# Photon

## Photon source

 Electromagnetic wave radiation Coil of N turns ${\displaystyle E=hf}$ Sun Celestial planet ${\displaystyle E=hf}$ Electric light Light bulb ${\displaystyle E=hf}$

Properties of photons: Photons always move with the speed of light. - because Photons are waves Photons are electrically neutral. - because Photons are waves Photons have no mass, but they have energy E = hf = hc/λ. Here h = 6.626*10-34 Js is a universal constant called Planck's constant. ... - because Photons are waves Photons can be created and destroyed. - because Photons are waves

Definition of particle The main characteristic of the particle : Particle as a source exists if and only if repeatedly speeds up and slows down its movement in source along ellipse (when blinks).

Particle as a source, creates in the transmission medium, electromagnetic wave, that spreads in all directions with the velocity c / n,

regardless of the source movement, where n is the refractive index of the transmission medium.

In other words, particle, which is the source, can not become the transmission medium and remain in it.

Definition of waves The main characteristic of the waves is the energy transfer through a transmission medium. And no transfer of the substance (= of real particles) from the source to the transmission medium. Wave exists if and only if there is not a source. In the case of electromagnetic waves, see 2.1.3 The electromagnetic field. Maswell's equations, p. 28[3]

Kinetic energy Tkin id =mc^2 [ln |1-v/c|+ (v/c) / (1-v/c) ] in direction of motion of a particle ( charge) according to NEWTON

Tkin ad = mc^2 [ln |1+v/c|- (v/c) / (1+v/c) ] against direction of motion of a particle in transmission medium according to Maxwell´s electromagnetic wave energy= ENERGY = E =hf !!!

"Photon" mass = 0 kg

.

Electron creates waves in transmision medium with energy Tkin ad = mc^2[ln |1+v/c|- (v/c)/(1+v/c)]

The photons correspond the kinetic energy of the electrons against the direction of their movement

Corrected third Newton's law of motion:

Reaction creates in the transmission medium, electromagnetic waves, as unstable “particles” - neutrínos νe, νμ, ντ , mesons π0, π+ , π- , η , K and gamma rays (=waves of extremely high frequency >10^19 Hz ) - against direction of motion of stable particles ( e-, p+,n0, D, He-3, alfa ). The main characteristic of the waves is the energy transfer through a transmission medium. And no transfer of the substance (= of real particles) from the source to the transmission medium. Wave exists if and only if there is not a source.

A photon are a waves, that created electron (flashing electron) into transmision medium, in accordance with corrected third Newton's law of motion.

Wave - Particle Duality as Kinetic Energy Against and In Direction of Motion. Waves have not mass(kg). Photons also have not mass. They have only energy (J). Energy of elmag.field. Energy in transmission medium.

Photon for spectral line Hα 656.281 + - 1.4 nm

Two minimal geodesics lying against each other = 1 ellipse

There are very many minimal geodesics = ellipses (4,56794e+14) between the north and south poles of a globe (between the higher Bohr´s energy levels and a lower Bohr´s energy as a poles of a globe.

Electron radiates electromagnetic waves if and only if moves with acceleration from the higher Bohr´s energy levels to a lower. In atom, as a source of electromagnetic waves , them it then , when it moves from afnucleum to perinucleum along the ellipse . Electron cloud is 4,56794e+14 ellipses per second (for spectral line Hα).

Kinetic energy of a charge moving at the velocity of v has two different values:

Kinetic energy against direction of motion as wave Tkin ad = mc2[ln |1+v/c|- (v/c)/(1+v/c)]

Kinetic energy in direction of motion as particle Tkin id = mc2[ln |1-v/c|+ (v/c)/(1-v/c)]

Electron has own mass 9.1e-31 kg. Electron creates waves in transmision

medium with kinetic energy against direction of motion as wave in transmission medium (as the

energy of the electromagnetic field)

Tkin ad = mc^2[ln |1+v/c|- (v/c)/(1+v/c)]

m =9.1e-31 kg

Blinks flashes 4,56794e+14 times per second is "photon" for spectral line Hα.

"Photon" mass = 0 kg

.

Electron creates waves in transmision medium with energy Tkin ad = mc^2[ln |1+v/c|- (v/c)/(1+v/c)]

We have a bijection between kinetic energy of real particles against direction of motion as wave

Tkin ad = mc^2[ln |1+v/c|- (v/c)/(1+v/c)] & a mass of „waves“ = electromagnetic waves, as unstable “particles” - neutrínos νe, νμ, ντ , mesons π0, π+ , π- , η , K and gamma rays (=waves of extremely high frequency >10^19 Hz )

## Photon's chracteristics

Photon is energy of a Quanta that travels as electromagnetic wave at speed of light

${\displaystyle E=hf=h{\frac {\omega }{2\pi }}=\hbar \omega }$
${\displaystyle p={\frac {h}{\lambda }}=h{\frac {k}{2\pi }}=\hbar k}$
${\displaystyle h=p\lambda =2\pi {\frac {E}{\omega }}=2\pi p{\frac {p}{k}}={\frac {h}{2\pi }}}$
${\displaystyle \omega ={\frac {E}{\hbar }}}$
${\displaystyle k={\frac {k}{\hbar }}}$
${\displaystyle \hbar ={\frac {E}{\omega }}={\frac {p}{k}}={\frac {h}{2\pi }}}$

With

${\displaystyle E}$ - Photon
${\displaystyle f}$ - frequency of photon's wave
${\displaystyle \omega }$ - angular frequency of photon's wave
${\displaystyle h}$ - Planck's constant

### Photon's State

Photon is observed to exist in 2 states

Radiant Photon exists at frequency ${\displaystyle f=f_{o}}$ process the following identities

${\displaystyle E=hf_{o}=h{\frac {\omega _{o}}{2\pi }}=\hbar \omega _{o}}$
${\displaystyle p={\frac {h}{\lambda _{o}}}=h{\frac {k}{2\pi }}=\hbar k}$
${\displaystyle \hbar ={\frac {E}{\omega _{o}}}=p{\frac {p}{k}}={\frac {h}{2\pi }}}$

Non radiant Photon exists at frequency ${\displaystyle f.f_{o}}$

${\displaystyle E=hf=h{\frac {\omega }{2\pi }}=\hbar \omega }$
${\displaystyle p={\frac {h}{\lambda }}=h{\frac {k}{2\pi }}=\hbar k}$
${\displaystyle \hbar ={\frac {E}{\omega }}=p{\frac {p}{k}}={\frac {h}{2\pi }}}$

Uncertainty of Photon's state Photon exists in 2 states at specific frequency . The chance to find one of its state (successful rate of finding photon) is 1/2 where h = p λ . h and p do not change, only wavelength changes with frequency . Hence, Uncertainty principle

Photon cannot exist in 2 states at the same time


Mathematically, Uncertainty principle can be expressed as

${\displaystyle \Delta p\Delta \lambda ={\frac {1}{2}}{\frac {h}{2\pi }}={\frac {h}{4\pi }}={\frac {\hbar }{2}}}$

### Photon's Quantization

${\displaystyle E=hf}$
${\displaystyle h=p\lambda }$

### Wave Particle Duality

Wave like . ${\displaystyle \lambda ={\frac {h}{p}}}$
Particle like . ${\displaystyle p={\frac {h}{\lambda }}}$

Through the work of Max Planck, Albert Einstein, Louis de Broglie, Arthur Compton, Niels Bohr, and many others, current scientific theory holds that all particles also have a wave nature (and vice versa).[1] This phenomenon has been verified not only for elementary particles, but also for compound particles like atoms and even molecules. For macroscopic particles, because of their extremely short wavelengths, wave properties usually cannot be detected.[2] Wave–particle duality is an ongoing conundrum in modern physics. Most physicists accept wave-particle duality as the best explanation for a broad range of observed phenomena; however, it is not without controversy. Albert Einstein , who, in his search for a Unified Field Theory , did not accept wave-particle duality, wrote: [4] This double nature of radiation (and of material corpuscles)...has been interpreted by quantum-mechanics in an ingenious and amazingly successful fashion. This interpretation...appears to me as only a temporary way out... The pilot wave model, originally developed by Louis de Broglie and further developed by David Bohm into the hidden variable theory proposes that there is no duality, but rather a system exhibits both particle properties and wave properties simultaneously, and particles are guided, in a deterministic fashion, by the pilot wave (or its " quantum potential ") which will direct them to areas of constructive interference in preference to areas of destructive interference . This idea is held by a significant minority within the physics community. [5]

When in this idea we will replace the "quantum potential" by "electromagnetic potential" (or


by " interference of electromagnetic waves"), the idea will be acepted large majority of physicists. In 1900 Max Planck hypothesized that the frequency of light emitted by the black body depended on the frequency of the oscillator that emitted it, and the energy of these oscillators increased linearly with frequency (according to his constant h, where E = hν). Theoretical Planck´s oscillator we can replace with circulating electron along ellipse around the nucleus of an atom between two Bohr´s energy levels, while electron moving alternately with acceleration and deceleration. This electron really blinks. When an electron moves at the speed of a higher Bohr energy levels (from afnucleus) to lower (towards perinucleus) radiates spectral lines of certain thickness. (real blinks) For example, spectral line Halfa 656.281 + - 1.4 nm. From the thickness of the spectral lines we can easily identify the smallest (in afnucleus) and largest (in perinucleus) the speed of the electron around the nucleus of an atom, taking into account the kinetic energy of the electron in the direction of movement and against the movement if we know that according to the

Doppler principle is the lowest wavelength (highest frequency) and against the direction of


motion of the electron is a wavelength of the highest (lowest frequency).

Kinetic energy of a charge moving at the velocity of v has two different values:


Kinetic energy against direction of motion as wave

Tkin ad = mc^2[ln |1+v/c|- (v/c)/(1+v/c)]

Kinetic energy in direction of motion as particle

Tkin id = mc^2[ln |1-v/c|+ (v/c)/(1-v/c)]

An electron moving at a speed ve= 0,003c creates spectral line Hα. Accurate electron


speeds are given in the table in this article. Confirmation of Doppler´s principle in hydrogen for Balmer line Hα. Accompanying activity of reaction on movement of stable particles in the transmission medium are waves.

Stable electrons moving with speeds (0,99 c – c ) creates leptons (µ−, τ−), neutrinos (νe, νµ, ντ) and bosons W +, W-, Z (= β electrons). Weak interactions are caused with stable electrons, which creates leptons (µ−, τ−) = ( particles = electrons different speeds), neutrinos νe, νµ, ντ (= waves) , bosons W +, W-, Z (= particles = β electrons moving at nearly the speed of light ) and gamma rays (=waves of extremely high frequency >1019 Hz ). Stable particles (p +, n0, D, He-3, α) moving with speeds ( 0,3 c – 0,99 c ) creates baryons and mesons.

The strong interactions are caused with stable particles (p +, n0, D, He-3, α ), which creates baryons and mesons.

All movements in physics are based on principle of action - reaction and on velocity of stable particles ( e-, p+,n0, D, He-3, α ). - Action, as a motion of stable particles ( e-, p+,n0, D, He-3, α ), is characterized by alternating acceleration and deceleration motion in the source, along ellipse or quasi- elipse ( excentricity e –> 0 ).

Stable particles of various speed ( leptons μ−, τ−, baryons, mesons ), bosons W +, W-, Z ( β electrons) are characterized by kinetic energy in direction of motion Tkin id = mc2[ln |1-v/c|+ (v/c)/(1-v/c)]

- Reaction creates in the transmission medium, electromagnetic waves, as unstable “particles” - neutrinos νe, νμ, ντ , mesons π0, π+ , π- , η , K and gamma rays ( f >10^19 Hz ) are characterized by kinetic against direction of motion as wave Tkin ad = mc2[ln |1+v/c|- (v/c)/(1+v/c)] Accompanying activity of reaction on movement of stable particles in the transmission medium are waves, or “unstable particles“ i.e. neutrinos and mesons.

## Photon's effects

Photon interacts with matter to create Heat transfer of three phases Heat conduction, Heat convection and Heat radiation

 Heat transfer Explanation Mathematical formulas Heat conduction matter absorbs photon's energy creates change in matter's temperature ${\displaystyle \Delta T=T_{1}-T_{o}}$${\displaystyle E=mC\Delta T}$ Heat convection matter conducts photon's energy to the maximum at threshold frequency ${\displaystyle f_{o}={\frac {C}{\lambda _{o}}}}$${\displaystyle E=hf_{o}}$ Heat radiation matter ejects electron off its atom at frequency greater than threshold frequency ${\displaystyle f={\frac {C}{\lambda }}}$${\displaystyle E=hf}$ provided that f>fo