Lectures/Literary criticism/Percy Bysshe Shelley/1820 collection

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Prometheus Unbound with Other Poems[edit]

Percy Bysshe Shelley completed Prometheus Unbound with Other Poems in 1820, the same year Keats published his final collection. The work, like Keats's Lamia, Isabella, the Eve of St. Agnes, and Other Poems, served as a collection of Shelley's mature works shortly before his death. He was known as a didactic poet and emphasized his liberal political views throughout his works, and the 1820 collection was no different. While Keats balanced long narratives with shorter poems, all emphasising the beauty of nature and art, Shelley ensured that his collection revolved around the theme of revolution with Prometheus Unbound, his apocalyptic drama, dominating the work. Even the most nature based of the poems, "The Cloud", emphasises the rebirth process.

Thus, with Keats and Shelley dying near the same time, these final collections altered how people perceived each poet. Both had the same liberal circles, with Leigh Hunt serving as the center, and this caused concern within many of the conservative periodicals. Shelley, to his death, clung to a revolutionary spirit that made it difficult for those who were part of the establishment to look beyond politics to focus on beauty. Keats, on the other hand, focused on art and beauty, and his final collection was able to avoid many political attacks. Thus, Keats became the Romantic of choice for the Victorian period with Shelley's popularity increasing when critics of the 1950s and 1960s were looking for traditional poets that reflected their increasingly liberal viewpoints.

This lecture series will break down how Shelley's final work, along with the individual poems within, was treated following its publication to the modern period.


After the success of Shelley's closet drama, The Cenci, his publisher, Charles Ollier, agreed to publish Prometheus Unbound with shorter poems during mid-1820. The original poems to be added to the collection were "Ode to Liberty", "Ode to the West Wind", "The Sensitive Plant" and "A Vision of the Sea". Before the work's publication, Shelley submitted other poems to be added, with "To a Skylark" and "The Cloud" submitted 12 July, and John Gisborne served as the proof-reader of the work on his behalf. Eventually, the work was printed in August 1820 as Prometheus Unbound, A Lyrical Drama, in 3 Acts, with Other Poems. It was not popular as less than 20 copies were said to have been purchased.[1]

"The Sensitive Plant" was written by Shelley during early 1820, with March being the likely month of composition because Mary Shelley dated the poem as March 1820 in a fair copy transcribed by her.[2] It is possible that Shelley derived his use of personifying plants within the poem on Erasmus Darwin's The Botanic Garden.[3] There were multiple drafts of the poem with various changes to the lines. The poem was published with Prometheus Unbound in 1820.[4]

"A Vision of the Sea" was published with Prometheus Unbound in 1820. The unfinished "A Vision of the Sea" was dated by Shelley as being written in April 1820[5] while he was at Pisa.[6] During this time, he also composed the poem Ginevra.[7] It is possible that the mood of the poem was inspired by his wife's despondency following the death of their children. The poem was also inspired by Shelley viewing waterspouts from Leghorn tower.[8]

"Ode to Heaven" was written during by Shelley during 1819 and an edition of the poem transcribed by Mary Shelley says that the poem was written December 1819 in Florence.[9] There were multiple drafts of the poem with one fair copy draft being included alongside a fair copy draft of Prometheus Unbound Act III.[10] The poem was published with Prometheus Unbound in 1820.[11]

Shelley included "An Exhortation" in a letter to John Gisborne and Leigh Hunt, 8 May 1820, and described it as "a kind of excuse for Wordsworth".[12] The poem was published with Prometheus Unbound in 1820.[13]

Shelley began to write "Ode to the West Wind" in October 1819 while staying in Florence. The poem was created to be added to the Prometheus Unbound collection to be published by Charles Ollier and served as a response to the negative reviews of his poetry by William Gifford. The actual poem took at least a week to finish with a manuscript copy dating the first three stanzas as 25 October.[14] Shelley claimed that he came up with the idea for the poem "in a wood that skirts the Arno near Florence, and on a day when that tempestuous wind ... was collecting the vapours which pour down the autumnal rains [that] began ... at sunset with a violent tempest of hail and rain, attended by that magnificent thunder and lightning peculiar to the Cisalpine regions."[15]

"An Ode to the Assertors of Liberty" was composed in October 1819 as a response to the Peterloo Massacre.[16] The historical basis of the poem stems from events following Ferdinand VII being restored to the Spanish throne in 1814. The Cortes of Spain originally gained Ferdinand's promise that he would respect the government that they set up and the Inqusition was disbanded. After a few years, Ferdinand managed to get the constitution removed and was able to bring back the Inquisition into Spain. A rebellion was formed, the Cortes were reestablished, and the Inquisition was disbanded by 1820.[17]

Shelley originally wanted to publish a collection of poems following the incident and asked Leigh Hunt to provide names of "any bookseller who would like to publish a little volume of popular songs wholly political & destined to awaken & direct the imagination of the reformers."[18] After Hunt did not respond, the nine poems that he completed for publication went unpublished besides "An Ode".[19] Shelley renamed it "An Ode written October, 1819, before the Spaniards had recovered their Liberty for publication in Prometheus Unbound.[20] This collection was originally supposed to serve as a companion collection to Shelley's collection of "popular songs".[21] When the poem was printed with the 1839 edition of Mask of Anarchy, Mary Shelley included a note that said: "Besides these outpourings of compassion and indignation, he had meant to adorn the cause he loved with loftier poetry of glory and triumph—such is the scope of the Ode to the Assertors of Liberty."[22]

"The Cloud" was written either during late 1819 or early 1820. Shelley based his poem on the description of Nepheliads in Leigh Hunt's "The Nymphs" Part II, published in 1818.[23] Other aspects of the poem were derived from Essay on Clouds, an 1803 article by Luke Howard about clouds.[24] It is also possible that Shelley derived his ideas from Adam Walker's or Humphry Davy's statements on lightning.[25] There were multiple drafts of the poem. The poem was published with Prometheus Unbound in 1820,[26] and it was probably submitted to be included on 12 July.[27]

"To a Skylark" was written in June 1820 while Shelley was at Livorno. There were multiple drafts of the poem with various changes to the lines. The poem was published with Prometheus Unbound in 1820.[28] The poem and "Ode to Liberty" were the final two poems mailed from Italy that arrived in time to be published in the collection. Mary Shelley attributed the image of the poem to a walk she and Shelley took where they experienced the song of a skylark. The poem was also inspired by Shelley's anxious feelings about being a poet.[29] The poem was published with Prometheus Unbound in 1820, and it was probably submitted to be included on 12 July.[30]

"Ode to Liberty" was written during early 1820 after Shelley was inspired by the revolution in Spain during March 1820.[31] During this time, he wrote to Leigh Hunt explaining how he wanted to travel to Spain following the revolution and said, "You know my passion for a republic, or anything which approaches it."[32] When he began to work on "Ode to Liberty", he was also putting forth his political views in a long essay called A Philosophical Review of Reform that shared themes with the poem.[33]

There were multiple drafts of the poem with various changes to the lines. The poem was published in Prometheus Unbound in 1820.[34] The poem and "To a Skylark" were the final two poems mailed from Italy that arrived in time to be published in the collection.[35] One passage discussion the divinity within the human mind was removed from the printed edition of the poem, but it was published later by Richard Garnet in 1862 under the title "Cancelled Passage of the Ode to Liberty".[36] According to Mary Shelley, Shelley later read excerpts of the work during the St Bartholomew festival at Casa Prinni, San Giuliano in August 1820. However, it is possible that the poem read was actually "Ode to Naples", which described an insurrection that was happening in Italy. The reading was interrupted by market noises.[37]


Prometheus Unbound[edit]

The Sensitive Plant[edit]

The poem describes the garden as having flowers:[38]

from every clime
in perfect prime (lines 39–40)

The garden is then described in its perfection:[39]

undefiled Paradise (lines 58)

The poem describes how the clouds spend both their night and their day:[40]

clouds of the dew
the sun rides high (lines 86–89)

The Lady within the garden is connected to the flowers:

starry scheme (lines 117–118)

The poem concludes reveals the truth of reality that man is unable to perceive:[41]

For love, and beauty, and delight,
There is no death nor change: their might
Exceeds our organs, which endure
No light, being themselves obscure.

The poem's conclusion describes an eternal garden that is filled with love and beauty. Death, in the garden, is only a problem within man's ability to perceive reality. The poem challenges what is real. This theme seemingly goes against aspects of the rest of the poem in that other parts of the poem describe a decay within the eternal. This complicates the poem where the garden is an allegory of natural paradise. The Lady in the garden within the poem is similar to depictions of Venus but the poem does not establish a direct classical parallel. The combined image represents a eternal paradise that covers the whole world and the Lady is the ruler. The Lady represents the essence within the reality and represents many of Shelley's beliefs.[42]

The actual sensitive plant, or mimosa, is representative of mankind in that it hides within itself when disturbed. As a metaphor, the plant represents solitude and an inability to partner with another while it consistently attempts to find some connection to the surrounding universe. Since the plant is not as beautiful as the others, it is selfish in nature in that it cannot give what it receives. The rest of the plants represent the rest of the universe in the way the sensitive plant is able to experience it. The poem is similar to "Mont Blanc" in how it uses aspects of nature to describe the universe and the actual use of a garden to form the image is similar to Alexander Pope's description of Windsor Forest.[43]

Individual aspects of nature that are made into universal images include the flowers being described as parts of the sky. There is a consistent repetition of the image with various petals and buds shining like stars. Stars also appear as reflections in the water or in the sky, but the image of the actual stars and the image of the star-like flowers are never present at the same time. As such, the stars and the flowers alternate and reveal two halves of the same whole. The poem also describes how the stars are always present, even during the day when men cannot perceive them, and the garden and heaven are both part of an eternal perfection. The light of day represents man's limited ability to perceive each side during its own time and he can only perceive the Lady during the day even though she is always present. Since there is only one true universe within the poem, there are no actual distinctions between night and day. as the poem reveals, everything that exists is immutable, and it is only human perceptions that change. [44]

A Vision of the Sea[edit]

Shelley uses rhythm in the poem to mimic the scene and the ship is described only in brief sections to represent its movement:[45]

The vessel, now tossed
Through the low-trailing rack of the tempest, is lost
In the skirts of the thunder-cloud: now down the sweep (lines 11–)

Onboard is woman holding her child as the ship is destroyed:[46]

At the helm sits a woman more fair
Than Heaven, when, unbinding its star-braided hair,
It sinks with the sun on the earth and the sea.
She clasps a bright child on her upgathered knee (lines 66–69)

The poem describes how:[47]

Death, Fear,
Love, Beauty, are mixed in the atmosphere,
Which trembles and burns with the fervour of dread (lines 161–163)

Later, the poem depicts a tiger battling against a monster as similar to a steam-boat:[48]

The whirl and the splash
As of some hideous engine whose brazen teeth smash

The manner in which the poem is written is similar to works written in a dreamlike state or "automatic" writing.[49] This connects "A Vision of the Sea" to many of Shelley's other poems, but it is different in that it describes a nightmarish state.[50] The actual type of nightmare is probably connected to types of nightmares Shelley would experience during 1820 and are similar to those that Shelley mentioned in his "Catalogue of Dreams" (1815).[51]

There is a strong thematic connection between the use of the sea and sea voyage in Samuel Taylor Coleridge's "Rhyme of the Ancient Mariner" with "A vision of the Sea". While Coleridge's poem describes an individual trying to find order in chaos, Shelley's poem does the opposite when the narrator rejoices in the chaos and the lack of understanding the complexities of the universe.[52] There are connections between the themes of the poem with other works, including images found within the art of Goya and in Herman Melville's Moby Dick.[53]

Ode to Heaven[edit]

The poem begins with a "Chorus of Spirits" that praise Heaven and do not understand an existence that would be disconnected from it:[54]

Which art now, and which wert then;
Of the present and the past,
Of the eternal Where and When,
Presence chamber, Temple, Home,
Ever-canopying Dome
Of acts and ages yet to come! (lines 4–9)

This is followed by another section containing "A Remoter Voice" that believes that Heaven is:[55]

Thou are but the mind's first chamber,
Round which its young fancies clamber,
* * * * *
But the portal of the grave,
Where a world of new delights
Will make thy best glories seem
But a dim and noonday gleam
From the shadow of a dream! (lines 28–29, 32–36)

The final voice of the poem, "Louder and Still Remoter Voice", dismisses the two previous claims about heaven:[56]

Peace! the abyss is wreathed with scorn
At your presumption, Atom-born! (lines 37–38)

The voice continues by asking about Heaven and then explaining the interconnectedness of the universe:[57]

What is Heaven? and what are ye
Who its brief expanse inherit?
What are suns and spheres which flee
With the instinct of that spirit
Of which ye are but a part?
Drops which Nature's mighty heart
Drives through thinnest veins. Depart! (lines 39–45)

The voice concludes with the image of a teardrop:[58]

What is Heaven? a globe of dew,
Filling in the morning new
Some eyed flower, whose young leaves waken
On an unimagined world:
Constellated suns unshaken,
Orbits measureless, are furled
In that frail and fading sphere,
With ten millions gathered there,
To tremble, gleam, and disappear. (lines 46–54)

The beginning of the poem follows a standard thesis/antithesis model, but the poem lacks a conclusion that serves to join the first two ideas when the third voice dismisses the previous assertions about Heaven. The ideas expressed by the third are similar to Demogorgon's dislike of dogma within Prometheus Unbound. In essence, the first voice describes Heaven as related to causes and effects and the second describes a hidden existence that is not knowable from observation. Both of these are dismissed as "Atom-born", which is connect them to the ideas of Lucretius that the third voice upholds and uses to argue that an atomic approach or an idealistic approach are not satisfying to describe Heaven. In its place, the third voice argues that everything is connected in nature as one.[59]

The poem's final image, a dewdrop, is connected to the ideas of idealism and is connected to Samuel Taylor Coleridge's Statesman's Manual. Unlike Coleridge's work, there is little reassurance found within the poem as the final lines of the poem are dominated by aggressive imagery. Shelley also adds a political element to Coleridge's dewdrop image, which links the individual conscious with the structure of the universe.[60] The ideas of the poem also go further than Coleridge as they are deeply rooted in George Berkeley's philosophy. Oh Berkeley's theories about the immaterial as present in Shelley's poetry, Mary Shelley wrote:[61]

This theory gave unity and grandeur to his ideas, while it opened a wide field for his imagination. The creation—such as it was perceived by his mind—a unit in immensity, was slight and narrow compared with the interminable forms of thought that might exist beyond, to be perceived perhaps hereafter by his own mind; or which are perceptible to other minds that fill the universe, not of space in the material sense, but of infinity in the immaterial one.[62]

The poem, according to Mary Shelley, would be a view of the transcendent in which many is only a tiny part of a greater unity called "One Mind", an idea that appears in Shelley's "On Life" and in Adonais. She declared that these poems revealed Shelley's belief of "his individual mind as a unit divided from a mighty whole, to which it was united by restless sympathies and an eager desire for knowledge" and that "he assuredly believed that hereafter, as now, he would form a portion of that whole—and a portion less imperfect, less suffering, than the shackles inseparable from humanity imposes on all who live beneath the moon."[63]

An Exhortation[edit]

Within the poem, chameleons are used to describe poets:[64]

Where light is, chameleons change:
Where love is not, poets do:
Fame is love disguised: if few
Find either, never think it strange
That poets range. (lines 14–18)

The poem continues by revealing the independence of the poet:[65]

Yet dare not stain with wealth or power
A poet's free and heavenly mind (lines 19–20)

"An Exhortation" is part of a series of poems written by the second generation of Romantic poets that critics William Wordsworth's and Robert Southey's taking of government stipends. Byron made similar attacks in his dedication to Don Juan. Those in Hunt's literary circle believed that their income was free of the political taint that Wordsworth's and Southey's incomes were not.[66]

Ode to the West Wind[edit]

The image of water is common throughout many of Shelley's poems. In "Ode to the West Wind", Shelley describes Baiae's bay as "wrinkled" and "unquiet", which is duplicated in "Ode to Liberty". This was used again in his poems "Evening Ponte al Mare" and "To Jane. The Recollection".[67]

An Ode[edit]

The poem begins:[68]

Arise, arise, arise!
There is blood on the earth that denies ye bread;
Be your wounds like eyes
To weep for the dead, the dead, the dead. (lines 1–4)

Although Shelley stated that he was opposed to didactic poetry, many of his own poems contained didactic elements, including "An Ode". These poems were all written in 1819 and only 2 were published during his life, with the altered name disguising the purpose of "An Ode". The poems collectively represent Shelley's dissatisfaction with the political climate of 1819 Britain and his hope to alter it through his poetry. The poems were more pertinent to the social climate than works like Prometheus Unbound, which were more idealistic.[69]

The Cloud[edit]

The poem opens by describing the cloud's relationship with nature, including plants:[70]

I bring fresh showers for the thirsting flowers,
From the seas and the streams;
I bear light shade for the leaves when laid
In their noonday dreams.
From my wings are shaken the dews that waken
The sweet buds every one,(lines 1–6)

The cloud then describes how it creates hail and then disappears with rain:[71]

I wield the flail of the lashing hail,
And whiten the green plains under,
And then again I dissolve it in rain,
And laugh as I pass in thunder. (lines 9–12)

While the cloud seems to vanish to observers, it is really enjoying Heaven:[72]

I sift the snow on the mountains below,
And their great pines groan aghast;
And all the night 'tis my pillow white,
While I sleep in the arms of the blast.
Sublime on the towers of my skiey bowers,
Lightning, my pilot, sits;
In a cavern under is fettered the thunder,
It struggles and howls at fits;
Over earth and ocean, with gentle motion,
This pilot is guiding me,
* * * * *
Wherever he dream, under mountain or stream,
The Spirit he loves remains;
And I all the while bask in Heaven's blue smile,
Whilst he is dissolving in rains. (lines 13–22, 27–30)

The poem concludes as the cloud explains how when it disappears, there is no real grave, and that the cloud is immortal:[73]

I change, but I cannot die.
For after the rain when with never a stain
The pavilion of Heaven is bare,
And the winds and sunbeams with their convex gleams
Build up the blue dome of air,
I silently laugh at my own cenotaph,
And out of the caverns of rain,
Like a child from the womb, like a ghost from the tomb,
I arise and unbuild it again. (lines 76–84)

"The Cloud", like "The Sensitive Plant", describes how nature is in a constant cycle of change. The image of a cloud is similar to the snow on the mountain peak in "Mont Blanc" in that they provide both the source of life and the end of life. Within these poems, all of the elements of weather are connected to one source. However, the cloud is different from the snow in that the cloud is mutable. The cloud is also connected to time and eternity, and while it seems to be dying, it is paradoxically immortal and it is only the limited perspective of the observe that makes him think otherwise. The actual essence of the cloud is the power behind the cloud, and the physical clouds are only manifestations of the power.[74]

Within the poem, Shelley links the idea of birth with death. This concept appears again in Prometheus Unbound where the next age, the Golden Age, is described as a birth into a new life. The idea also appears in "Ode to the West Wind" where the wind is both the force of destruction and the preserver of life. In these poems, there isn't a true annhilation of life nor a creator of life, but a constant cycle without end. At the center of the cycle is a force that serves to keep the cycle moving, which also serves to create a moral cycle in Shelley's view.[75]

To a Skylark[edit]

The poem describes an experience between the narrator and a skylark:[76]

Hail to thee, blithe Spirit!
Bird thou never wert,
That from Heaven, or near it,
Pourest thy full heart
In profuse strains of unpremeditated art.
* * * * *
Like a star of Heaven,
In the broad daylight
Thou art unseen, but yet I hear thy shrill delight, (lines 1–5, 17–20)

The poem then describes what is to be envied about the skylark:[77]

Better than all measures
Of delightful sound,
Better than all treasures
That in books are found,
Thy skill to poet were, though scorner of the ground! (lines 96–100)

The poem ends:[78]

Teach me half the gladness
That thy brain must know,
Such harmonious madness
From my lips would flow,
The world would listen then, as I am listening now. (lines 101–105)

The poem describes Shelley's experience with both a skylark and his own feelings of rejection. The narrator envies the skylark just as he envied other poets, which is probably why Shelley reworks some of Byron's poetry about suffering and song into his own line: "Our sweetest songs are those that tell of saddest thought" (line 90).[79]

Ode to Liberty[edit]

The poem describes how freedom is necessary for creativity, and that the "creative Absolute":[80]

The voices of thy bards and sages thunder
With an earth-awakening blast
Through the caverns of the past;
Religion veils her eyes; Oppression shrinks aghast;
A winged sound of joy and love, and wonder,
Which soars where Expectation never flew,
Rending the veil of space and time asunder!
One ocean feeds the clouds, and streams, and dew;
One sun illumines heaven; one spirit vast
With life and love makes chaos ever new,
As Athens doth the world with thy delight renew. (lines 63–73)

The poem prays for the removal of priests:[81]

O that the wise from their bright minds would kindle
Such lambs within the dome of this dim world,
That the pale name of Priest might shrink and dwindle
Into the hell from which it first was hurled. (lines 226–229)

The poem continues by emphasising the power within words:[82]

O that the words which make the thoughts obscure
From which they spring, as clouds of glimmering dew
From a white lake blot Heaven's blue portraiture,
Were stript of their thin masks and various hue,
And frowns and smiles and splendours not their own,
Till in the nakeness of false and true
They stand before their Lord, aeach to receive its due. (lines 234–240)

The narrator says that the people should remove monarchies:[83]

O that the free would stamp the impious name
Of 'King' into the dust; or write it there,
So that this blot upon the page of fame
Were as serpent's path, which the light air
Erases, and the flat sands close behind!

The poem contains a desire for liberty but ends with an image of destruction:[84]

As a brief insect dies with dying day,
My song, its pinions disarrayed of might,
Drooped; o'er it closed the echoes far away
Of the great voice which did its flight sustain,
As waves which lately paved his watery way
Hiss round a drowner's head in their tempestuous play

A passage existing only in a manuscript edition and printed later as "Cancelled Passage of the Ode to Liberty" reads:[85]

Within <the temple> a cavern of <the mind of man> man's inmost <trackless> spirit
Is throned <an Idol,> so intensely fair
That the adventurous thoughts which wander near it
Worship—and as they kneel, <like votaries,> wear
The splendour of its presence—& the light
Penetrates their dreamlike fram
Till they become charged with the strength of flame
* * * * *
They forever change & pass but it remains the same.

The image of water is common throughout many of Shelley's poems. In "Ode to the West Wind", Shelley describes Baiae's bay as "wrinkled" and "unquiet", which is duplicated in "Ode to Liberty". This was used again in his poems "Evening Ponte al Mare" and "To Jane. The Recollection".[86] Of the relationship between "Evening Ponte al Mare" and "Ode to Liberty", the third stanza of "Ode to Liberty" forms the basis for the other poem.[87]

To Shelley, freedom is necessary for humanity and necessary for creativity. The revolutionary spirit of the poem traces its roots to the Greek victory during the Persian War. This focus on the Greek liberty as the origin of freedom for mankind appears again in his poems Hellas and The Persians. His emphasis on history and viewing it from a transcendent perspective within a poem appears also in his poems Queen Mab and The Revolt of Islam. This position finds its roots in the "Prologue in Heaven" that served as an introduction for Goethe's Faust.[88]

In a section of the poem contained only in the manuscript edition, Shelley describes a divine aspect within the human mind that is related to the thoughts of the individual. This appears also within his Defence of Poetry essay. Shelley believed that poets are obliged to serve this internal power and that it is a source of creativity. Within the rest of the poem, the power is discussed in a similar manner to that found within Prometheus Unbound and "Mont Blanc" in that it is called upon to bring about social change.[89]

Contemporary criticism[edit]

John Gibson Lockart, in a September 1820 review in the Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine, claimed that the collection contained small poems that were "abounding in richest melody of versification, and great tenderness of feeling."[90]

W. S. Walker, in the October 1821 Quarterly Review, claimed that the volume "is in general a mere jumble of words and heterogeneous ideas, connected by slight and accidental associations, among which it is impossible to distinguish the principal object from the accessory."[91] He later used "The Sensitive Plant" to justify a claim that "in the whole volume there is not one original image of nature, one simple expression of human feeling, or one new association of the appearance of the moral with those of the material world."[92]

The July 1822 The Album contained an anonymous review that claimed that the whole volume "is a production of magnificent poetical power. Did our limits permit us to give extracts, we would place this on indisputable ground."[93]

An anonymous review for The London Magazine September and October 1820 issues, after criticising some of the poems claimed that "The minor pieces are stamped throughout with all the vigorous peculiarities of the writer's mind, and are everywhere strongly impregnated with the alchymical properties of genius. But what we principally admire in them is their strong and healthy freshness, and the tone of interest that they elicit. They possess the fever and flush of poetry; the fragrant perfume and sunshine of a summer's morning, with its genial and kindly benevolence. It is impossible to peruse them without admiring the peculiar property of the author's mind, which can doff in an instant the cumbersome garments of metaphysical speculations, and throw itself naked as it were into the arms of nature and humanity [...] This is one of the most stupendous of those works which the daring and vigorous spirit of modern poetry and thought has created."[94] It continued, "In the whole work there is a spirit of good--of gentleness, humanity, and even of religion, which has excited in us a deep admiration of its author, and a fond regret that he should ever attempt to adorn cold and dangerous paradoxes with the beauties which could only have been produced by a mind instinctively pious and reverential."[95]

After praising Shelley's power as a poet, an anonymous review for the November 1820 Lonsdale Magazine stated, "Had all the productions of our author been, like ['A Vision of the Sea'], calculated only to 'soften and sooth the soul,' we should have rejoiced in adding our humble tribute of applause to the numerous econiums which have greeted him. But alas! he has drunk deeply of the two poisonous and kindred streams--infidelity and sedition."[96]

The February 1821 Monthly Review and British Register contained an anonymous review that ended, "The 'Miscellaneous Poems,' which follow Prometheus, display also both his fancy and his peculiarities."[97]

Leigh Hunt, in the 1822 The Examiner, wrote of the volume: "Mr. Shelley has written a great deal of poetry equally unmetaphysical and beautiful [...] we need not go farther than the volume before us [...] To say that nobody who writes in the Quarterly Review could produce any thing half as good (unless Mr. Wordsworth writes in it, which I do not believe he does) would be sorry praise."[98]

In his diary entry for March 1828, Henry Crabb Robinson wrote, "Finished also to-day Shelley's Prometheus—an utterly unintelligible rhapsody, but all the smaller poems of the same volume are delightful".[99]

In 1880, John Todhunter described the collection as a "wonderful volume".[100]

Prometheus Unbound[edit]

In a March 1865 letter, Algernon Charles Swinburne claimed, "Shelley's Prometheus is magnificent and un-Hellenic, spoilt too in my mind by the infusion of philanthropic doctrinaire views and 'progress of the species'".[101]

The Sensitive Plant[edit]

John Gibson Lockart, in a September 1820 review in the Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine, claimed that the poem was the "most affecting of all" out of Shelley's 1820 collection.[102]

W. S. Walker, in the October 1821 Quarterly Review, included the poem among those in the collection that contain an image that "is to be taken partly in a metaphorical meaning, and partly in no meaning at all", and he continued to claim that "the object" of the poem "we cannot discover".[103] He used the poem to claim that "in the whole [1820] volume there is not one original image of nature, one simple expression of human feeling, or one new association of the appearance of the moral with those of the material world."[104]

The July 1822 The Album contained an anonymous review that claimed "Nor does Mr. Shelley want sweetness and tenderness when he chooses to display them. 'The Sensitive Plant' is as beautiful a specimen of playful yet melancholy fancy as we remember to have seen."[105]

In his diary entry for December 1824, Henry Crabb Robinson wrote, "[Shelley's] 'Lines written among the Euganean Hills' and his 'Sensitive Plant' are very pleasing poems. Fancy seems to be his best quality; he is rich and exuberant."[106]

A Vision of the Sea[edit]

John Gibson Lockart, in a September 1820 review in the Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine, described the poem as "magnificent".[107]

An anonymous review for The London Magazine September and October 1820 issues claimed that "The 'Vision of the Sea' is one of the most awful pictures which poetry has set before us."[108]

After praising Shelley's power as a poet, an anonymous review for the November 1820 Lonsdale Magazine stated, "That we may stand justified in the opinion we have given of Mr. Shelley's superior talents as an author, we will quote a few lines from one of his fugitive pieces, entitled 'A Vision of the Sea.' A piece which for grandeur of expression, originality of thought, and magnificence of description, stands almost unrivalled [..] Had all the productions of our author been, like the above, calculated only to 'soften and sooth the soul,' we should have rejoiced in adding our humble tribute of applause to the numerous econiums which have greeted him. But alas! he has drunk deeply of the two poisonous and kindred streams--infidelity and sedition."[109]

W. S. Walker, in the October 1821 Quarterly Review, wrote, "In illustrating the incoherency which prevails in [Shelley's] metaphors, as well as in the other ingredients of his verses, we shall take our first example, not from that great storehouse of the obscure and the unintelligible--the Prometheus, but from the opening of a poem, entitled, 'A Vision of the Sea,' which we have often heard praised as a splendid work of imagination."[110]

Ode to Heaven[edit]

An Exhortation[edit]

W. S. Walker, in the October 1821 Quarterly Review, claimed that Shelley's 1820 collection contained absurdities of language and that in "An Exhortation", Shelley's "comparison of a poet to a cameleonhas no more meaning than the jingling of the bells of a fool's cap, and far less music."[111]

Ode to the West Wind[edit]

John Gibson Lockart, in a September 1820 review in the Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine, claimed that the poem was, like many in Shelley's 1820 collection, "abounding in richest melody of versification, and great tenderness of feeling."[112]

Orestes Brownson, in the October 1841 Boston Quarterly Review, argued that Prometheus Unbound contained lines "drawn as the hand of a master alone could drawn them" and that "Similar remarks may be made with regard to his other poems, and his fugitive pieces. Some of the latter are prized more highly by critics than his greater efforts; as, for example, the 'Ode to the West Wind' and 'Lines written in dejection near Naples.'"[113]

An Ode[edit]

Leigh Hunt, in the 1822 The Examiner, wrote a response to the attack on Shelley's poetry by Quarterly Review: "How well the Spaniards have acted up to this infidel injunction is well known to the whole of wondering Christendom and affords one of the happiest presages to the growth of true freedom and philosophy."[114]

The Cloud[edit]

An anonymous review for The London Magazine September and October 1820 issues claimed of the 1820 volume that "It is impossible to peruse them without admiring the peculiar property of the author's mind, which can doff in an instant the cumbersome garments of metaphysical speculations, and throw itself naked as it were into the arms of nature and humanity. The beautiful and singularly original poem of 'The Cloud' will evince proofs of our opinion, and show the extreme force and freshness with which the writer can impregnate his poetry."[115]

W. S. Walker, in the October 1821 Quarterly Review, argued that the "The Cloud" is related to Prometheus Unbound in that they are both absurd and "galimatias".[116]

John Todhunter, in 1880, claimed that "The Cloud" and "To a Skylark" were "the two most popular of Shelley's lyrics".[117]

Francis Thompson, in 1889, used "The Cloud" to base his claim that "The Cloud" was the "most typically Shelleyan of all the poems" because it contained "the child's faculty of make-believe raised to the nth power" and that "He is still at play, save only that his play is such as manhood stops to watch, and his playthings are those which the gods give their children. The universe is his box of toys. He dabbles his fingers in the dayfall. He is gold-dusty with tumbling amidst the stars."[118]

To a Skylark[edit]

Mary Shelley believed that "To a Skylark" was "one of the most beautiful of his poems."[119]

John Gibson Lockart, in a September 1820 review in the Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine, claimed that the poem was, like many in Shelley's 1820 collection, "abounding in richest melody of versification, and great tenderness of feeling."[120]

Leigh Hunt, in the 1822 The Examiner, claimed of "To a Skylark" that "I know of nothing more beautiful than this,--more choice of tones, more natural in words, more abundant in exquisite, cordial, and most poetical associations. One gets the stanzas by heart unawares, and repeats them like 'snatches of old tunes.'"[121]

In his diary entry for December 1824, Henry Crabb Robinson includes "To a Skylark" with "The Euganean Hills" and "The Sensitive Plant" as his favourite poems of Shelley.[122]

A June 1840 review by Henry Tuckerman in the Southern Literary Messenger argued that the poem "is perfectly buoyant with the very music it commemorates."[123]

John Todhunter, in 1880, claimed that "The Cloud" and "To a Skylark" were "the two most popular of Shelley's lyrics".[124]

Ode to Liberty[edit]

John Gibson Lockart, in a September 1820 review in the Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine, argued that the poem "contains passages of the most splendid beauty, but which, in point of meaning, is just as wicked as any thing that ever reached the world under the name of Mr. Hunt himself [...] This is exactly a versification of the foulest sentence that ever issued of Voltaire. Let us hope that Percy Bysshe Shelley is not destined to leave behind him, like that great genius, a name for ever detestable to the truly FREE and the truly WISE."[125]

An anonymous review for The London Magazine September and October 1820 issues claimed that "there are passages of a political bearing, which, for the poet's sake, we heartily wish had been omitted. It is not, however, addressed to minds whom it is likely to injure."[126]

The poem was dismissed by an anonymous review, in the November 1820 Lonsdale Magazine, which declared, "Further remarks on sentiments like these, are unnecessary. The beast requires only to be dragged into public light, to meet its merited contempt. We can only express our pity for the author, and regret that so fine a poet should have espoused so detestable a cause."[127]

W. S. Walker, in the October 1821 Quarterly Review, stated, "At present we say nothing of the harshness of style and incongruity of metaphor, which these verses exhibit. We do not even ask what is or can be meant by the kneeling of human thought before the judgment-thrown of its own awless soul: for it is a praiseworthy precaution in an author, to temper irreligion and sedition with nonsense, so that he may avail himself, if need be, of the plea of lunacy before the tribunals of his country. All that we now condemn, is the wanton gratuitous impiety thus obtruded on the world."[128]

Henry Crabb Robinson discussed "Ode to Liberty" in his 28 December 1821 diary entry: "Shelley's polemical hatred of Christianity is as unpoetical as it is irrational [...] This is a miserable rant, and would be so were it as true as it is false. I shall send Shelley back to Godwin unread. Godwin himself is unable to read his works."[129]

The February 1821 London Magazine contained a review that said, "No one can read his Prometheus Unbound or the magnificent 'Ode to Liberty' without a sensation of the deepest astonishment at the stupendous mind of their author. The mental visions of philosophy contained in them are the most gorgeous that can be conceived, and expressed in language well suited to the sentiments. They soar with an eagle's flight to the heaven of heavens, and come back laden with the treasures of humanity. But with all the combined attractions of mind and verse, we feel that Mr. Shelley can never become a popular poet. He does not sufficiently link himself with man; he is too visionary for the intellect of the generality of his readers, and is ever immersed in the clouds of religious and metaphysical speculations."[130]

Following Shelley's death, William Hazlitt reviewed "Ode to Liberty" in the July 1824 Edinburgh Review and declared, "This Ode for Liberty, though somewhat turbid and overloaded in the diction, we regard as a fair specimen of Mr Shelley's highest powers—whose eager animation wanted only a greater sternness and solidity to be sublime."[131]

In the February 1844 Southern Literary Messenger, T. H. Chivers claimed, "Human language never expressed a more sublime, poetical truth than may be found in his Ode to Liberty".[132]

Modern criticism[edit]

Desmond King-Hele, in 1960, argued that "In the autumn of 1820, Prometheus Unbound, with other poems was published in London: the other poems alone would have been enough to make the book famous, for they included the Ode to the West Wind, The Cloud, the Skylark, The Sensitive Plant and the Ode to Liberty."[133]

Prometheus Unbound[edit]

Douglas Bush, in 1937, stated, "Shelley's handling of mythological allusions, and also his gift for the spontaneous creation of myths, are most richly illustrated in Prometheus Unbound and The Witch of Atlas".[134] He continued to claim that "Prometheus Unbound is Shelley's finest work; it was, along with Adonais, his own favorite."[135]

The Sensitive Plant[edit]

In 1933, Benjamin Kurtz argued, "The Sensitive Plant, powerful as it is, leaves one reader, at least, with an impression as of an unfinished experiment."[136]

Douglas Bush claimed, in 1937, that the poem contains "glowing stanzas" and "is beautiful picture-making, but the quiet miniature falls far short of the cosmic personification, the demonic rush and power, of the simile in the Ode to the West Wind."[137]

In 1959, Earl Wasserman pointed out: "The linguistic triumph of the poem has been to probe, not merely within, but as a function of, this insouciance the whole realm of metaphysical speculations. In this atmosphere of easy indifference Shelley has shaped the given linguistic system that inherently implies the real existence of the external world and the reality of annihilation, so that it assumes instead the mental existence of that world with respect to an."[138]

Desmond King-Hele, in 1960, declared, "The weakest feature of the poem is its metre" but agrees with Earl Wasserman that the poem is "a linguistic triumph".[139]

Richard Holmes, in 1974, claimed that "In 'The Sensitive Plant,' [...] the autumnal and winter imagery reaches a peculiar pitch of ugliness and horror."[140]

Timothy Webb, in 1977, claimed that the poem was a "calm and beautifully poised piece of writing".[141]

Harold Bloom, in 1985, included "The Sensitive Plant" among poems that showed Shelley as "a master of the urbane, middle style" and later declared it as "a remarkably original poem, and a permanently valuable one, though it is little admired in recent years."[142]

A Vision of the Sea[edit]

In 1933, Benjamin Kurtz argued that the work was an "indubitable experiment" and "quite uneven".[143]

Newman White, in 1940, claimed that the poem was "a strange, detailed picture of a shipwreck".</ref>White 1940 p. 189</ref>

Robert Smith and Martha Schlegel, in 1945, singled out the poem's manuscript copy for the quality of Shelley's handwriting: "The poem [...] is an excellent model for studying Shelley's characteristics as a penman. The first thing that strikes us is the impression of strong slant to the right which is produced by his long, sloping strokes"[144]

In 1949, Richard Fogle argued that the poem was "unusually rich in Shelley's characteristic kinesthetic imagery. It is a vigorous account of a shipwreck".[145]

Desmond King-Hele, in 1960, called it a "grim and sinewy fragment [...] which washes preciosity overboard before you can say 'conger eel'" and claimed that the poem "is ludicrously melodramatic, its syntax is strained, its imagery riotous, its mere 'uncouthly handled and clotted with consonants'."[146]

Richard Holmes, in 1974, claimed that the poem was a "grotesque and shapeless piece of writing" and that "The painful and empty brilliance of this excruciated writing was perhaps partly symptomatic of the kind of 'bad nervous attacks' which Mary noted briefly in her journal and letters during these weeks."[147]

Ode to Heaven[edit]

In 1924, Olwen Campbell claimed that "The Ode to Heaven is the very essence of purest poetry distilled from an imagination which could be nourished equally on philosophy or religion".[148]

In 1933, Benjamin Kurtz claimed that "The Medusa and the Ode to Heaven are not great poetic performances; but each touches rather powerfully upon a fairly common reaction to death."[149]

Richard Fogle, in 1945, claimed that "In the 'Ode to Heaven' Shelley is frankly hopeless of doing justice to his immense subject. He throws out a variety of imaginal suggestions almost at random."[150]

Hugh Roberts, in 1997, claimed that "This transgressive carnival of destruction is a world turned upside down that releases no surge of revolutionary creativity but transfixes us with the 'terror of tempest'".[151]

An Exhortation[edit]

Newman White, in 1940, described "An Exhortation" as a "beautiful, apparently playful little poem".[152]

Ode to the West Wind[edit]

Douglas Bush claimed, in 1937, that "The Sensitive Plant" contained "beautiful picture-making, but the quiet miniature falls far short of the cosmic personification, the demonic rush and power, of the simile in the Ode to the West Wind."[153]

In 2005, James Bieri argued, "Ode to the West Wind marked a dramatic growth in Shelley's poetic expression combined with acute observations of natural phenomena, including types of clouds and the interactive effects of wind and ocean currents."[154]

An Ode[edit]

In 1933, Benjamin Kurtz argued that "An Ode" was one of "seven political poems" that "may be dismissed in few words, for they are of little poetical worth."[155]

Timothy Webb, in 1977, claimed that the work "begins with great vigour".[156]

The Cloud[edit]

Benjamin Kurtz, in 1933, claimed that "The Cloud succeeds where The Sensitive Plant failed" and that the poem revealed his "thoughtful and imaginative vigour".[157]

In 1937, Douglas Bush argued that "The Cloud" was "where science becomes ethereal" and that "no other poet has approached Shelley's magical deceptions."[158]

Desmond King-Hele, in 1960, claimed, "The Cloud is original not only in its subject but also in its technique. Shelley performs adroitly a trick which, though overplayed since, had rarely been tried before – the trick of writing as if he was the cloud instead of merely describing it. He also manages to keep up an unceasing flow of imaginative invention: each verse of the poem creates a little world of its own" and that "The Cloud is one of Shelley's purest lyrics"[159]

Earl Wasserman, in 1971, compared "The Cloud" to Shelley's "Hymn of Apollo" and "Hymn of Pan" and claimed. "For in the songs of Apollo and Pan, Shelley had represented the two unreconciled aspects of man, his heaven-oriented but lifeless mental ideasl and his earth-oriented experiences of living that prove transitory and therefore false [...] But The Cloud is the comforting resolution of that dilemma and provides a value, however qualified, that the other two songs deny."[160]

In 1974, Richard Holmes points out that "The Cloud" is one of a few poems Shelley wrote in Italy that "subsequently established his reputation among the sentimental Victorian reading public, and among generation after generation of schoolchildren" but notes that they "were never of serious concern to Shelley."[161]

Timothy Webb, in 1977, described the relationship between "The Cloud" and science and then claimed, "what matters is that the apparent luxury of the mythological invention is founded on precise scientific facts. It is important to recognise this, since so many readers and critics have either seen the poem as beautiful but empty or else as an exercise which demonstrates Shelley's 'customary self-concern.' [...] However, poetry aspires to a condition beyond the reach of versified meteorology [...] Admittedly, Shelley deploys his cirrostratus and his cumulonimbus with the dexterity of a meteorologist, but what of the achievement of the poem as a whole? [...] The answer to this depends not on the accuracy of the scientific observation nor on the incidental felicities of the image or phrasing but on the imaginative vitality of the whole poem."[162]

To a Skylark[edit]

In discussing "To a Skylark", Leone Vivante wrote in 1950: "Shelley seems to search here—yet as one who only looks after beauty!—for a high and still higher degree of indeterminacy. This is a positive value, a value in itself. It is elicited, enhanced, by every word and image. Invisibility, secretness and intimacy, which we here find expressed, are in fact essential aspects of indeterminacy—and of creative novelty."[163]

In 1960, Desmond King-Hele claimed, "Probably the most famous, and certainly the most hackneyed of Shelley's poems is the ode To a Skylark [...] The theme is thus a conceit, not an eternal truth; but Shelley contrives the fiction so persuasively that we gladly suspend disbelief."[164] He continued, "To a Skylark is very easy to read, apart from stanzas 4 and 5, which are a little obscure, and at the same time rich in undertones" and that "The Skylark, like The Cloud, is a fine invention. It is not so 'unattached', not so pure a lyric as its predecessor; for whenever Shelley exaggerates the lark's good luck he is obliquely emphasizing Man's troubles, and in particular his own. But since the spotlight is on the lark, not Man, the poem leaves a happy impression and has given the skylark a fame denied to the sparrow, thrush or seagull."[165]

In 1974, Richard Holmes pointed out that "To a Skylark" is one of a few poems Shelley wrote in Italy that "subsequently established his reputation among the sentimental Victorian reading public, and among generation after generation of schoolchildren" but notes that they "were never of serious concern to Shelley."[166]

Ode to Liberty[edit]

In 1960, Desmond King-Hele claimed that, when compared to other 1820 poems written by Shelley, "the two shortest, the lofty odes to Liberty and to Naples, stand apart: for in all the others he relaxes, treating unpretentious themes gaily and affably" and claimed in particular that "As a clarion-call to fight for freedom, there is nothing in English poetry to equal the Ode to Liberty: if we are really one of the freedom-loving peoples, we ought to be carried away with enthusiasm, following in the wake of John Stuart Mill, who used to weep when reading the poem to his friends."[167] He continued, "The Ode to Liberty is Shelley's most ambitious and successful Pindaric ode [...] In the Ode to Liberty he is more successful than either Gray or Coleridge in avoiding the great danger of the formal ode – that the language may become as stilted as the rhyme-scheme."[168]

Donald Reiman, in 1969, declared, "'Ode to Liberty' is one of Shelley's most important middle-length poems, on a par with 'Mont Blanc,' 'Hymn to Intellectual Beauty,' and 'Lines written among the Euganean Hills.'"[169]

Timothy Webb, in 1977, claimed the last stanzas of "Ode to Liberty" as an "extraordinary tour de force" and that "It is evidence that we are dealing with a poem which is extremely formal and which has been organised with very great care."[170]

Harold Bloom, in 1985, said, "In the great revolutionary 'Ode to Liberty,' Shelley successfully adapts the English Pindaric to an abstract political theme".[171]


  1. Holmes 1974 pp. 595, 600
  2. Reiman and Fraistat 2002 p. 286
  3. Webb 1977 p. 237
  4. Reiman and Fraistat 2002 p. 286
  5. Holmes 1975 pp. 582, 595
  6. Woodberry 1901 p. 377
  7. Cameron 1974 p. 292
  8. Bieri 2008 p. 467
  9. Reiman and Fraistat 2002 p. 296
  10. Reiman and Fraistat 2002 p. 296
  11. Reiman and Fraistat 2002 p. 296
  12. Cox 2004 p. 194
  13. O'Neill 1990 p. 121
  14. Bieri 2008 pp. 497–498
  15. Bieri 2008 qtd p. 498
  16. Cameron 1974 p. 342
  17. Trench 1888 p. 66
  18. Bieri 2008 qtd. p. 489
  19. Bieri 2008 p. 489
  20. Webb 1977 p. 88
  21. Bieri 2008 p. 489
  22. Adamson 1997 qtd. p. xxxiv
  23. Reiman and Fraistat 2002 p. 301
  24. King-Hele 1971 p. 219
  25. Webb 1977 p. 246
  26. Reiman and Fraistat 2002 p. 301
  27. Holmes 1974 p. 600
  28. Reiman and Fraistat 2002 p. 304
  29. Bieri 2008 pp. 257–258
  30. Holmes 1974 p. 600
  31. Reiman and Fraistat 2002 p. 307
  32. Bieri 2008 qtd. p. 528
  33. Holmes 1974 p. 583
  34. Reiman and Fraistat 2002 p. 307
  35. Bieri 2008 p. 528
  36. Wasserman 1971 p. 207
  37. Holmes 1974 pp. 608–609
  38. Wasserman 1959 p. 253
  39. Wasserman 1959 p. 253
  40. Wasserman 1959 p. 261
  41. Wasserman 1959 p. 264
  42. Wasserman 1959 pp. 251–257
  43. Wasserman 1959 pp. 257–258
  44. Wasserman 1959 pp. 259–258
  45. West 2007 p. 136
  46. Bieri 2008 p. 467
  47. Roberts 1997 p. 244
  48. Holmes 1974 p. 582
  49. Holmes 1974 p. 582
  50. Firkins 1937 p. 74
  51. Holmes 1974 p. 583
  52. West 2007 p. 134
  53. Blunden 1947 p. 215
  54. Roberts 1997 pp. 112–113
  55. Roberts 1997 p. 113
  56. Roberts 1997 p. 113
  57. Roberts 1997 p. 114
  58. Roberts 1997 p. 114
  59. Roberts 1997 pp. 112–114
  60. Roberts 1997 pp. 112, 114–115
  61. Wasserman 1971 p. 152
  62. Wasserman 1971 qtd. p. 152
  63. Wasserman 1971 qtd. pp. 152–153
  64. Cox 2004 p. 194
  65. Cox 2004 p. 194
  66. Cox 2004 p. 194
  67. Bieri 2008 p. 498
  68. Webb 1977 p. 103
  69. Webb 1977 pp. 88–89
  70. Wasserman 1971 p. 242
  71. Wasserman 1971 p. 242
  72. Wasserman 1971 p. 242
  73. Wasserman 1971 p. 242
  74. Wasserman 1971 p. 242
  75. Wasserman 1971 p. 243
  76. Bieri 2008 p. 527
  77. Bieri 2008 p. 527
  78. Bieri 2008 p. 527
  79. Bieri 2008 p. 527
  80. Wasserman 1971 p. 402
  81. Wasserman 1971 p. 330
  82. Wasserman 1971 p. 331
  83. Bieri 2008 p. 529
  84. Bieri 2008 pp. 528–529
  85. Wasserman 1971 p. 207
  86. Bieri 2008 p. 498
  87. Holmes 1974 p. 683
  88. Wasserman 1971 pp. 381, 395, 402
  89. Wasserman 1971 pp. 206–207, 330
  90. Barcus 1975 qtd. p. 239
  91. Barcus 1975 qtd. p. 258
  92. Barcus 1975 qtd. p. 261
  93. Barcus 1975 qtd. p. 329
  94. Barcus 1975 qtd p. 243
  95. Barcus 1975 qtd p. 248
  96. Barcus 1975 qtd p. 249
  97. Barcus 1975 qtd. p. 253
  98. Barcus 1975 qtd. p. 327
  99. Barcus 1975 qtd. p. 268
  100. Todhunter 1880 p. 183
  101. Swinburne 1919 p. 24
  102. Barcus 1975 qtd. p. 239
  103. Barcus 1975 pp. 260-261
  104. Barcus 1975 qtd. p. 261
  105. Barcus 1975 qtd. p. 329
  106. Barcus 1975 qtd. p. 347
  107. Barcus 1975 qtd. p. 239
  108. Barcus 1975 qtd pp. 247-248
  109. Barcus 1975 qtd p. 249
  110. Barcus 1975 qtd p. 258
  111. Barcus 1975 qtd. p. 260
  112. Barcus 1975 qtd. p. 239
  113. Barcus 1975 qtd. p. 393
  114. Barcus 1975 qtd. p. 328
  115. Barcus 1975 qtd p. 243
  116. Barcus 1975 qtd p. 256
  117. Todhunter 1880 pp. 183–184
  118. McMahan 1909 qtd. p. 400
  119. Holmes 1974 qtd. p. 599
  120. Barcus 1975 qtd. p. 239
  121. Barcus 1975 qtd. p. 327
  122. Barcus 1975 qtd. p. 347
  123. Barcus 1975 qtd p. 376
  124. Todhunter 1880 pp. 183–184
  125. Barcus 1975 qtd. p. 242
  126. Barcus 1975 qtd p. 248
  127. Barcus 1975 qtd. p. 251
  128. Barcus 1975 qtd p. 265
  129. Barcus 1975 qtd. pp. 267–268
  130. Barcus 1975 qtd. p. 282
  131. Barcus 1975 qtd. p. 343
  132. Barcus 1975 qtd. p. 410
  133. King-Hele 1971 p. 213
  134. Bush 1937 p. 135
  135. Bush 1937 pp. 143–144
  136. Kurtz 1933 p. 219
  137. Bush 1937 p. 135
  138. Wasserman 1959 p. 284
  139. King-Hele 1971 p. 233
  140. Holmes 1974 p. 582
  141. Webb 1977 p. 239
  142. Bloom 1985 pp. 7, 18
  143. Kurtz 1933 p. 219
  144. Smith and Schlegel 1945 p. 20
  145. Fogle 1949 p. 95
  146. King-Hele 1971 p. 236
  147. Holmes 1974 pp. 582–583
  148. Campbell 1924 p. 296
  149. Kurtz 1933 p. 209
  150. Fogle 1965 p. 17
  151. Roberts 1997p. 245
  152. White 1940 p. 189
  153. Bush 1937 p. 135
  154. Bieri 2008 pp. 498–499
  155. Kurtz 1933 p. 212
  156. Webb 1977 p. 103
  157. Kurtz 1933 p. 224
  158. Bush 1937 p. 136
  159. King-Hele 1971 pp. 220, 227
  160. Wasserman 1971 p. 245
  161. Holmes 1974 p. ix
  162. Webb 1977 p. 246
  163. Vivante 1965 p. 37
  164. King-Hele 1971 p. 227
  165. King-Hele 1971 pp. 228–230
  166. Holmes 1974 p. ix
  167. King-Hele 1971 pp. 247, 249
  168. King-Hele 1971 pp. 249–250
  169. Reiman 1969 p. 98
  170. Webb 1977 pp. 41–42
  171. Bloom 1985 p. 15


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