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"Field-aligned equatorial electron beams [have been] observed within Jupiter’s middle magnetosphere. ... the Jupiter equatorial electron beams are spatially and/or temporally structured (down to <20 km at auroral altitudes, or less than several minutes), with regions of intense beams intermixed with regions absent of such beams."[1]

"Jovian electrons, both at Jupiter and in the interplanetary medium near Earth, have a very hard spectrum that varies as a power law with energy (see, e.g., Mewaldt et al. 1976). This spectral character is sufficiently distinct from the much softer solar and magnetospheric electron spectra that it has been used as a spectral filter to separate Jovian electrons from other sources ... A second Jovian electron characteristic is that such electrons in the interplanetary medium tend to consist of flux increases of several days duration which recur with 27 day periodicities ... A third feature of Jovian electrons at 1 AU is that the flux increases exhibit a long-term modulation of 13 months which is the synodic period of Jupiter as viewed from Earth".[2]


  1. Jovian electrons are at a maximum irradiating the Sun at solar activity maximum.
  2. Venusian electrons are at a maximum irradiating the Sun at solar activity maximum per the conjunction with Jupiter at periapsis.


  1. Barry H. Mauk and Joachim Saur (October 26, 2007). "Equatorial electron beams and auroral structuring at Jupiter". Journal of Geophysical Research 112 (A10221): 20. doi:10.1029/2007JA012370. http://www.agu.org/journals/ja/ja0710/2007JA012370/figures.shtml. Retrieved 2012-06-02. 
  2. C. T. Russell, D. N. Baker and J. A. Slavin (January 1, 1988). Faith Vilas, Clark R. Chapman, Mildred Shapley Matthews, ed. The Magnetosphere of Mercury, In: Mercury (PDF). Tucson, Arizona, United States of America: University of Arizona Press. pp. 514–61. Bibcode:1988merc.book..514R. ISBN 0816510857. Retrieved 2012-08-23.CS1 maint: Multiple names: editors list (link)