Motivation and emotion/Book/2019/Honesty motivation

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Honesty motivation:
What motivates honesty?
Parodyfilm.svg[Replace this text with the URL Go to a 3 min. audiovisual overview of this chapter.]

Overview[edit | edit source]

Fictional Case Study

After much deliberation, Zara makes the decision to avoid being honest with her parents again so as to refrain from disappointing them. She wants to see her partner Miguel, that she has secretly been in a relationship with for almost five years; but due to her parents being strict and religious, they do not believe she should be seeing boys romantically. However, she is twenty years old, feels that she is in love and is even considering marriage with her partner. She strongly believes that her parents would not understand and that they may even consider "banishing" her from the family. Lo and behold, she explains to them that she is heading to the library to study before rushing out of the house to meet Miguel.

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Figure 2. What does it mean to be honest?

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Figure 1. A secret relationship; fictional image of Zara and Miguel.

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Have you ever wondered about a time where you had avoided being honest and wish you had not? What would have motivated you to be honest in that situation? This chapter will aim to answer a range of questions on motivation and honesty.

Focus questions:

  • What motivates humans to be honest?
  • How is honesty developed from a young age, and further enhanced and encouraged as we grow up? (nature vs. nurture?) (Lee et al., 2014)
  • What are the positive and negative aspects of being honest, as opposed to lying?
  • Case study: Honesty in academia?
  • How can motivation theories be applied in everyday life to encourage honesty?

Important points about this section:

  1. What is the problem?
  2. How can specific motivation and/or emotion theories and research help?
  3. Consider providing an example or case study.
  4. Consider providing some focus questions.
    Figure 3. What motivates someone to contribute honestly, as opposed to a dishonest contribution?

1st main heading[edit | edit source]

Content goes here, written in paragraphs typically consisting of three to five sentences. Avoid one sentence paragraphs and overly long paragraphs.

2nd main heading[edit | edit source]

If a section has a lot of content, then consider structuring it into two to five sub-headings such as is shown here.

Figures[edit | edit source]

Important points about using figures:

  1. Figures can be used to illustrate concepts, add interest, and provide examples.
  2. Figures should be captioned (using APA style) in order to explain its relevance to the text.
  3. Possible images for use as figures can be found at Wikimedia Commons.
  4. Images can also be uploaded if they have appropriate licenses for re-use or if you created the image.
  5. Each figure should be referred to at least once in the main text (e.g., see Figure 1).
Figure 1. This is an example of an image with an APA style caption.

Tables[edit | edit source]

Important points about using tables:

  1. Tables can be an effective way to organise content.
  2. Tables should be captioned (using APA style) in order to explain its relevance to the text.
  3. Each table should be referred to at least once in the main text (e.g., see Table 1 and Table 2).

Here are two example tables which could be adapted:

Table 1.

Example of a Table with an APA Style Caption

Col. 1 Col. 2 Col. 3
C1R1 C2R1 C3R1
C1R2 C2R2 C3R2
C1R3 C2R3 C3R3

Table 2.

Another Example of a Table with an APA Style Caption

Col. 1 Col. 2 Col. 3
C1R1 C2R1 C3R1
C1R2 C2R2 C3R2
C1R3 C2R3 C3R3

Feature boxes[edit | edit source]

Important points about using feature boxes:

Feature box example
  1. Shaded background
  2. Coloured border

  1. Feature boxes can be used to highlight content.
  2. Possible uses for feature boxes include:
    1. Focus questions
    2. Case studies or examples
    3. Take-home messages
  3. There are many different ways of creating feature boxes (e.g., see Pretty boxes)

Quiz questions[edit | edit source]

Important points about using quizzes:

  1. Quiz questions can be used to help make a chapter more interactive.
  2. To learn about different types of quiz questions, see Help:Quiz.
  3. Rather than presenting one longer quiz at the end, consider adding, say, one review quiz question per major section.
  4. Try to assess conceptual knowledge, rather than trivia.

Here are some simple example quiz questions:

Choose the correct answers and click "Submit":

1 Approximately how many neurons are in the human brain?

1,000,000 (1 million)
10,000,000 (10 million)
100,000,000 (100 million)
1,000,000,000 (1 billion)
10,000,000,000 (10 billion)

2 A typical neuron fires ________ per second.

1 to 4
5 to 49
50 to 99
100 to 199
200 to 499

3rd main heading[edit | edit source]

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum. For more information, see Lorem ipsum (Wikipedia).

Conclusion[edit | edit source]

Important points about this section:

  1. This is arguably the most important section.
  2. What is the answer to the question in the sub-title (based on psychological theory and research)?
  3. What are the practical, take-home messages?

See also[edit | edit source]

Important points about this section:

  1. Provide up to approximately half-a-dozen internal (wiki) links to relevant:
    1. Wikiversity pages especially motivation and emotion book chapters
    2. Wikipedia articles
  2. Present in alphabetical order.
  3. Include the source in parentheses.

For example:

References[edit | edit source]

Important points about this section:

  1. Present cited references in APA style.
  2. Important elements include:
    1. Wrap the set of references in the hanging indent template. Using "Edit source": {{Hanging indent|1= the list of references}}
    2. Author surname, followed by a comma, then author initials separated by full stops and spaces
    3. Year of publication in parentheses
    4. Title of work in lower case except first letter and proper names, ending in a full-stop.
    5. Journal title in italics, volume number in italics, issue number in parentheses, first and last page numbers separated by a dash, followed by a full-stop.
    6. dois
  3. Common mistakes include:
    1. citing sources that weren't consulted
    2. incorrect capitalisation
    3. incorrect italicisation
    4. providing the retrieved from date for online material (this is no longer part of APA style).

For example:

Lee, K., Talwar, V., McCarthy, A., Ross, I., Evans, A., & Arruda, C. (2014). Can classic moral stories promote honesty in children? Psychological Science, 25(8), 1630–1636.


Blair, R. J. R. (2004). The roles of orbital frontal cortex in the modulation of antisocial behavior. Brain and Cognition, 55(1), 198-208.

Buckholtz, J. W., & Meyer-Lindenberg, A. (2008). MAOA and the neurogenetic architecture of human aggression. Trends in Neurosciences, 31(3), 120-129.

Eckardt, M., File, S., Gessa, G., Grant, K., Guerri, C., Hoffman, P., & Tabakoff, B. (1998). Effects of moderate alcohol consumption on the central nervous system. Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research, 22(5), 998-1040.

External links[edit | edit source]

Important points about this section:

  • Judiciously selected links to important external resources about this topic
  • Present in alphabetical order
  • Include the source in parentheses after the link

For example:

What motivates humans to be honest?[edit | edit source]

The development of honesty[edit | edit source]

Figures[edit | edit source]

Tables[edit | edit source]

Col. 1 Col. 2 Col. 3
C1R1 C2R1 C3R1
C1R2 C2R2 C3R2
C1R3 C2R3 C3R3

Interesting Facts[edit | edit source]

Insert quote

  1. insert table

Quiz question[edit | edit source]

Choose the correct answers and click "Submit":

What is the definition of honesty motivation as per this book chapter?


The positives and negatives of being honest[edit | edit source]

Positives[edit | edit source]

Negatives[edit | edit source]

See also[edit | edit source]

External links[edit | edit source]