Park experiment - E
fluorescence detectors - F
spark chamber

.
continuously sensitized to radiation

.
Pierre Auger Observatory

.
bubble chamber

.
Cherenkov detector

expansion cloud chamber

.

57

Which of the following are astronomical observatory phenomena associated with the Sun?

pyranometer
actinometer
Radiation Observatory, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway
neutron irradiation
the World Radiation Reference Scale (WRR)
meteor orbits
pyrheliometer

58

Which geological phenomena are associated with Earth?

lava-spewing volcanoes
sulfur volcanoes
plate tectonics
water oceans
liquid methane oceans
silicate minerals

59

Phenomena associated with Kepler-36b?

has a gaseous surface
about 30% of its mass is iron
about 4.5 times the mass of Earth
has a rocky surface
discovered by the Kepler spacecraft
about 1.5 times as large as the Earth

60

Which of the following is a phenomenon associated historically with Titania?

Jupiter
a large, trenchlike feature
a relatively light surface
few or no canyons and scarps
very few impact craters
helium ice

61

Which of the following is associated with Pluto?

a dwarf planet
a member of the Oort belt
the northern polar region has brightened
the southern polar region has darkened
its overall redness has decreased
extreme axial tilt

62

Observations of Io have benefited greatly from what phenomenon?

a dense, opaque atmosphere
lightning
extensive meteorite cratering
a flattening out
liquid hydrocarbon lakes
the reflected light of allotropes and compounds of sulfur

63

Which of the following is characteristic of the scattered disc

a distant region of the solar system
the dwarf planet Eris
orbital eccentricites ranging up to 0.8
inclinations as high as 50°
perihelia greater than 30 AU
Dysnomia

64

Which of the following is not a characteristic of a control group?

catching a beam
one more degree of freedom than can be measured or controlled
it may appear as a dome over a small portion of the Earth your standing on
impervious to some traveling rays
a secondary-object hazard

65

A terrestrial planet is composed primarily of?

66

Which of the following is not a studied characteristic of a planet?

an orbit around a star
a hydrostatic equilibrium (nearly round) shape
nucleosynthesis
has cleared the neighbourhood around its orbit
an initially fractionated elemental composition

67

Which of the following is not a first astronomical source of rotation?

early Jupiter
the solar wind
the diffuse X-ray background
early Saturn
Mount Redoubt in Alaska
the asteroid belt
the former protoplanetary disc around the Sun
the Sun
the Kuiper belt

68

Which of the following are characteristic of geomagnetic polar reversals?

the longer the period for reversal the longer the surface irradiation
the ionosphere seems to reach the surface
life-forms may suffer from radiation sickness
asteroids may strike the Earth that otherwise would not
the rotation of the Earth slows to a halt
poles of ice completely melt

69

"The spectrum of gaseous methane at 77 K in the 1.1-2.6 µm region [is] a benchmark for"

70

Which of the following is not an astronomical entity?

Johannes Kepler
the coronal cloud very near the Sun
the Moon
the question mark (?)
the Barrington Meteor Crater
Johannes Hevelius

71

The Sun as a planet has what property?

it's subject to lunar eclipses
it passes once a year through the Big Dipper
its interior structure has been studied with radar
optical reflectance studies have found evidence of magnesium
it has a surface temperature of ~700 K
it is a wanderer

72

Complete the text:

Match up the celestial octant with the constellation:
NQ1 - A
NQ2 - B
NQ3 - C
NQ4 - D
SQ1 - E
SQ2 - F
SQ3 - G
SQ4 - H
Musca

.
Sagitta

.
Lynx

.
Pyxis

.
Piscis Austrinus

.
Corona Borealis

.
Pictor

Taurus

.

73

Which of the following is not an electron volt?

the angular momentum of the planet Mercury around the Sun
a unit of energy
a quantity that denotes the ability to do work
1.2 PeV
a unit dimensioned in mass, distance, and time
a unit not based on the Coulomb

74

Complete the text:

When imaged in visible light Venus appears like a gas

rather than a

planet.

75

A natural rocky source of chemicals from the sky to the ground may originate from what astronomical source?

Jupiter
the solar wind
the diffuse X-ray background
Mount Redoubt in Alaska
the asteroid belt
the International Space Station

76

That part of outer space between planets and their star(s) is called?

77

What may be the first astronomical source referred to by the term "God"?

early Jupiter
the solar wind
the diffuse X-ray background
early Saturn
Mount Redoubt in Alaska
the asteroid belt
the former protoplanetary disc around the Sun
the Oort cloud
the Kuiper belt

78

Which of the following is not an idea?

2
the Sun
radius
sky
heavens
orbit

79

The use of the principle of line of sight allows what phenomenon to be determined?

the Moon is closer to the Earth than the Sun
the planet Mercury is nearer to the Earth than Venus
any cumulus cloud overhead follows the Sun across the sky
the plane of the Earth's orbit around the Sun is in the plane of the galaxy
the surface of the photosphere of the Sun is hotter than the surface of Mars
lightning always precedes rain

80

True or False, In the exosphere, temperature rises from around 1,500°C to 105 K.

TRUE
FALSE

81

The relative abundances of solar cosmic rays reflect those of the solar

82

Complete the text:

The majority of known asteroids orbit the Sun between the orbits of

and

.

83

The heliosphere might be the first astronomical source of?

the interstellar medium
the solar wind
a bubble in space
virtually all the material emanating from the Sun itself
Voyager 2
Voyager 1
a termination shock

84

Ashen light is involved in which of the following?

earthshine
glow of the bright part of the lunar disk
light from different parts of Earth are mixed together
mimics the Earth as a single dot
neutron astronomy
X-ray astronomy

85

Meteorites found on Earth may be from which of the following?

Saturn
Mercury
the Moon
the asteroid belt
Jupiter
Mars

86

What may be the first astronomical cosmic-ray source?

Jupiter
the solar wind
the diffuse X-ray background
Mount Redoubt in Alaska
the asteroid belt
an active galactic nucleus

87

Complete the text:

Match up the item letter with each of the cosmogonic possibilities below:
interior models of the giant planets - A
high interest for cosmogony, geophysics and nuclear physics - B
hierarchical accumulation - C
clouds and globular clusters - D
cosmic helium abundance - E
deuterium fusion - F
a large deficiency of light elements - G
after galactic sized systems had collapsed - H
the motions of hydrogen

formation of luminous quasars

.
stars with an initial mass less than the solar mass

.
rotating liquid drops

.
primordial is less than 26 per cent

.
a solar mixture of elements dominated by hydrogen and helium gas

.
around 13 Jupiter masses

.
smaller rocky objects

.

88

Complete the text:

Match up the theoretical astronomy idea with each of the possibilities below:
astronomical object - A
astronomical source - B
astronomical entity - C
star - D
interstellar medium - E
material - F
natural luminous body visible in the sky

.
naturally from which something comes

.
matter which may be shaped or manipulated

.
an independent, separate, or self-contained existence

.
the matter that exists in the space between the star systems

naturally in the sky especially at night

.

89

If astronomy measures distances and speeds then what is mass?

an idea
a number
many distances
the sky
heavens
an orbit

90

An X-ray source has been located at B1950 right ascension 01h 00m 06.91s and declination +62° 05' 45.5", which of the following constellations does this source occur in?

Mensa
Camelopardalis
Hydrus
Ursa Minor
Cassiopeia
Draco
Volans

91

Complete the text:

Match up the radiation object with the likely source:
Crmo volcanic bomb 20070516123632.jpg
- L
Circinus X-1.jpg
- M
Moon egret.jpg
- N
Neusun1 superk.jpg
- O
Earth in ultraviolet from the Moon (S72-40821).jpg
- P
PIA00072 Venus Cloud Patterns - colorized and filtered.jpg
- Q
Io Color Eclipse Movie - PIA03450.gif
- R
NGC 7048.jpg
- S
HST NGC 5728 -O III- emission-line image.jpg
- T
a Craters of the Moon volcano

.
violet image of Venus

.
active galactic nuclear region of NGC 5728

.
cosmic-ray bombardment of the Moon's surface

.
blue lights from Io

.
neutrino profile of the solar octant

.
planetary nebula NGC 7048

.
ultraviolet image of the Earth

.
a neutron star in a binary system

.

92

Complete the text:

Match up the type of source with each of the possibilities below:
a source - A
a source or apparent source detected or created at or near the time of the event or events - B
a source or apparent source that transforms or transduces anything originating from a primary source - C
a source or apparent source that selects (such as through selective absorption), distills, scatters, or reflects anything from a primary or secondary source - D
the point of origin of a ray, beam, or stream of small cross section traveling in a line - E
a natural source in the sky especially at night - F
a tertiary source

.
a primary source

.
an astronomical source

.
a secondary source

.
a radiation source

an entity from which something comes or is acquired

.

93

Space radiation may be classified according to origin as?

galactic cosmic radiation
charged particles in large clouds
solar particle radiation
interaction with the geo-electric field
protons and electrons
geomagnetically trapped particle radiation

94

What may be the first astronomical source of the rocky-object Mercury?

Jupiter
the solar wind
the diffuse X-ray background
Saturn
Mount Redoubt in Alaska
the asteroid belt
the former protoplanetary disc around the Sun

95

Which of the following are theoretical radiation astronomy phenomena associated with space radiation?

possible orbits
a hyperbolic orbit
nuclear fusion at a star's exposed core
nuclear fusion in a star's chromosphere
near the barycenter of its planetary system
accretion
electric arcs
non-water ice
cometary origin

96

Complete the text:

Diamond nanocrystals (size 100 nm) emit bright

at 600–800 nm when exposed to green and yellow photons. The photoluminescence, arising from excitation of the

defect centers created by proton-beam

and thermal annealing, closely resembles the extended red emission (ERE) bands observed in reflection nebulae and

nebulae. The central wavelength of the emission is 700 nm.

97

The cosmic infrared background (CIB) causes a significant attenuation for very high energy protons through inverse Compton scattering, photopion and electron-positron pair production.

TRUE
FALSE

98

Background radiation may simply be any radiation that is?

99

Complete the text:

Match up the type of phenomenon with each of the possibilities below:
visible tracks such as a star trail - A
a cloud - B
bubbles - C
a grid of uninsulated electric wires - D
octagon - E
circumpolar trail - F
quadrangles

.
hectare

.
rotational pole

.
diameters

.
polyhedron

an arc

.

100

Four scores in time is eighty

.

101

Which of the following are characteristic of a volume?

polyhedra
globes
hectares
pyramid
pathway
furloughs


Hypotheses[edit]

  1. Essays such as for laboratories could be handled much like cases in Upper Limb Orthotics

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

{{Radiation astronomy resources}}