The rise of Modern Panjistani from Northern lahnda (or pothwari/mirpuri) by Mohammad Afzal london UK (1987).
- 1 The emergence of panjistani پنجستانی from Northern Lahnda, Pothohari, Jhelumi, Mirpuri, Dhanni, Western Pahari, Poonchi, North Panjabi.
- 2 Introduction
- 3 Major dialects of Panjistani.
- 4 Related langauges
- 5 seraiki (Southern Lahnda/Derwali/Multani)
- 6 Hindko (Western Lahnda/Jandali/Kohati/Sarhadi/Chachi/Peshwari)
- 7 Current script used for Modern Panjistani
- 8 Conclusion
- 9 References
The emergence of panjistani پنجستانی from Northern Lahnda, Pothohari, Jhelumi, Mirpuri, Dhanni, Western Pahari, Poonchi, North Panjabi.
The linguist George Abraham Grierson in his multivolume Linguistic Survey of India (1904–1928) considered the various dialects up to then called "Western Punjabi", spoken in North, West, and South of Lahore in what is now Punjab of Pakistan, as constituting instead a distinct language from Eastern Punjabi. (The local dialect of Lahore is the Majhi dialect of Punjabi, which has long been the basis of standard literary Punjabi.) Grierson proposed to name this putative language "Lahnda", and he dubbed as "Southern Lahnda" the coherent dialect cluster now known as Saraiki spoken in Multan, Dera Ghazi Khan and Bahawalpur division and "Northern Lahnda" now known as Modern Panjistani, spoken in Rawalpindi division and most of Azad Kashmir ascertined by m. afzal,london,uk 2007 and others, and "Western Lahnda" now known as Hindko spoken in the regions bordering North-West Frontier Province (NWFP). While the term "Eastern Punjabi" referred to the language based on Majhi, Jhangochi, Shahpuri and Dhani (a sub-dialect of shahpuri), these dialects are mostly spoken in central districts of Pakistani Punjab. The standard Punjabi speaking territory spans the east-central districts of Punjab Province. Lahore, Faislabad, Gujranwala, Sargodha, Sialkot, Jhang, Jhelum and Gujrat. Lahore the historic capital of Punjab is the largest Punjabi speaking city in the world. Lahore has 86% native Punjabis of total population of the city. and Islamabad the Capital of Pakistan has 71% Native Punjabis of total population. Punjabi dialects are thus spoken by almost 60% of the population in Pakistan if Western Punjabi dialects (Hindko, and Saraiki) are also taken into account. The standard Punjabi dialects (Majhi, Jhangochi, Shahpuri,panjistani (Pothohari-mirpuri) and Dhanni) are spoken by the 44.15% of the total population of Pakistan.
This language is spoken in Northern part of Punjab (so-called Panjistan region) and Azad Kashmir(Pahar/modern poonch/mirpur).
It is mainly the langauge of Greater Pothohar or Northern Panjab region (the historic Panjistani-Quami Mulk or in English "the Panjistani-Speaking Country (PSC)) and azad kashmir as ascertined by Mohammad Afzal (of London, 1992) is spoken and extends in the north from Muzaffarabad to as far south as Jhelum, Gujar Khan and Rawalpindi. [phr] 49,440 (2000 WCD). Murree Hills north of Rawalpindi, and east to Bhimber. Poonchi is east of Rawalakot. Potwari is in the plains around Rawalpindi. Alternate names: Potwari, Pothohari, Potohari, Chibhali, Dhundi-Kairali. Dialects: Pahari (Dhundi-Kairali), Pothwari (Potwari), Chibhali, Punchhi (Poonchi), Jhelumi, Mirpuri. Pahari means 'hill language' referring to a string of divergent dialects, some of which may be separate languages. A dialect chain with Panjabi and Hindko. Closeness to western Pahari is unknown. Lexical similarity 76% to 83% among varieties called 'Pahari', 'Potwari', and some called southern Hindko in Mansehra, Muzaffarabad, and Jammun. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Western Pahari,North-Eastern lahnda.
Panjistani orginated from Panjistan which most probably means "the land if 5 regions or localities" eg Rawalpindi Jehlum Chakwal (or Dhann) Mirpur and Poonch last (two in Kashmir) and is most popular laguage of North Panjab (or Panjistan region) and Azad Kashmir (Mirpur and Poonch) although Hindko and Kashmiri are spoken close neighbourhood.
Major dialects of Panjistani.
The langauge spoken around rawalpindi-islamabad meagcity and it is nowdays considered the prestige dialect of the modern panjistani literature.
B) Mirpuri/Nothern Pahari/Eastern.
This dialect is now the second most important for panjistani and is much used in modern literature.
This the northern most extreme and pherperial dialect of panjistani and not much used in the literary language.
D) Northern shahpuri (salt ranage shahpuri)
It is mostly spoken in northern shahpur around the sat range region and this is a mixture of Jurghda or eastern panjabi and seraiki transitional dialect and is now considered a sub-standard dialect with recspect to literary panjistani.
This the speech in Jhelum area and other nearby districts and it is very simalir to mirpuri dialect.It has some dhanni inflence and not much cultaivted in the modern written language.
F) Dhanni (Chakwali)
The people of this region do not speak standard panjistani langauge. However, the people of Chakwal or the Dhanni area in particular do speak a similar langauge to northen shahpuri with a distinctive Dhanni (or Chakwali) accect as spoken in the Shahpur-Salt Range area and also has a moderate influnce of Hindko/Saraiki and Jurghda or Eastern Panjabi.It is a heteregoius dialect and not much used in the modern works.
after panjistani the other 2 much older establised lahnda lanaguges are Seraiki (Multani) and Hindko (Peshwari/Kohati)
seraiki (Southern Lahnda/Derwali/Multani)
this is spoken in multan bahalapur jhang and other parts of south panjab
Hindko (Western Lahnda/Jandali/Kohati/Sarhadi/Chachi/Peshwari)
This is the langauge of manshera,peashwar attock and abbottabad and other parts of khyber-pahktonwha the so-called [Greater] Hazara Region.
Current script used for Modern Panjistani
A modified version of Arabo-Persian (or psudeo-shahmuhki Alphabet) called the "Afzaali Script" (named after Raja mohammad afzaal khan, London; UK) which has 7 extra letters that is nowadays used to write the literary Panjistani language in northern Panjab or (Panjistan region) and Azad Kashmir.
The word Panjistani پنجستانی comes from the word Panjistan which most probably means "the land of 5 areas/regions ie Mirpur, Jehlum, Rawalpindi, Poonch and Chakwal and was originally ascertined by Mohammad Afzal of london,2001.
The Indo-Aryan Languages By Colin P. Masica
The evoution of modern panjistani form pothwari/pahari/dhanni/mirpuri cluster by afzal, london, uk