Motivation and emotion/Book/2019/Hidden costs of reward

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Hidden costs of reward:
What are the hidden costs of motivating by reward?
Parodyfilm.svg[Replace this text with the URL Go to a 3 min. audiovisual overview of this chapter.]

Overview[edit | edit source]

  • What is the problem? Reliance on extrinsic rewards can have a negative impact on our psychological health, productivity, sense of competence and intrinsic motivation (Fischer, 1978)
  • How can specific motivation and/or emotion theories and research help? SDT (Ryan & Deci, 2000) helps us understand how to foster intrinsic motivation and experience greater psychological health.

Rewards[edit | edit source]

  • BAS Dopamine pathways

Motivation[edit | edit source]

Extrinsic motivation[edit | edit source]

Figure 1. The Hidden cost of Reward
Figure 2. Winning the gold!

Intrinsic motivation[edit | edit source]

Quiz questions[edit | edit source]

Here are some example quiz questions - choose the correct answers and click "Submit":

1 Approximately how many neurons are in the human brain?

1,000,000 (1 million)
10,000,000 (10 million)
100,000,000 (100 million)
1,000,000,000 (1 billion)
10,000,000,000 (10 billion)

2 A typical neuron fires ________ per second.

1 to 4
5 to 49
50 to 99
100 to 199
200 to 499


For more information, see Help:Quiz.

Hidden costs of reward[edit | edit source]

Self Determination Theory[edit | edit source]

Self-determination theory

Addiction[edit | edit source]

Creativity[edit | edit source]

Productivity[edit | edit source]

Well-Being[edit | edit source]

Conclusion[edit | edit source]

  • feedback
  • reward contingencies (Schunk, 1983)

See also[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

Deci, E. L. (1976). The hidden costs of rewards. Organizational Dynamics, 4, 61-72.

Fabes, R. A., Moran III, J. D., & McCullers, J. C. (1981). The hidden costs of reward and WAIS subscale performance. The American Journal of Psychology, 387-398.

Fisher, C. D. (1978). The effects of personal control, competence, and extrinsic reward systems on intrinsic motivation. Organizational behavior and human performance, 21, 273-288.

Gagné, M., & Deci, E. L. (2005). Self‐determination theory and work motivation. Journal of Organizational behavior, 26, 331-362.

King, W., Hautaluoma, J., & Shikiar, R. (1982). Intrinsic motivation, the meaning of pay, and work quality and quantity. The Journal of Social Psychology, 116, 147-148.

Nicholls, J. G. (1984). Achievement motivation: Conceptions of ability, subjective experience, task choice, and performance. Psychological review, 91, 328.

Osterloh, M., & Frey, B. S. (2000). Motivation, knowledge transfer, and organizational forms. Organization science, 11, 538-550.

Pittman, T. S., Emery, J., & Boggiano, A. K. (1982). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivational orientations: Reward-induced changes in preference for complexity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 42, 789.

Rummel, A., & Feinberg, R. (1988). Cognitive evaluation theory: A meta-analytic review of the literature. Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, 16, 147-164.

Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American psychologist, 55, 68.

Sansone, C., & Harackiewicz, J. M. (Eds.). (2000). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation: The search for optimal motivation and performance. Elsevier.

Schunk, D. H. (1983). Reward contingencies and the development of children's skills and self-efficacy. Journal of Educational Psychology, 75, 511.

Weibel, A., Rost, K., & Osterloh, M. (2009). Pay for performance in the public sector—Benefits and (hidden) costs. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 20, 387-412.

Cerasoli, C.P., Ford, M.T., & Nicklin, J.M. (2014). Intrinsic motivation and extrinsic incentives jointly predict performance: a 40-year meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 140, 980-1008. https://doi:10.1037/a0035661

External links[edit | edit source]