Motivation and emotion/Book/2020/ERG theory
What is Alderfer's ERG theory?
Overview[edit | edit source]
Alderfer's Existence, Relatedness and Growth (ERG) theory is a multi-directional revision of Malsow's Hierarchy of Needs. ERG separates Maslow's pyramid into three components that a individual is motivated by to transcend or transgress dependent on there emotional position. Further, Alderfer's ERG model allows for individuals to focus on more than one need at a time, allowing more flexibility in the framework (Snow, 2019).
This book chapter will attempt to illustrate;
- What is ERG Theory,
- The current research and operationtialism of ERG,
- And the applications of ERG to the real world.
What is ERG theory[edit | edit source]
The ERG model is a movement between, its three classifications, using the processes of satisfaction-progression and frustration-regression (Snow, 2019).
- Existence, the first level of needs. comprised of survival, the safety and basic physiological needs of the individual (Snow, 2019).
- Relatedness, social motivations, interpersonal and intrapersonal needs, the ability to shear feelings and thoughts for example being accepted (Snow, 2019).
- Growth, is locked into the development of ones potential. it involves the needs of productive and creative efforts within the environment to capitalise on opportunities (Snow, 2019).
Research and operationalism[edit | edit source]
Although a relatively old theory in psychology, ERG theory has not held much interest in comparison to other motivation models.
- What it has to do with motivation (Arnolds & Boshoff, 2002; Snow, 2019)
- Measures (Alderfer, Kaplan & Smith, 1974; Bláfoss Ingvardson et al., 2020; Arnolds & Boshoff, 2002)
- Lack of academic literature (Arnolds & Boshoff, 2002; Caulton, 2012)
Application of ERG theory[edit | edit source]
There are many applications that ERG theory has been applied too.
- Development (Arnolds & Boshoff, 2002; Poulou & Norwich, 2019)
- Job performance/productivity (Arnolds & Boshoff, 2002; Caulton, 2012)
- Travel (Bláfoss Ingvardson et al., 2020)
- Leadership (Sosik et al., 2013)
Conclusion[edit | edit source]
See also[edit | edit source]
References[edit | edit source]
Arnolds, C. A., & Boshoff, C. (2002). Compensation, esteem valence and job performance: An empirical assessment of Alderfer’s ERG theory. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 13(4), 697–719. https://doi-org.ezproxy.canberra.edu.au/10.1080/09585190210125868 Bláfoss Ingvardson, J., Kaplan, S., de Abreu e Silva, J., di Ciommo, F., Shiftan, Y., & Nielsen, O. (2020). Existence, relatedness and growth needs as mediators between mode choice and travel satisfaction: evidence from Denmark. Transportation (Dordrecht), 47(1), 337–358. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11116-018-9886-3
Caulton, J. R. (2012). The development and use of the theory of ERG: A literature review. Emerging Leadership Journeys, 5(1), 2-8.
David Snow. (2019). The Big Picture: How the New Use of an Old Theory will Enhance Leaders’ Perspective on Management. The Journal of Applied Business and Economics, 21(1), 117–130. https://doi.org/10.33423/jabe.v21i1.662
Poulou, M., & Norwich, B. (2019). Adolescent students’ psychological needs: Development of an existence, relatedness, and growth needs scale. International Journal of School & Educational Psychology: IJSEP Supplemental Issue 2019, 7(sup1), 75–83. https://doi.org/10.1080/21683603.2018.1479320
Sosik, J. J., Chun, J. U., Blair, A. L., & Fitzgerald, N. A. (2013). Possible selves in the lives of transformational faith community leaders. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, 5(4), 283–293. https://doi-org.ezproxy.canberra.edu.au/10.1037/a0032646