Messier 83 is shown in the image. Credit: David Malin, Anglo-Australian Observatory.

Principles of radiation astronomy is a course of forty-eight lectures, sixteen mini-lectures for quiz sections, three hourly quizzes that are timed at an hour, a mid-term that covers the first half of the course, and a final which covers everything in the course. This is the final quiz. It covers the entire course as described and listed in the syllabus.

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## Quiz

1

Complete the text:

 Match up the item letter with each of the detectors or satellites below: Bonner Ball Neutron Detector - A Multi Mirror Telescope - B MAGIC telescope - C Explorer 11 - D HEAO 3 - E Helios - F Pioneer 10 - G Voyager 1 - H . . . . . . .

2

The heavier element lines that occur in the spectrum of Vega are

 lanthanum (La) calcium (Ca) uranium (U) titanium (Ti) silicon (Si) iron (Fe)

3

Which of the following are phenomena usually associated with a heliostat?

 geographic coordinates a mirror which turns so as to keep reflecting sunlight toward a predetermined target the target is usually stationary computer control a two-axis motorized system altitude

4

Main sequence variable stars of late spectral types, usually K or M, exhibiting variations in luminosity due to rotation, starspots and other chromospheric activity are called.

5

When faculae are present, what characteristics are readily observed?

 bright spots bright patches starspots magnetic poles arising in the photosphere neon clouds

6

Which of the following are associated with the McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope?

 a launch location Kitt Peak National Observatory a heliostat a distinctive diagonal shaft that continues underground a theoretical resolution of 0.07" NOAA designations

7

Yes or No, Distance measurement by parallax is a special case of the principle of triangulation.

 Yes No

8

Complete the text:

 Match up the object with its approximate asec from V645 Cen: Proxima Centauri - A TYC 9010-4949-1 - B HD 126625 - C HD 126550 - D PN G313.8-01.7 - E PN G314.0-02.1 - F 2E 1427.0-6214 - G TGU H1952 - H 471.41 . 32.59 . 920.44 0.00 . 790.74 . 415.57 . 532.87 1095.86 .

9

The equation for the ion current is likely to include which of the following?

 the mass of the electron the number of electrons e to the grain capacitance factor the dust grain radius a 4πr factor

10

Complete the text:

 Match up the astronomical entity with each of the possibilities below: Agrippa - A Hill sphere - B a horoscope - C Centaurus A - D Rahu - E dominant group - F a relativistic jet . a body dominates the attraction of satellites . astronomical entities of importance . lunar nodes . God of the Ascending / North lunar node the occultation of a part of the Pleiades .

11

True or False, From only its X-ray properties, Vega is a Sirius-like X-ray source.

 TRUE FALSE

12

Which of the following is not a spectral class A star?

 Sirius A Vega Bellatrix Deneb Altair Fomalhaut

13

Which of the following are associated with classical Cepheids as a standard candle?

 characteristic mottling young, disk objects recent star formation incipient resolution pulsation phenomenon easy to recognize correction for absorption

14

Complete the text:

 Match up the standard candle with a representative image: Tully-Fisher relation - A surface brightness fluctuations - B absolute magnitude - C globular clusters - D active galactic nuclei - E Type Ia supernova - F classical Cepheid variable - G novae - H planetary nebula - I . . . . . . .

15

Which of the following are associated with red clump stars as a standard candle?

 many examples within reach of parallax measurements internal extinction star forming regions sufficiently bright local group galaxies almost as luminous as the brightest red supergiants

16

Mathematics phenomena associated with radiation astronomy are

 orbital theory flux of annihilation gamma rays the Rydberg formula pressure the local Jeans length Planck's equation

17

Complete the text:

 Match up the likely type of star fission with each of the possibilities below: a triple-component stellar multiple - A massive star fission - B semidetached binary - C a separating close contact binary - D ZAMS system - E tight, circular orbit, impossible to tell eclipses - F lobate star - G coronal mass ejection - H BH Centauri . Plaskett's Star (HR 2422) . Betelgeuse W Ursae Majoris . Beta Lyrae . V1010 Ophiuchi object is confirmed to be co-moving . Sun .

18

True or False, T Tauri stars are likely to have large areas of starspot coverage.

 TRUE FALSE

19

Which of the following is not a spectral class O star?

 Alpha Camelopardalis Tau Canis Majoris Plaskett's star Sirius A Pistol Star Zeta Puppis

20

Complete the text:

 Match up the stellar image with the radiation astronomy: meteor astronomy - A neutrino astronomy - B gamma-ray astronomy - C X-ray astronomy - D ultraviolet astronomy - E visual astronomy - F violet astronomy - G blue astronomy - H yellow astronomy - I red astronomy - J orange astronomy - K infrared astronomy - L radio astronomy - M . . . . . . . . . . . . .

21

True or False, When solving an equation for a numerical value arrange the coefficients together, the exponentials together, and the dimensions together, to reduce each as needed.

 TRUE FALSE

22

Which stars of the alpha Centauri system are known to have stellar active regions?

 Proxima Centauri Alpha Centauri B Barnard's star Alpha Centauri A Rigel Kent Alpha Centauri C Alpha Centauri D

23

True or False, The Ca XV emission line is a yellow coronal line at 569.4 nm.

 TRUE FALSE

24

Column density is associated with which of the following?

 an amount per unit area the sum of amounts per unit area along a column length a column length a column perimeter a number per area a cross section a current density the hydrogen 21 cm line

25

Complete the text:

 Match up the astronomical entity with the image: Osiris - A Rahu - B Amun - C Vishnu - D Huitzilopochtli - E Bhagwan Ayodhyapati Siyavara Shri Ramachandra - F . . . . .

26

True or False, Submillimeter radiation ranges from 100 µm to 1 mm.

 TRUE FALSE

27

Complete the text:

 Match up the type of star with each of the characteristics below: solar twin - A solar analog - B solar type - C double star - D binary - E visual binary - F astrometric binary - G spectroscopic binary - H eclipsing binary - I detached binary - J semidetached binary - K contact binary - L common-envelope binary - M area of gravitational pull exceeds the other component . same line of sight . wobbling around a point . no close companion with an orbital period of ten days or less . resolved binary using visual astronomy . periodic variation in radial velocity . each component fills the other's area of gravitational pull . F8V through K2V . unstable mass transfer from one to the other . mutual eclipses . two orbiting around each other no stellar companion . one component does not exceed the gravitational pull area .

28

Which of the following is associated with the first superluminal motion phenomenon in our galaxy?

 the Spring of 1994 4,000 light-years away VLT observations GRS 1915 MERLIN Jodrell Bank

29

Complete the text:

 Match up the type of mathematics with each of the possibilities below: numbers - A dimensional analysis - B arithmetic - C algebra - D exponentials - E probability - F x2 + y2 = z2 . PeV . ${\displaystyle \phi }$ α 1/σ . ex + ey . A(x) = A0 · e-bx 1015 .

30

Which of the following is not a spectral class B star?

 Spica Tau Canis Majoris Bellatrix Rigel Regulus Achernar

31

Complete the text:

 Solar-type stars are stars with a B-V color between and 0.80.

32

Which of the following are associated with AMANDA's search for monopoles?

 its large volume equivalent charge amount of Cherenkov light square of the charge passing through the Earth large monopole mass

33

True or False, From July 2010 to July 2013 the orbital inclination of Mercury increased from around 5° to around 7°.

 TRUE FALSE

34

Chemistry phenomena associated with the Lockman Hole are

 H I NH neutral hydrogen He II dust grains X-ray sources

35

Which of the following are characteristics of a solar-like binary?

 Teff ≤ 6000 K break up of a triple-component stellar system none of the captured bodies localize near the Sun some captured bodies may localize near Jupiter the Jupiter system may be a control group

36

The Lockman Hole is associated with?

 a hole in spacetime a hole through our galaxy Ursa Minor Ursa Major the cosmic infrared background minimum neutral hydrogen column density

37

True or False, Alshain may be the first yellow source in the constellation Aquila.

 TRUE FALSE

38

Which of the following is not a spectral class K star?

 Alpha Centauri B Epsilon Eridani Arcturus Aldebaran Tau Ceti Algol B

39

True or False, Molecular lines for H2O in the spectra for Vega are likely from water vapor in the Earth's atmosphere or the accretion disk around Vega.

 TRUE FALSE

40

Which of the following are characteristic of the first true astrophysical gamma-ray source?

 a strong 2.223 MeV emission line a solar flare the formation of deuterium the electron neutrino OSO-3 neutrons

41

Complete the text:

 Astronomers place the submillimetre waveband between the and wavebands, typically taken to be between a few hundred micrometres and a millimetre.

42

Which chemical species have an enhanced abundance at the north polar region of Jupiter relative to midlatitudes?

 CH3O C2H2 C2H4 C3H4 C6H6 H2O

43

Phenomena associated with some meteorites?

 have a gaseous surface long nickel-iron crystals octahedrite kamacite taenite plessite

44

Which of the following is not a spectral class G star?

 Alpha Centauri A Capella Sun Procyon Tau Ceti Kepler-22

45

Which of the following are radiation astronomy phenomena associated with Afghanistan?

 the Ai Khanoum Sun dial Cybele An orange sunset in the Mahim Bay a black sky without stars the zenith Helios

46

Complete the text:

 Neutrinos can be produced by energetic accelerated in solar fields. Such protons produce , and therefore muons, hence also as a decay product, in the solar atmosphere.

47

Which of the following is a lead (Pb) star?

 V Arietis Bellatrix Rigel LP 625-44 Regulus Achernar

48

True or False, Neutrino flux increases noted in Homestake results coincide with major solar flares.

 TRUE FALSE

49

Complete the text:

 Match up the observation with the phenomena: B1828+487 - A PKS0521-36 - B Fanaroff-Riley (FR) type II radio source - C prototypical type 2 Seyfert - D Frank–Tamm formula - E a type 1 Seyfert - F . . . . .

50

Meteorites found on Earth may be from which of the following?

 Saturn Mercury the Moon the asteroid belt Jupiter Mars Earth

51

For some period before 2700 b2k calendars from around the world had a year of how many days?

52

True or False, A column density is the number of units of matter observed along a line of sight that has an area of observation.

 TRUE FALSE

53

When sea level is present, what characteristics are readily observed?

 mean high tide mean low tide glacial periods hydroisostatic rebound temperatures above 103 K salt flats

54

Complete the text:

 Match up the superluminal detector with the image: Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope - A International Ultraviolet Explorer - B C. Donald Shane telescope - C 2.3m Bok Telescope - D VLA - E LHCb - F AMS-02 - G . . . . . .

55

True or False, Cosmological redshift is seen due to the expansion of the universe, and sufficiently distant light sources (generally more than a few million light years away) show redshift corresponding to the rate of increase of their distance from Earth.

 TRUE FALSE

56

Which of the following elements have or appear to have lines occurring in the spectra of Vega?

 hydrogen helium lithium beryllium boron carbon nitrogen oxygen fluorine neon

57

True or False, Radio observations taken by the Bernese Multibeam Radiometer for KOSMA (BEMRAK) at submillimeter wavelengths show an impulsive component that starts simultaneously with high-energy proton acceleration and the production of pions.

 TRUE FALSE

58

Sources of bias in thin-section analysis of chondrule sizes in meteorites are?

 large variation in actual diameters disaggregation rim characteristics random sectioning produces less than or equal to true diameters transparent matrix viewing in reflected light

59

The point where the interstellar medium and solar wind pressures balance is called the

60

Which of the following are characteristic of a β+ decay?

 a mu neutrino a positron emission a decay product of a neutron weak interaction an electron neutrino comes in mutable varieties

61

True or False, The infrared spectra of olivine and enstatite are essentially unchanged after proton bombardment.

 TRUE FALSE

62

Submillimeter radiances can be matched by models which include ice particles of?

63

Which of the following is involved in planetary astronomy more so than planetary science?

 the occurrence of blue rock types on the surface of rocky objects the Earth and other rocky objects have a green mineral containing mantle checking equations about complex systems the advantages of a 559 nm band pass digging holes in the surface of Mars surface temperatures low enough to produce methane lakes

64

True or False, The Carina Nebula may be a first submillimeter source in the constellation Carina.

 TRUE FALSE

65

Which of the following are X-radiation astronomy phenomena associated with stellar surface fusion?

 luminosities below ~3 x 1038 erg/s a few SSS with luminosities ≥1039 erg/s synchrotron radiation a photosphere a polar diameter that exceeds ever so slightly the equatorial diameter at solar cycle minimum super soft X-rays hot active regions with temperatures hot enough to fuse hydrogen sunspots at the feet of coronal loops

66

Complete the text:

 Match up the item letter with each of the possibilities below: Einstein ring - A stellar nebula - B Andromeda galaxy - C Triplet galaxies interacting - D Hubble galaxies - E Dark matter halo simulation - F Fairall 9 (Seyfert galaxy in X-rays) - G Tycho Brahe observatory, remotely controlled telescope, captured galaxy - H . . . . . . . .

67

Which of the following are associated with muon astronomy?

 high-energy cosmic rays secondary and tertiary cosmic rays nuclear interactions between neutrons and quartz nuclear interactions between muons and calcite production rates of a few atoms per gram of rock per year build-up of cosmogenic nuclides through time

68

True or False, Carbon has an emission line in the blue.

 TRUE FALSE

69

Complete the text:

 The nuclear processes that produce cosmogenic 36Cl in rocks are , neutron , and capture.

70

Which of the following are or likely to be relatively common red minerals?

 crocoite rhodolite cinnabar hematite eudialyte

71

The MINOS experiment uses Fermilab's NuMI beam, which is an intense beam of neutrinos, that travels 455 miles (732 km) through the Earth to the?

72

True or False, "Some prominences break apart and give rise to coronal mass ejections."

 TRUE FALSE

73

The term astrogeography is often more restricted because of what?

 the relationship between outer-space geography and geographic position military space strategy extensive meteorite cratering a flattening out evaluating strategy military operations

74

Which of the following are associated with surface brightness fluctuations as a standard candle?

 characteristic mottling discreteness of the stars measurable bumpiness in surface brightness incipient resolution MMRDs easy to recognize

75

Complete the text:

 Match up the description with each of the optical astronomy possibilities below: Palomar's 5 m - L adaptive optics poc - M AO actuators - N Mars Global Surveyor - O star-forming region - P Warner & Swasey - Q protoplanetary nebula - R SkyMapper - S Mauna Kea - T full-color of Mercury - U Hubble Space Telescope of carbon star - V supernova remnant - W HESS - X line of sight - Y . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

76

Which phenomena are associated with the heliosphere?

 a region of space where the interstellar medium is blown away by the solar wind a bubble in space virtually all the material emanates from the Sun itself Voyager 2 Voyager 1 the termination shock

77

Phenomena associated with the Milky Way are?

 spiral arms a spheroidal shape a standard to differentiate dwarf galaxies often referred to as the Galaxy arms of younger stars contains star clusters dust lanes extended red emission (ERE) a faint galaxy heavy with dark matter may orbit it larger than the Andromeda galaxy

78

Which of the following are characteristic of interstellar extinction?

 redder color indices closer stars more affected color excess observed color index minus intrinsic color index red shift blue shift

79

The Spitzer Space Telescope has the following phenomena usually associated with it?

 cryogenically-cooled 85 cm diameter f/12 lightweight boron 3 - 180 µm wavelength range the Fraunhofer E line

80

Complete the text:

 Match up the type of speed effect with each of the possibilities below: superluminal - A luminal - B subluminal - C transluminal - D tachyons - E tardyons - F speeds which cross the speed of light . speed equal to that of light . particles moving at speeds slower than light . speed less than light . particles moving at speeds faster than light speed greater than light .

81

The standard condition for temperature and pressure is likely to be which of the following?

 the Sun 1 atm 0 K 273.15 K 1 isobar

82

Anomalous dispersion is associated with which of the following?

 refractive index decrease in index Scorpius X-1 group velocity can be boosted to beyond the velocity of its constituent waves resonance of ionized hydrogen

83

True or False, Messier 31 is a likely first astronomical X-ray source in the constellation Andromeda.

 TRUE FALSE

84

Complete the text:

 Match up the letter for the object name with the radio or radar image below: Sun - A Mercury - B Venus - C Earth - D Moon (South Pole) - E Moon (North Pole) - F Moon (850 micron thermal emission) - G Mars (North Pole cross section) - H Toustatis - I Jupiter - J Saturn - K Titan - L Interstellar medium - M Milky Way - N 3C 98 - O 3C 31 - P 3C 380 - Q Moon (self radiation) - R NGC 4151 - S GRS 1915 - T M87 - U 3C 279 - V IRC+10216 - W Boomerang nebula - X R Sculptoris - Y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

85

True or False, 3C 295 is a galaxy cluster filled with a vast cloud of 50 MK gas and plasma.

 TRUE FALSE

86

Which of the following are associated with lunar red glasses?

 produced in a volcanic fire-fountain composed of three chemical groups lthe presence of crocoite the most Mg-rich group (A) was produced by partial melting of Ti-rich cumulates at a depth of about 480 km derived from a magma by fractional crystallization

87

True or False, Coronal loops project into the coronal cloud, through the transition region and the chromosphere.

 TRUE FALSE

88

Which of the following is not an astronomical superluminal source?

 3C 345 3C 48 3C 263 3C 179 3C 245 3C 279

89

Complete the text:

 Match up the object viewed in the ultraviolet with its image: Sun's chromosphere- L calcite - M Venus - N Jupiter's aurora - O Jupiter - P Io - Q Saturn - R Betelgeuse - S Mira - T LAB-1 - U Messier 101 - V . . . . . . . . . .

90

The type star that goes through fairly extreme changes of brightness: for instance, in 1952, its brightness increased by 75 times in only 20 seconds, is what star?

91

True or False, Nitrogen has an emission line in the blue.

 TRUE FALSE

92

Which of the following are phenomena associated with grid systems?

 geographic coordinates the Royal Observatory in Greenwich French Institut Géographique National (IGN) maps a longitude meridian passing through Paris a local center of civilization altitude

93

Complete the text:

 Match up the altitude with its concept: altitude - A meters above sea level - B indicated altitude - C absolute altitude - D true altitude - E height - F pressure altitude - G density altitude - H altitude in terms of distance above a certain point masl . usually a vertical distance measurement . altitude in terms of the density of the air . the altimeter reading . altitude in terms of air pressure . altitude in elevation above sea level . distance above the ground directly .

94

Which of the following is a shell star?

 Gamma Cassiopeiae Capella Sun Beta Canis Minoris Tau Ceti Achernar

95

Complete the text:

 Match up the imaging system letter with the image possibilities below: Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (EGRET) - A XMM Newton - B Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope - C Lunar Orbiter Gamma-Ray Spectrometer - D BATSE - E Mars Odyssey GRS - F GLAST - G Swift (X-ray/Gamma-ray mission) - H . . . . . . .

96

True or False, Oxygen has an emission line in the blue.

 TRUE FALSE

97

Complete the text:

 Match up the letter of the spherical object with each of the possibilities below: Sun - A Mercury - B Venus - C Earth - D Moon - E Mars - F Ceres - G Jupiter - H Callisto - I Europa - J Ganymede - K Io - L Enceladus - M Titan - N Uranus - O Titania - P Neptune - Q Triton - R Pluto - S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

98

A super flare on the evening of August 28, 1859, was recorded by

99

True or False, Fluorine has an emission line in the blue.

 TRUE FALSE

100

Which of the following are phenomena associated with electromagnetic cascades?

 spectral and timing properties of astronomical sources very high-energy γ-rays the way from the source to the Earth soft X-rays redshifts ambient radiation fields inside the γ-ray source source stability protons

101

Complete the text:

 Match up the radiation letter with each of the detector possibilities below: Meteors - A Cosmic rays - B Neutrons - C Protons - D Electrons - E Positrons - F Neutrinos - G Muons - H Gamma rays - I X-rays - J Ultraviolet rays - K Optical rays - L Visual rays - M Violet rays - N Blue rays - O Cyan rays - P Green rays - Q Yellow rays - R Orange rays - S Red rays - T Infrared rays - U Submillimeter rays - V Radio rays - W Superluminal rays - X multialkali (Na-K-Sb-Cs) photocathode materials . F547M . 511 keV gamma-ray peak . F675W . broad-band filter centered at 404 nm . a cloud chamber . ring-imaging Cherenkov . coherers . effective area is larger by 104 . F588N . pyroelectrics . a blemish about 8,000 km long . a metal-mesh achromatic half-wave plate . coated with lithium fluoride over aluminum . thallium bromide (TlBr) crystals . F606W . aluminum nitride . heavy water . 18 micrometers FWHM at 490 nm . wide-gap II-VI semiconductor ZnO doped with Co2+ (Zn1-xCoxO) . a recoiling nucleus high-purity germanium . magnetic deflection to separate out incoming ions . 2.2-kilogauss magnet used to sweep out electrons .

102

True or False, Neon has an emission line in the blue.

 TRUE FALSE

103

Which of the following are associated with sounding rockets?

 a launch location Woomera Test Range White Sands Proving Grounds Titania Natal, Brazil the Skylark

104

True or False, The Galactic plane passes through the constellation of Caelum.

 TRUE FALSE

105

Red-giant stars have (or theoretically may have) these in common:

 potential 22Ne helium-burning shells non-standard neutrino losses Lithium red line N stars display F abundances up to 30 times the solar system value RGB and AGB stars a radius between 200 and 800 times that of the Sun

106

True or False, If you have a severe headache after about 35 Grays of exposure to ionizing radiation, you may be in an immediate phase radiation poisoning.

 TRUE FALSE

107

WNM is an acronym for what?

108

Which of the following is a spectral class S star?

 BD Camelopardalis S Ursae Majoris Chi Cygni Deneb Altair Fomalhaut

109

True or False, Radio rays have wavelengths of one millimeter or more.

 TRUE FALSE

110

Which of the following is not an astronomical entity?

 Mercury Venus Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune

111

Soon after the invention of radar astronomy, what classical planet was detected

112

Complete the text:

 Match up the item letter with each of the possibilities below: Sun - A Mercury - B Venus - C Earth - D Comets - E Mars - F Jupiter - G Saturn - H Auroral currents on the order of 106 Amps Fluorescent radiation from oxygen at ~130 km above the surface . Faint halo of X-rays extending out some 7,000 km . Solar wind lighting up with X-rays . Bright X-ray arcs at low energy . Major source of hard X-rays . X-ray emission concentrated near the equator . Low surface iron content in minerals .

113

True or False, Seifertite has only been found in Martian and lunar meteorites.

 TRUE FALSE

114

The 111 → 110 rotational transition that occurs in the direction of four dark nebulae is likely from what chemical.

115

Complete the text:

 Match up the item letter with each of the possibilities below: Optical bench - A Focal length - B CCD - C Coded aperture - D Grazing incidence - E Modulator - F Collimator - G Normal incidence - H a device for the movement of electrical charge gold mirrors . narrows a beam . a measure of how strongly a system converges or diverges . reflective multilayer optics . varying amplitude, phase, or frequency . a flat grille . a platform used to support systems .

116

Which of the following is a spectral class C or carbon star?

 Alpha Camelopardalis R Leporis TT CVn S Camelopardalis Pistol Star Y Canum Venaticorum

117

Soil samples from the mare of the Moon reflect primarily cyan due to the presence in the soils of what?

118

Complete the text:

 Match up the item letter with each of the possibilities below: Intracluster medium - A Mayall's object - B M82 PAHs - C Milky Way bubbles - D Local Hot Bubble - E Stephan's Quintet - F UGC 8335 - G Arp 272 - H . . . . . . .

119

Which of the following are green radiation astronomy phenomena associated with the Sun?

 the color of the upper rim as seen from Earth an excess brightness at or near the edge of the Sun the iron XIV green line neutron emission polar coronal holes meteor emission changes in the line-blanketing

120

Complete the text:

 Match up the radiation type with the satellite: meteor - A cosmic ray - B neutral atoms - C neutron - D proton - E electron - F positron - G neutrino - H gamma ray - I X-ray - J ultraviolet - K optical - L visual - M violet - N blue - O cyan - P green - Q yellow - R orange - S red - T infrared - U submillimeter - V microwave - W radio - X radar - Y superluminal - Z . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

121

Which of the following may be true regarding the interacting galaxies of UGC 9618?

 the pair of galaxies appear to be interacting rather than a mere galaxy double a lack of luminous sources at any wavelength in the interaction volume asymmetry is approximately centered on the interaction volume a common origin originally between them the large X-ray output surrounding primarily the more central portion of the edge-on galaxy suggests a very high temperature galactic coronal cloud the infrared portion of the composite image with ultraviolet strongly suggests that the edge-on galaxy is much cooler in general than the face-on galaxy orange and yellow astronomy reveal that the edge-on galaxy may be composed of older or cooler stars VV340A appears to be more than 33 % involved in the interaction

122

True or False, Using transits of the Sun by Mercury demonstrates that the Sun is most likely located well within the orbit of Mercury.

 TRUE FALSE

123

Complete the text:

 Match up the type of Sun system astrogony with each of the possibilities below: Babylonian epic story of creation - A a primordial or first Greek god - B the primeval chaos - C creation of heaven and earth - D Greek god personifying the sky - E Cronus (Saturn) castrating his father - F separation of the waters by a firmament . Chaos magno . Uranus . watery abyss . Ouranos Enuma Elish .

124

When ionization cones are present, what green characteristics are usually readily observed?

 O III green emission line green continua biconical structure a common cone axis and apex ionized gas neon clouds

125

Which of the following are associated with the IceCube Neutrino Observatory?

 under ice the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station Digital Optical Modules the counting house is on the surface above the array the baryon neutrino the electron neutrino

126

True or False, HR 4731, α2 Cru is an infrared source in the constellation Crux.

 TRUE FALSE

127

Complete the text:

 Match up the violet or violet containing image with the object letter: Sun - A Venus - B Earth - C Moon - D Mars - E Jupiter - F Ganymede - G Io - H Saturn - I Dione - J Titan - K Uranus - L Ariel - M Miranda - N Triton - O Eta Carinae - P NGC 5584 - Q . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

128

Complete the text:

 Match up the type of trigonometric parallax with each of the possibilities below: visual parallax - A distribution function of the errors in distance - B VLBA - C Cygnus X-1 - D pulse times of arrival - E ultraviolet trigonometric parallax - F optical annual parallax (HST) - G continuum 'fixed' radio sources J1953+3537 and J1957+3338 . Vela pulsar . skewed due to non-linearity . cloud top height . Sgr B2M and Sgr B2N . PSRs J1744−1134 and J1024−0719 detected at X-ray energies χ Cyg 144 ± 25 pc (Stein 1991) .

129

True or False, RS Canum Venaticorum variables are close binary stars having active chromospheres which can cause large stellar spots.

 TRUE FALSE

130

Which of the following are phenomena usually associated with fluorine emission?

 fluorine emission lines in the green are relatively weak fluorine lines in the near infrared are usually much stronger than the green lines F I has lines in the green F II has lines in the green F III has at least one line in the green the Fraunhofer E line

131

Complete the text:

 Match up the item letter with each of the possibilities below: Chemistry - A Geography - B History - C Mathematics - D Physics - E Science - F Technology - G Geology - H solar eclipses a spatial frequency of occurrence or extent . radio observations revealed a radio corona around the Sun . elemental abundances . microcalorimeter arrays . The Ariel V /3 A/ catalogue of X-ray sources. II - Sources at high galactic latitude |b| > 10° . Carancas meteorite . a thermal bremsstrahlung source may fit .

132

Which of the following are associated with SOFIA?

 the atmosphere of the Earth the stratosphere X-rays a rocket a balloon a Boeing 747 infrared astronomy

133

Complete the text:

 One of the reasons why detection of is controversial is that although (and some other methods like rotational spectroscopy) are good for the identification of simple species with large dipole moments, they are less sensitive to more molecules, even something relatively small like .

134

Complete the text:

 Charged-current charged pion production is a process in which a interacts with an atomic and produces a , a charged and recoiling nuclear fragments.

135

Which of the following are the differences between a star and an astronomical yellow source?

 a star may emit predominantly green rays an astronomical yellow source is spherical a yellow star is an astronomical yellow source a star with nuclear fusion in its chromosphere emits neutrinos, but a yellow source with no nuclear fusion ongoing does not a yellow source may be cloud like an astronomical yellow source may be a rocky object

136

True or False, The Sun must be located at the barycenter of the solar system.

 TRUE FALSE

137

Complete the text:

 Match up the blue object with the possibilities below: Sun - H Mercury - I Venus - J Earth - K Meteorite on Mars - L Pallas - M Comet Holmes - N Europa - O Io - P Saturn - Q Enceladus - R Tethys - S Titan - T Neptune - U Abell 370 - V SN 1987A - W Crab Nebula - X . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

138

Which of the following are associated with the dynamo of the Sun?

 plate tectonics in its past dipole magnetic field it is spheroidal stripes of crustal magnetism a circular electric current flowing deep within the star it appears to be in hydrostatic equilibrium transform faults shear between different parts of the Sun two natural satelites it has a radiative zone

139

Which of the following is not a star-forming region?

 Messier 17 sky region RCW 79 NGC 2024 Local Void NGC 2264 NGC 6503

140

Nuclear physics phenomena associated with the atmosphere of the Sun are

 symbiotic novae coronal loops acting like particle accelerators nanoflares high atmospheric pressure deuterium emitted neutrons

141

True or False, α Sagittarii may be the first detected UV source in the constellation Sagittarius.

 TRUE FALSE

142

Which geographical phenomena are associated with Iapetus?

 dark territory of Cassini Regio manifesting intense magnetic fields equatorial ridge that bisects Cassini Regio global "color dichotomy" global brightness dichotomy different color hues leading vs. the trailing side color hues

143

True or False, The standard candle being used in 1977 for spectral region K5-M4 is the CN (cyanide) index from the CN absorption in selected bands.

 TRUE FALSE

144

Helium has emission lines in which of the following colors?

 violet blue cyan green yellow orange red

145

Which of the following are associated with X-radiation?

 spans three decades in wavelength spans three decades in frequency spans three decades in energy emitted by 26Al coronal clouds 60 keV electromagnetic radiation 90 eV electromagnetic radiation visually dark source

146

Which of the following is not a characteristic of solar active regions?

 lithium nucleosynthesis coronal clouds spot central meridian passage a surface coverage of at least 95%.

147

True or False, For the photosphere to have a net negative charge and interstellar electrons to be streaming into the solar system, the sign of the voltage at the Sun is positive.

 TRUE FALSE

148

Phenomena associated with apparent superluminal motion are

 tachyons an optical illusion the object partly moving in the direction of the observer large amounts of mass moving at close to half the speed of light speed calculations assume it does not move in the direction of the observer velocities close to the speed of light relative to our reference frame

149

Which of the following are associated with the geodynamo of Mars?

 plate tectonics in its past Mars is spheroidal stripes of crustal magnetism it appears to be in hydrostatic equilibrium transform faults two natural satelites the direction of the magnetic field changes dramatically from place to place

150

True or False, By setting the first partial derivative of Planck's equation in wavelength form equal to zero, iterative calculations may be used to find pairs of (λ,T) that to some significant digits represent the peak wavelength for a given temperature and vice versa.

 TRUE FALSE

151

Complete the text:

 Match up the theoretical astronomy idea with each of the possibilities below: astronomical object - A astronomical source - B astronomical entity - C star - D interstellar medium - E material - F natural luminous body visible in the sky . naturally from which something comes . matter which may be shaped or manipulated . an independent, separate, or self-contained existence . the matter that exists in the space between the star systems naturally in the sky especially at night .

152

True or False, The character, sign, or symbol ⊚, ⨀, ⦿, or ⊙ may represent Saturn.

 TRUE FALSE

153

Complete the text:

 Match up the type of stellar surface fusion with each of the possibilities below: symbiotic nova - A recurrent nova - B flare star (flaring) - C accretion - D coronal loops - E amplitude of between 9 and 11 magnitudes . a close companion star that overflows its Roche lobe . about every 20 years . unpredictable dramatic increases in brightness for a few minutes . the basic structure of the lower corona and transition region

154

Which phenomena are associated with the dynamo of Uranus?

 axisymmetric magnetic field sulfur volcanoes non-dipolar water oceans bipolar magnetotail detached bow shock obtuse rotation

155

True or False, The planet Saturn exhibits a pale yellow hue due to ammonia crystals in its upper atmosphere.

 TRUE FALSE

156

Complete the text:

 Match up the item letter with each of the first astronomical source possibilities below: Meteors - A Cosmic rays - B Neutrons - C Protons - D Electrons - E Positrons - F Gamma rays - G Superluminals - H cosmic rays galactic nuclei . comets . electron-positron annihilation . weak force nuclear decay . AGNs . 511 keV photon pair production . solar wind .

157

Which of the following emission/absorption phenomena are associated with yellow astronomy?

 Nitrogen emission line at 575.5 nm the strong C2 (1,2) band nitrogen emission in plasmas at 566.934 nm from N VIII Helium emission line at 5876 Å neutral iron line at 526.96 nm Calcium yellow line at 569.4 nm

158

True or False, The European Space Agency's Herschel Space Observatory has aboard the Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS) which operates in three bands centred on 70, 100, and 160 μm, respectively.

 TRUE FALSE

159

Which of the following is a barium star?

 Alpha Camelopardalis Zeta Capricorni TT CVn S Camelopardalis HR 107 HR 774

160

Complete the text:

 Match up the image with the star-forming regions: Messier 17 - A RCW 79 - B Flame Nebula - C Cone Nebula - D NGC 1999 - E R136 - F HH 46/47 - G RCW 108 - H Carina Nebula - I NGC 3582 - J NGC 1097 - K Hubble-X - L NGC 6334 - M Arp 220 - N Sh 2-106 - O Rho Ophiuchi complex - P Ghost Head Nebula - Q NGC 2366 - R NGC 2363 - S Dragonfish nebula - T . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

161

Which of the following are associated with Type-Ia supernovae as a standard candle?

 lack silicon lines lack hydrogen lines lack helium lines lack lithium lines expanding photosphere method almost as luminous as the brightest red supergiants

162

Complete the text:

 Match up the item letter with each of the possibilities below: synchrotron X-rays - A power law - B inverse Compton - C thermal Bremsstrahlung - D black body - E cyclotron - F Supergiant Fast X-ray Transients Galactic diffuse emission . Crab nebula . continuum . accretion disk . strongly magnetized neutron stars .

163

Which of the following sunspot phenomena are associated with the Maunder minimum?

 extensively long quiet Sun lowest 14C concentration from as far back as 1100 BP. a period of lower-than-average European temperatures a surface coverage of about 88% only about 50 sunspots during one 30-year period 11-year cycles

164

Complete the text:

 Match up the likely surface fusion activity with the image: CME - A coronal clouds - B solar flare - C neutrinos from the solar octant - D coronal loops - E prominences - F . . . . .

165

True or False, O VI is a lithium-like ion.

 TRUE FALSE

166

AGNs may be used as standard candles because?

 they are extremely luminous can be observed at very large distances they emit their own light signature GeV gamma rays reverberation mapping tight relationship between the luminosity of an AGN and the radius of its broad line region

167

Complete the text:

 Match up the trigonometric parallax phenomena with the image: stellar parallax motion - A Very Long Baseline Array - B radio continuum - C Chandra X-ray Observatory spatial resolution HRC-I ~ 0.5 arcsec - D WD 0346+246 has a trigonometric parallax measurement - E Very Large Telescope - F . . . . .

168

Which of the following are associated with hydrocarbons?

 liquid lakes on Titan petroleum deposits on Earth methane in the atmosphere of Uranus Titania atmosphere of Neptune an H II region

169

True or False, In a cyclotron on Earth 261Rg can be created using about 290 MeV to accelerate say 64Ni into bismuth, in a coronal loop or flare in the atmosphere of the Sun where up to about 400 MeV expenditures have been detected, nickel can be accelerated up to about 290 MeV into bismuth to create roentgenium.

 TRUE FALSE

170

The orange band from molecular calcium chloride is observed in the spectra of many stars of what type?

171

Complete the text:

 Regarding a blue haze layer near the south polar region of Titan, the difference in color above and nearer the could be due to of the haze.

172

True or False, The differential profile of the Sun's surface extends into the solar interior as rotating cylinders of constant angular momentum.

 TRUE FALSE

173

Complete the text:

 Match up the item letter with each of the possibilities below: Scorpius X-1 - A Serpens X-1 - B Circinus X-1 - C Virgo X-1 - D Taurus X-1 - E Cygnus X-1 - F Cepheus X-1 - G Sagittarius X-1 - H Crab Nebula Messier 87 . 2U 1744-26 . Tychos's Nova SN 1572 . Carina X-1 misprint . the first X-ray source widely accepted to be a black hole candidate . discovered in 1962 by a team under Riccardo Giacconi . not Caput .

174

True or False, Regulus is a likely first violet source in Leo.

 TRUE FALSE

175

Which of the following are associated with globular clusters as a standard candle?

 characteristic mottling luminosity functions turnover point incipient resolution dispersion of the distribution easy to recognize log-normal function

176

The galaxy image at the right has approximately which type of rotational symmetry??

 one-fold - ⊙ two-fold - ⊖ three-fold - ▲ four-fold - ◈ five-fold - ✪ six-fold - ✱

177

Complete the text:

 A three-color (850, 650, and 350 GHz) single-pixel system has been installed on the Submillimeter Telescope (ASTE) and several massive star forming regions were mapped to derive submillimeter SEDs of these sources.

178

Trigonometric parallax involves which of the following?

 parsecs reciprocal of parallax arcseconds apparent changes in position lines of sight

179

Complete the text:

 Match up the approximate luminosity class with each of the stellar class possibilities below: 0 - A I - B II - C III - D IV - E V - F VI - G VII - H giants . supergiants . white dwarfs . main-sequence . bright giants . subdwarfs . subgiants hypergiants .

180

Which of the following are associated with the stellar active region control group?

 solar cycle closed magnetic structures solar wind long-lived loop arcades helmet streamers the Sun

181

True or False, Sirius is a likely first red source in Canis Major.

 TRUE FALSE

182

Which of the following is not a phenomenon usually associated with sunspots?

 solar photosphere a hole in the granulated photosphere production of 7Be rotation solar cycle starspots flip-flop cycle

183

Complete the text:

 Match up the item letter with each of the possibilities below: Hydrogen - H, or D Helium - He Lithium - Li Beryllium - Be Boron - B Carbon - C Nitrogen - N Oxygen - O Fluorine - F Neon - Ne consumed in chromosphere fusion to produce lithium and neutrinos . isotope fusion in the chromosphere producing neutrinos fusion in the chromosphere producing the most neutrinos . a factor of ~200 below meteorite abundance in the Sun's photosphere . detected with X-rays on the Moon . an organic form detected in Allan Hills 84001 probably from Mars . detected marginally on Venus with Chandra . found in the X-ray spectra of comets . consumed to produce beryllium and neutrinos . a surface impurity on meteorites .

184

Which of the following are associated with standard candles?

 Cepheid variables Type Ia supernovae the Sun stellar spectral type absolute magnitude Tully-Fisher relation

185

Complete the text:

 Match up the observation with the binary star: Sirius A and B - A Algol A and B - B Albireo - C WISE J1049-5319 - D Mizar A - E Minkowski 2-9 - F . . . . .

186

True or False, Beryllium has an emission line in the blue.

 TRUE FALSE

187

Complete the text:

 Whether the thermal IGM is or collisionless at scales smaller than the scale depends on the effect of reduced that is mediated by the plasma .

188

Which of the following are radiation astronomy phenomena usually associated with lithium emission?

 a green emission line nucleosynthesis an orange line at 610.3 nm the Spite plateau lithium-drifted silicon detectors the Fraunhofer E line asymptotic supergiant branch an infrared line at 812.6 nm

189

True or False, Ray angle deviation and dispersion through a prism can be determined by tracing a sample ray through the element and using Snell's law at each interface.

 TRUE FALSE

190

Which of the following is a technetium star?

 Alpha Camelopardalis R Geminorum TT CVn S Camelopardalis HR 107 HR 774

191

True or False, The apex angle for a spectrograph is the angle the incoming ray makes with the first prism face.

 TRUE FALSE

192

Which of the following is not an astronomical trigonometric parallax or derived from it?

 Hipparcos mission (ESA 1997), π = 15.15 ± 3.24 mas independent observational constraint for DA white dwarfs parallax distance of 357 +43 or −35 pc angular diameter comparison distance estimates the range of an artificial satellite

193

Complete the text:

 Match up the item letter with each of the possibilities below: E0 - A E1 - B E2 - C E3 - D E4 - E E5 - F E6 - G E7 - H . . . . . . . at left .

194

The cosmic infrared background (CIB) causes a significant attenuation for very high energy protons through inverse Compton scattering, photopion and electron-positron pair production.

 TRUE FALSE

195

Complete the text:

 Match up the item letter with each of the X-ray angular resolution possibilities below: Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer - A XMM-Newton - B Chandra X-ray Observatory - C Swift - D Astro-rivelatore Gamma ad Imagini Leggero (AGILE) - E Solar Heliospheric Observatory - F Suzaku - G Koronas-Foton - H 2" 3" . ~2' . 1" . 5.9' . 7' . 1" . 0.5" .

196

Which of the following is a prominent feature associated with solar clouds?

 coronal mass ejections rotation magnetic clouds coronal clouds plasma magnetic field lines

197

Complete the text:

 Match up the type of source with each of the possibilities below: a source - A a source or apparent source detected or created at or near the time of the event or events - B a source or apparent source that transforms or transduces anything originating from a primary source - C a source or apparent source that selects (such as through selective absorption), distills, scatters, or reflects anything from a primary or secondary source - D the point of origin of a ray, beam, or stream of small cross section traveling in a line - E a natural source in the sky especially at night - F a tertiary source . a primary source . an astronomical source . a secondary source . a radiation source an entity from which something comes or is acquired .

198

Spiral galaxies have which of the following in common?

 spiral arms a spheroidal shape may appear lenticular is irregular arms of younger stars may contain star clusters dust lanes

199

Complete the text:

 Match up the celestial octant with the constellation: NQ1 - A NQ2 - B NQ3 - C NQ4 - D SQ1 - E SQ2 - F SQ3 - G SQ4 - H Musca . Sagitta . Lynx . Pyxis . Piscis Austrinus . Corona Borealis . Pictor . Taurus .

200

Complete the text:

 Match up the coordinate system letter with each of the possibilities below: triclinic coordinate system - A monoclinic coordinate system - B orthorhombic coordinate system - C tetragonal coordinate system - D rhombohedral coordinate system - E hexagonal coordinate system - F α = β = γ = 90° and a ≠ b ≠ c . a = b ≠ c and α = β = 90°, γ = 120° . a = b = c and α = β = γ < 120°, ≠ 90° . α = β = γ = 90° and a = b ≠ c . a ≠ b ≠ c and α ≠ β ≠ γ . a ≠ b ≠ c and for example α = β ≠ γ ≠ 90° .

201

Which of the following are radiation astronomy phenomena associated with the rocky-object Io?

 surface regions reflecting or emitting violet or purple an excess brightness at or near the edge red regions that may be phosphorus neutron emission polar coronal holes meteor emission rotation

202

True or False, To date, all of the reported hypervelocity stars (HVSs), which are believed to be ejected from the Galactic center, are blue.

 TRUE FALSE

203

Complete the text:

 Match up the item letter with each of the possibilities below: Moon - A Eros - B Io - C Ganymede - D Europa - E Titan - F X-ray producing electric arc, current spots reflecting solar X-rays . soft X-ray emission . possible soft X-ray emission . synchrotron X-ray diffraction of methane hydrate up to 10GPa . ordinary chondrite composition .

204

Handling cosmic rays when using a submillimeter bolometer as a detector involve which of the following:

 a rapid rise in temperature not practical to prevent cosmic-ray events understanding their behavior deglitching operating in a relatively high cosmic-ray flux

205

Which of the following are associated with the envelope of the polarization current density?

 emission of electromagnetic radiation from a superluminal charged particle intensity of some components decays as the inverse of the distance from the source non-spherically-decaying sources emission contains very high frequencies not present in the synthesis of the source non-spherically decaying components of the radiation do not violate energy conservation strong electromagnetic fields are compensated by weak fields elsewhere

206

Complete the text:

 Match up the distance-time phenomena with the image: line of sight - A an origin - B a displacement - C one billion light years - D measuring - E acceleration - F Celestial swiss cheese. . A beautiful galaxy. . An elliptical orbit. . Closer than a route. . It's about the chains. Getting the numbers. .

207

Which of the following is not a spectral class F star?

 Polaris Alrakis Bellatrix Procyon Canopus Wezen

208

Complete the text:

 Match up the item letter with each of the cosmogonic possibilities below: interior models of the giant planets - A high interest for cosmogony, geophysics and nuclear physics - B hierarchical accumulation - C clouds and globular clusters - D cosmic helium abundance - E deuterium fusion - F a large deficiency of light elements - G after galactic sized systems had collapsed - H the motions of hydrogen fornation of luminous quasars . stars with an initial mass less than the solar mass . rotating liquid drops . primordial is less than 26 per cent . a solar mixture of elements dominated by hydrogen and helium gas . around 13 Jupiter masses . smaller rocky objects .

209

Nuclear fission and nuclear fusion may be connected by which of the following?

 means for concentrating actinide elements and for separating actinide elements from reactor poisons exist thermonuclear fusion reactions in stars are ignited by nuclear fission energy dark matter the feasibility of thermal neutron fission and fast neutron fission in planetary and protostellar matter may be calculated from nuclear reactor theory brown dwarfs

210

Which of the following are radiation astronomy phenomena associated with the apparent liquid-object Earth?

 rain snow hail neutron emission polar coronal holes meteor emission rotation

211

Complete the text:

 Match up the characteristics with the type of dynamo: disc dynamo - A geodynamo - B radiative dynamo - C α dynamo - D Ω dynamo - E radiative α-Ω dynamo - F Taylor-Spruit dynamo - G convection . pinch-type instabilites . molten outer core . turbulence, a radiative layer, and differential rotation . radiative layers . differential rotation . a rotating cylinder .

212

High-energy particle acceleration during an energetic solar flare may involve which of the following at submillimeter wavelengths:

 a rapid rise in temperature a gradual, long-lasting component large apparent source sizes synchrotron emission a magnetic field strength of ≥ 200 Gauss a close correlation in time and space of radio emission with pion production

213

Complete the text:

 Match up the item letter with each of the possibilities below: Skylark - A V-2 - B Nike-Asp - C Aerobee 150 - D Black Brant XII - E Vertikal - F Terrier Sandhawk - G Wallops Flight Facility Woomera, Australia . Natal, Brazil . Kapustin Yar . White Sands Missile Range . Point Defiance . Barking Sands . White Sands Proving Grounds .

214

What are the requirements for a dynamo to occur and subsequently operate?

 plate tectonics in its past an electrically conductive fluid medium a spheroidal object stripes of crustal magnetism local magnetohydrodynamic instabilities transform faults shear between different parts two natural satelites an energy source

215

Complete the text:

 Match up the type of radiation with each of the star-forming possibilities below: Spitzer infrared - A VISTA infrared - B visual - C XMM-Newton X-rays - D ultraviolet - E ESO visual - F NGC 346 . NGC 2024 . HH 46/47 . NGC 2264 . R136 RCW 79 .

216

Which of the following is a mercury-manganese star?

 Alpheratz Alrakis 20 Tauri Procyon Canopus γ Canis Majoris

217

Which of the following is associated the Earth's geodynamo?

 the Sun and the Moon the Earth's magnetic field convection currents heat flow from the inner core ice ages plate tectonics the Coriolis force

218

Complete the text:

 Match up the observatory facility with the observatory: Ondrejov Observatory - A Okayama Astrophysical Observatory - B Orbiting Astronomical Observatory - C Metsähovi Radio Observatory - D Tortugas Mountain Planetary Observatory - E Pierre Auger Observatory - F Observed quasar 3C 454.3 in the spring of 2005. . A solar telescope. . Detector components. . Data on AG Peg were obtained with the ultraviolet broad-band photometers on the second one. . The 0.6 m monitors cloud decks and equatorial activity. A 188 cm telescope. .

219

True or False, With respect to the core of the Sun, the high-hydrogen, low-iron model was suddenly adopted without opposition.

 TRUE FALSE

220

Which of the following are phenomena associated with strong forces in the IGM?

 stochastic acceleration hottest clusters scaling of the acceleration efficiency with IGM temperature collisionless IGM placid magnetic compressions the smaller the mean free path cold regions least effective for inducing the instability

221

Complete the text:

 Match up the item letter with each of the possibilities below: X-ray burster - A gamma-ray burster - B X-ray pulsar - C SFXT - D soft X-ray transient - E diffuse X-ray background - F power law afterglow magnetized neutron star . absorbed by neutral hydrogen . Aquila X-1 . Factor of 10 or greater luminosity increase . thermal bremsstrahlung .

222

True or False, Violet astronomy is the radiation astronomy over the wavelength band 380-450 nm.

 TRUE FALSE

223

Complete the text:

 Match up the white dwarf classification with its distinctive characteristic: DA - A DB - B DC - C DO - D DQ - E DX - F DZ - G a helium-rich atmosphere, indicated He II spectral lines . a helium-rich atmosphere, indicated He I spectral lines . spectral lines are insufficiently clear to classify . no strong spectral lines . a metal-rich atmosphere . a carbon-rich atmosphere a hydrogen-rich atmosphere .

224

Chemistry phenomena associated with star-forming regions are

 silicate dust pressure hydrogen molecules polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) oxygen sulfur

225

Which of the following are associated with the Earth's radius?

 the delta of the Mississippi river is higher than its source a unit of distance in astronomy and geology falls between the equatorial maximum and the polar minimum the geoid length a balloon McMurdo Station Greenland

226

True or False, In the evolution of elements much more material has gone into the even-numbered elements than into those which are odd.

 TRUE FALSE

227

Pick the characteristics of a gamma-ray burst.

 a strong 2.223 MeV emission line flashes of gamma rays associated with extremely energetic explosions most luminous events known can last from ten milliseconds to several minutes followed by a longer-lived "afterglow"

228

Complete the text:

 Match up the radiation letter with each of the detector possibilities below: Optical rays - L Visual rays - M Violet rays - N Blue rays - O Cyan rays - P Green rays - Q Yellow rays - R Orange rays - S Red rays - T multialkali (Na-K-Sb-Cs) photocathode materials . F547M . F675W . broad-band filter centered at 404 nm . F588N . thallium bromide (TlBr) crystals . F606W . 18 micrometers FWHM at 490 nm . wide-gap II-VI semiconductor ZnO doped with Co2+ (Zn1-xCoxO) .

229

True or False, While fusion may be the primary mechanism by which first generation stars produce energy, repulsion between like nucleons may cause neutron emission from a collapsed core.

 TRUE FALSE

230

Which geographical phenomena are associated with stellar active regions?

 moving across the surface of the Sun or star manifesting intense magnetic fields a north geographic and magnetic pole rotation a prime meridian average starspot latitudes the solar or stellar equator

231

Hydrogen has emission lines in which of the following colors?

 violet blue cyan green yellow orange red

232

Complete the text:

 Match up the radiation mathematics symbol with the radiation phenomena: thermal neutron capture rate - A change in particle diameter - B power law - C Planck constant - D Boltzmann constant - E electrostatic force - F Jeans length - G ${\displaystyle h}$ . ${\displaystyle \lambda _{J}}$ . ${\displaystyle \varphi _{n}}$ . ${\displaystyle F_{q}}$ . ${\displaystyle ax^{k}}$ . ${\displaystyle k_{B}}$ ${\displaystyle C_{D}}$ .

233

Chemical and physical phenomena that may be associated with core formation are

 a deficiency of some noble metals in the crust of the Earth leaching by metallic iron a liquid Earth a loss of mechnical energy by conversion to heat low viscosity elasticity

234

Pick the following sources that are or are likely to contain a coronal cloud?

 AGNs gamma-ray source dark nebula lightning X-ray source molecular cloud soft X-ray emission source hard X-ray emission

235

Imaging brown dwarfs involve which of the following:

 far-infrared (submillimeter) observations at 350 microns neutrino detection heating of the nearby gas and dust near-infrared covering 1.3 and 2.2 microns infrared covering 4.5 and 8.0 microns

236

Complete the text:

 Match up the type of radiation with each of the superluminal possibilities below: meteors - A electrons - B neutrinos - C gamma rays - D X-rays - E opticals - F superluminal signal transfer . sychrotron emission through the optical into the X-ray regime . conelike illumination pattern . electroweak Cherenkov radiation . index of refraction is often greater than 1 knots .

237

Complete the text:

238

True or False, The Sun may be a first radio source in the constellation Pisces.

 TRUE FALSE

239

Complete the text:

 Match up the item letter with each of the possibilities below: superluminals - A radios - B radars - C microwaves - D submillimeters - E infrareds - F reds - G oranges - H deuterium enrichment of cometary water interstellar-comet connection . a macroscopic superstring . force of life . rings of Saturn . volcanic activity throughout Vesta . a silicon composite bolometer fed by a Winston cone . present-day fluctuations an order of magnitude larger .

240

True or False, The angular velocity of the Sun is almost zero.

 TRUE FALSE

241

The star-forming phenomena related to RCW 79 are which of the following?

 a bubble is 70-light years in diameter the southern Milky Way the radiation and winds of hot young stars the hot bubble expands into the interstellar gas and dust around it new stars along the edge of the large bubble

242

Complete the text:

 While exceptions may occur, match up the star class letter with each of the X-ray possibilities below: star class - O star class - B star class - A star class - F star class - G star class - K star class - M LX >> Lv . constant X-ray luminosity across the class independent of visual luminosity . LX ~ 10-3Lbol . abrupt onset of X-ray emission across the class . LX ~ 10-7Lbol . LX << 10-3Lbol .

243

Piezonuclear reactions associated with fission may include

 occurring in inert and non-radioactive elements high pressure brittle fracture solids under compression low-energy reactions take place in nuclei with an atomic weight ≤ iron

244

Complete the text:

 Match up the star with the constellation: Capella - A Sirius - B Deneb - C Anser - D Altair - E Vega - F Vulpecula . Canis Major . Lyra . Cygnus . Aquila Auriga .

245

A NASA Hubble image of the Ring Nebula contains which of the following?

 very hot helium blue ionized oxygen emitting green red light from ionized nitrogen oxygen forbidden line emission Hα a forbidden line of sulfur

246

Complete the text:

 Match up the radiation object with the likely source: - L - M - N - O - P - Q - R - S - T a Craters of the Moon volcano . violet image of Venus . active galactic nuclear region of NGC 5728 . cosmic-ray bombardment of the Moon's surface . blue lights from Io . neutrino profile of the solar octant . planetary nebula NGC 7048 . ultraviolet image of the Earth . a neutron star in a binary system .

247

Complete the text:

 Magnetic fields can be created in stratified (non-convective) layers in a rotating star.

248

Which of the following is not a spectral class M star?

 Betelgeuse Antares Proxima Centauri Barnard's star VY Canis Majoris Algol B

249

True or False, Black patches of space in certain areas encompassing a star formation are not dark nebulae but actually vast holes of empty space.

 TRUE FALSE

250

Supernovae of Type Ia lack hydrogen lines and helium lines in their optical spectra; during the first month after maximum light they do have a strong absorption feature produced by the red doublet (λ6347, λ6371 Å) of singly ionized?

 .

251

True or False, Special relativity well describes the vertical precession of Mercury's orbit around the Sun.

 TRUE FALSE

252

Complete the text:

 Match up a likely locational notation with each of the possibilities below: atomic number - A atomic weight - B average hat - C exponent - D index - E pre-coefficient - F operation - G range - H variable - I

253

The first astronomical superluminal source in the constellation Indus is likely to be which of the following?

 the Sun the Small Magellanic Cloud Scorpius X-1 the Large Magellanic Cloud a Seyfert 1 galaxy

254

True or False, e5 x e3 = e8.

 TRUE FALSE

255

Complete the text:

 Match up the item letter with each of the possibilities below: Balloons - A Sounding rockets - B Aircraft assisted launches - C Orbital rocketry - D Shuttle payload - E Heliocentric rocketry - F Exploratory rocketry - G Lunar rover - H Ranger 5 microcalorimeter arrays . MeV Auroral X-ray Imaging and Spectroscopy . Lunokhod 2 . ALEXIS . Ulysses . Broad Band X-Ray Telescope . Solar Heliospheric Observatory .

256

Which of the following are associated with a horizontal coordinate system?

 altitude local horizon sky lower hemisphere a great circle zenith nadir

257

Complete the text:

 Methane possesses prominant in the visible and near-infrared (IR) making aquamarine or in color.

258

True or False, The orange color of the Namib Desert develops over time as iron in the sand is oxidized.

 TRUE FALSE

259

Complete the text:

 Match up the effective temperature with its spectral class: O - A B - B A - C F - D G - E K - F M - G L - H T - I Y - J 7,000 K . 2,000 K 15,000 K . 4,000 K . 400 K 9,000 K . 3,000 K . 5,500 K 45,000 K . 1,000 K

260

Which of the following are associated with planetary nebula as a standard candle?

 observations made through a narrow band 5007 filter internal extinction star forming regions relatively dust-free environments found in galaxies of all Hubble types almost as luminous as the brightest red supergiants

261

Complete the text:

 Match up the item letter with each of the possibilities below: Sa - A Sb - B Sc - C SBa - D SBb - E SBc - F Irr - G S0 - H . . . . . . . .

262

Which of the following active region phenomena have been observed on Proxima Centauri?

 flares temperatures as high as 27 MK quiescent X-ray luminosity comparable to the Sun a surface coverage of about 88% spicules likely prominence

263

Using the equation ${\displaystyle {\frac {c2}{\lambda T}}{\frac {1}{e^{\frac {c2}{\lambda T}}-1}}e^{\frac {c2}{\lambda T}}-5=0}$ what temperature corresponds approximately to a Planckian peak wavelength of 476 nm (Use c2 = 1.438833 cm K.)?

 6440 K 6300 K 5170 K 6100 K 5870 K 6250 K

264

Complete the text:

 Match up the star pattern with the likely constellation: - L - M - N - O - P - Q - R - S - T Volans . Cassiopeia . Pegasus . Orion . Crux . Ursa Major . Phoenix . Draco . Eridanus .

265

Which of the following may not be able to slow down an object entering the heliosphere at 20 km/s?

 gravity electrostatic repulsion the charge on the surface of the Sun a comparable charge on the incoming object electromagnetics strong forces

266

Complete the text:

 Match up the form or type of quartz with the effect: alpha quartz - A coesite - B cristobalite - C stishovite - D seifertite - E tridymite - F 10 GPa and above 1200°C . 2-3 gigapascals and 700°C . 22-460°C tabular crystals . trigonal tectosilicate . 35 GPa to 40 GPa orthorhombic 1470°C cubic or tetragonal form .

267

Which of the following is likely to apply to a solar binary?

 a high relative velocity between the solar system and the cometary medium of a passage through a molecular cloud none of the captured bodies may localize in the Oort cloud none of the captured bodies localize near the Sun some captured bodies may localize near Jupiter the Jupiter system may be a control group

268

True or False, Hydrogen has an emission line in the cyan.

 TRUE FALSE

269

Complete the text:

 Match up the type of cosmic-ray detector with each of the possibilities below: visible tracks - A diffusion cloud chamber - B bubbles - C a grid of uninsulated electric wires - D similar to the Haverah Park experiment - E fluorescence detectors - F spark chamber . continuously sensitized to radiation . Pierre Auger Observatory . bubble chamber . Cherenkov detector expansion cloud chamber .

270

Phenomena associated with a solar analog star are

 no stellar companion temperature within 500 K solar metallicity of 50-200% solar orbital period of greater than 11 d K0V permitted K1V permitted

271

Which of the following are theoretical radiation astronomy phenomena associated with a star?

 possible orbits a hyperbolic orbit nuclear fusion at its core nuclear fusion in its chromosphere near the barycenter of its planetary system accretion electric arcs impact craters radar signature

272

True or False, Boron has an emission line in the cyan.

 TRUE FALSE

273

Complete the text:

 Match up the item letter with each of the possibilities below: Meteors - A Cosmic rays - B Neutrons - C Protons - D Electrons - E Positrons - F Gamma rays - G Superluminals - H X-ray jets the index of refraction is often greater than 1 just below a resonance frequency . iron, nickel, cobalt, and traces of iridium . Sagittarius X-1 . escape from a typical hard low-mass X-ray binary . collisions with argon atoms . X-rays are emitted as they slow down . Henry Moseley using X-ray spectra .

274

Which of the following are minerals that can readily or often occur orange, or yellow-orange in color?

 orpiment crocoite malachite realgar magnetite calcite

275

Complete the text:

 The interstellar medium is the gas and dust that pervade space and is the matter that exists between the within a . It blends smoothly into the surrounding medium.

276

Which of the following are characteristic of a binary formed via gravitational fragmentation?

 the local Jeans length the local speed of sound the mean molecular weight the electron neutrino the mean particle density neutrons

277

Statistical phenomena associated with the Gaussian function are

 √ π x ε R the mean ()2 standard deviation

278

True or False, A spicule is a dynamic jet of about 500 km diameter in the chromosphere of a star.

 TRUE FALSE

279

Historically, orange astronomy is not known for which of the following?

 Alpha Centauri B Epsilon Eridani Saturn K spectral type stars the Bayer designation for a star the Indian city of Pondicherry in December 1689

280

Complete the text:

 Match up the item letter with each of the possibilities below: Interstellar comet - A Neutrals - B Geminga - C star formation region - D Local Hot Bubble - E H II regions - F Ring Nebula - G molecular cloud - H supernova remnant - I Messier 17 - J empty space - K . . . . . . . . . . .

281

True or False, The Norikura Solar Observatory uses its own designations for solar active regions rather than those of other observatories or NOAA.

 TRUE FALSE

282

Radiation phenomena associated with trigonometric parallax are

 gamma-ray trigonometric parallax distances < 0.4 kpc X-ray trigonometric parallax distances good to 2 pc ultraviolet trigonometric parallax is good to ± 7 pc visual trigonometric parallax distances good to about 3 kpc infrared trigonometric parallax with an accuracy of 120 µas radio trigonometric parallax distances good at least to 1.86 kpc

283

True or False, Oxygen emissions can be green or brownish-red depending on the amount of energy absorbed.

 TRUE FALSE

284

What term was first used with reference to the transfer of momentum from the Sun to the planets in 1942

285

Which of the following is or may be an original binary companion to the Sun?

 the planet Mercury Ouranus Saturn Jupiter Earth Nemesis

286

Complete the text:

 The series is the series of transitions and resulting ultraviolet emission lines of the atoms as an electron goes from a high-energy level to an n = level.

287

True or False, An X-ray trigonometric parallax of Proxima Centauri has demonstrated that the likely origin of X-rays from this star are closer to Earth than the visual parallax indicates the star is.

 TRUE FALSE

288

Phenomena associated with some brown dwarfs are which of the following?

 lithium a temperature well below the stellar range methane absorption the lithium test X-rays T dwarfs

289

True or False, Star clusters have been discovered to occur outside a galaxy.

 TRUE FALSE

290

Complete the text:

 Ordinary glass is partially to UVA but is to shorter wavelengths, whereas silica or glass, depending on quality, can be even to vacuum UV wavelengths.

291

True or False, Faster-than-light (superluminal or FTL) communications and travel refer to the propagation of information or matter faster than the speed of light.

 TRUE FALSE

292

A collection of architectural astronomical instruments, built by Maharaja Jai Singh II at his then new capital of Jaipur between 1727 and 1733 is known as the

293

Phenomena associated with nanoflares?

 1017 Joules very high X-ray emission from happening every 20 s flickerings brightenings mass eruptions active regions

294

True or False, The principal difference between ancient astronomical history and archeoastronomy is "cultural interpretations of phenomena in the sky."

 TRUE FALSE

295

Complete the text:

 Match up the muonic device with its image below: muon telescope - A proton accelerator - B neutron telescope - C Baikal Neutrino Telescope NT200 - D muon spectrometer - E IceCube - F MAGIC - G Veritas - H HEGRA - I HESS - J compact solenoid - K . . . . . . .

296

A thin-section of a meteorite that may be analyzed has which of the following?

 a great many light gray and dark gray chondrules present large grain cross sections making sizing easy an available sizing or magnification marker independent verification as a meteorite correctable diameters and relative abundances optical conditions

297

True or False, BH Centauri is an overcontact system.

 TRUE FALSE

298

Considering that many rock types bear a striking resemblance to meteorites which are the one or few ways to differentiate a meteorite from a terrestrial rock?

 chondrules the Ca/Si ratio the Al/Si ratio enstatite rather than diopside oxygen isotope ratios observed orbit and fall with verified recovery

299

Which of the following is not a phenomenon associated with the history of optical astronomy?

 actuators may be a part of active optics the Vela satellites were the first devices in space ever to detect optical bursts Galileo made a telescope with about 3x magnification Galileo sold his telescopes to merchants Sidereus Nuncius a terrestrial telescope or a spyglass could also be used to observe the sky

## Hypotheses

1. Use of repetitive quizzing helps to re-enforce student memories.
2. Providing radiation astronomy courses allows students to create their own learning pathway.