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- Study whose object is to determine the real nature of things, meaning structure & principle
Nature & scope of metaphysics
Origin of the term
What comes after physics?
Appearances & realities for Plato
- Objects of opinions = appearance. Objects of knowledge = noumena (intelligence)
Characterization of metaphysics
An inquiry into what exists
Unreliability of common opinion
- Are dreams real? What are numbers?
Ultimate stuff of universe
- Rivalry with scientists.
Science of ultimate reality
Components in metaphysics conception of reality
- Reality genuine as opposed to deceptive. It is original in contrast to derivative. Reality is intelligible.
Task of metaphysician
Science of world as a whole
Metaphysics as an account of world
Science of first principles
First principles as basic truths
Metaphysicians as self critical
Metaphysics & other branch of philosophy
View of metaphysics as queen of sciences
Metaphysics & analysis
Analysis in philosophy
Historical use of analysis by metaphysicians
Problems in metaphysics
Existence of forms, categories & particulars
- What is there is really idea. Successor to Pythagorean theory of number
Categories & universals
Aristotelian doctrine =of 8 to 10 categories, being is spoken in many ways, classification
- Predicates = substances. Qualities, relation, quantities & time
Problem of universals
Hume's theory of particulars
- Impressions or ideas
Existence of god
Proof of existence of god
- That than which nothing greater can be conceived.
Criticisms of proof
- Being is not real predicate (imply).
Soul mind & body
Soul mind body relationship
Platonic & Aristotelians theory of soul
- Old school
Mind body relationship
- New school.
- Difference between mental & material substance.
Theory of Spinoza
- God or nature
- I that think am different from I that weigh 60 Kgs.
Problem of differentiating man & machine
- Cybernetics = what differentiates man from machines
Nature & external world
- Existence of material is subject of epistemology, in empiricist traditions.
Reality of material things
External world as defective in reality
- It is merely a phenomenon
Primary & secondary qualities of material things
Organizing principles of nature
Nature as mechanical or teleological
- Hidden purpose?
Space & time
- Can it be real?
Theory of Kant & Bradley
- Concept in individual mind.
Theory of Bergson
- Time is continuous. Parts only for public convenience.
Conception of spirit
- Mind is key to understanding universe.
- Subjective idealism. Reality in terms of experience of individual minds.
All reality as spirit
Types of metaphysics theory
Distinction between world of appearance & reality
Making sense of here & now
Increased understanding of physical world
Two solutions to Cartesian dualism
Matter as only substantial existent
Arguments assertion & methods in metaphysics
Metaphysics as a science
Nature of an priory science
- Where propositions taken as true & logically proved as such.
Hypothetical nature of a priory sciences
Metaphysics as an priory science
Deductive systems of Spinoza & Descartes
- 8 definitions, 7 axioms = 36 propositions in ethics.
Metaphysics as an empirical science
Reference to experience
Initial metaphysical insights
Metaphysics as matter of vision
Tests of validity
Insight as limited in number & subject to experience
Test of self-consistency of theory
Role of personal or social factors
Logical character of metaphysics statements
Classes of metaphysics statements
- About what exists, prescription how to understand what exists.
Logical form of metaphysics argument
Deductive & inductive arguments
- Mostly deducted from reason.
Criticism of metaphysics
- To know reality = dreaming, duping or charlatan
Metaphysics as study of occult
Metaphysics as knowledge of super sensible
Necessity of sense experience
Critical philosophy reflection
Differences between Hume & Kant criticism
Moore & Wittgenstein
Common sense criticism
Tendencies in contemporary metaphysics.
Background. Thought of Kant & Hegel
Location of role of science in knowledge
Edmund Husserl & phenomenology
Reflection on pre reflective life
Ontology of dasein
Thought of whitehead