Physical fitness

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Physical fitness is the ability to be physically active. A person is physically fit if he or she can pass tests designed to measure physical performance. Such tests are necessary for some occupations, such as soldiers and firefighters.

Physical fitness has two components: general fitness (a state of health and well-being) and specific fitness (the ability to perform specific aspects of sports or occupations [1]).

Work-out on a ball.
Bench press exercising.
File:Posing at Artistic Collage.jpg
Posing at Artistic College.
Model Briana Teresi standing on her head only, Hollywood.
An older adult doing a simple fitness exercise at home.

The President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports — a study group sponsored by the United States Government — declines to offer a simple definition of physical fitness. Instead, it developed the following chart:[2]

Physiological Health Related Skill Related Sports
Metabolic Body Composition Agility Team sport
Morphological Cardiovascular Fitness Balance Individual
Bone Integrity Flexibility Coordination Lifetime
Other Endurance Power Other
Muscle Strength Speed
Reaction time

Accordingly, a general-purpose physical fitness program must address those issues.[3]

Ancient icons of physical fitness[edit]

Exercising recommended for elderly[edit]

  • As adults grow older, emphasis should be placed on fitness in order to maintain health, independence and functionality. When designing an exercise program for older adults, a gentle warm up will be crucial in preventing exercise-induced injuries.[4]
  • It is also recommended that older adults exercise at low or moderate intensity for longer periods of time rather than vigorous intensity.[5]
  • There is also another approach presented in UPSTREAM FITNESS technique which advises just the opposite to what was recommended above, namely: want to stay young - act like one.

See also[edit]

  • Martial arts - Most martial arts have a physical component, and through practice can lead to physical fitness as a byproduct.


  1. Oksana Grishina
  2. "Presiden't Council on Physical Fitness and Sports Definitions for Health, Fitness, and Physical Activity".
  3. "Six Fundamentals of Physical Fitness".
  4. Mazzeo, R. S., & Tanaka, H. (2001, August). Exercise prescription for the elderly: Current recommendations. Sports Medicine,31(11), 809-818.
  5. Pate RR, Pratt M, Blair SN, et al. Physical activity and public health: a recommendation from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American College of Sports Medicine. JAMA 1995; 273 (5): 402-7.