Journalism

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Here a journalist is interviewing a sportswoman. Credit: flickr user kennethtristan02.

"Journalism is a method of inquiry and literary style that aims to provide a service to the public by the dissemination and analysis of news and other information."[1]

Theory of journalism[edit]

Def.

  1. the "aggregating, writing, editing, and presenting of news or news articles for widespread distribution, typically in periodical print publications and broadcast news media, for the purpose of informing the audience"[2] or
  2. the "style of writing characteristic of material in periodical print publications and broadcast news media, consisting of direct presentation of facts or events with an attempt to minimize analysis or interpretation"[2]

is called journalism.

Entities[edit]

"Hegemonic leadership could also be provided by subordinated groups or classes in order to resist the ideas and actions of the dominant group."[3]

Newsworthiness[edit]

"What is "newsworthy"? Newsworthy items pass three tests: They are specific, relevant, and fresh."[4]

Specifics[edit]

"Each news article documents some specific event — the focus — which the headline and lede must identify. An ongoing process is unlikely to pass muster; look for some specific development in an ongoing process, to serve as the focus."[5]

Relevants[edit]

"How many people does the story impact? [...] If the answer is a few hundred or less, the story would probably not be significant enough".[6]

Freshness[edit]

Unpublished news is typically considered fresh when it's less than two or three days old.

Interviews[edit]

Def. a "conversation in person (or, by extension, over the telephone, Internet etc.) between a journalist and someone whose opinion or statements he or she wishes to record for publication, broadcast etc"[7] is called an interview.

Arts journalism[edit]

The journalist highlights the idea of bringing arts journalism into the mainstream media and its importance in current times. Credit: Sahar Zaman.

On the right a journalist highlights the idea of bringing arts journalism into the mainstream media and its importance in current times.

Broadcast journalism[edit]

Police Commissioner Suleiman Kova answers and addresses the media at ground zero near the 2013 Dar es Salaam building collapse. Credit: Muhammad Mahdi Karim.

On the right, Police Commissioner Suleiman Kova answers and addresses the media at ground zero near the 2013 Dar es Salaam building collapse.

Business journalism[edit]

Business journalists include television reporters, who can interview everyone from CEOs to the "man on the street." Credit: George Doyle/Stockbyte/Getty Images.

A television reporter interviews a corporate chief executive officer (CEO) in the image on the right.

Entertainment journalism[edit]

In this image an entertainment journalist on the right interviews a couple of entertainers. Credit: Full Sail University.

In the image on the right an entertainment journalist on the right interviews a couple of entertainers before cameras.

Fashion journalism[edit]

Here a fashion journalist interviews a fashion model. Credit: George Doyle/Stockbyte/Getty Images.

In the image on the right, a fashion journalist interviews a fashion model on camera.

Investigative journalism[edit]

John Pilger, Richard Gizbert, and Julian Assange are before the investigative press regarding The Wikileaks Files - Book Launch - Foyles, London - 29th September 2015. Credit: Walej.

Def. a "form of journalism in which the reporter deeply investigates a single topic of interest, often involving crime or corruption"[8] is called investigative journalism.

"Reporting, through one's own initiative and work product, matters of importance to readers, viewers, or listeners [is investigative journalism]."[9]

"An investigative journalist is a man or woman whose profession it is to discover the truth and to identify lapses from it in whatever media may be available. The act of doing this generally is called investigative journalism and is distinct from apparently similar work done by police, lawyers, auditors, and regulatory bodies in that it is not limited as to target, not legally founded and closely connected to publicity."[10]

Local journalism[edit]

Two local broadcast journalists capture video on the shore. Credit: Betton Kim, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

"For more than a century, local journalism has been taken almost for granted. But the twenty-first century has brought major challenges. The newspaper industry that has historically provided most local coverage is in decline and it is not yet clear whether digital media will sustain new forms of local journalism."[11]

Local "news and journalism [has significance] for local communities and their economic, political, social and cultural life [...].”[12]

“Journalism is changing, nowhere more rapidly than in locally produced news."[13]

“We will never be able to compete with the national news outlets on scale. So instead, we will acknowledge our strengths: Proximity. Intimacy. Fidelity.”[14]

"For years, local and regional news outlets have been assaulted from all sides. Our costly investigations and shoe-leather reporting are summarized into clicky headlines and shared wildly by profitable aggregators. Advertisers are leaving in droves for Google and Facebook. And every year, it seems we have fewer journalists left to do this crucial work."[14]

"We will accept that digital display advertising on our sites alone won’t drive enough revenue to support our newsrooms, that the daily rise and fall of unique visitors has little to no actual correlation to the bottom line. With that understanding, we’ll pivot from our ruthless worship of Omniture to content and business strategies based upon a half-dozen or more revenue streams."[14]

"We will quickly capitalize on opportunities to welcome ourselves into our neighbors’ homes using consumer toys like Amazon Echo and Playstation VR. The Flash Briefing is the logical evolution of the push alert strategy. Chat bots and text subscriptions will allow for personal-feeling interaction with local journalists, and also allow us to talk to you even when you turned off your news alerts."[14]

"Local television stations will begin to look more like legacy news organizations; devoting more resources to social media strategy and mobile news presentation. Legacy news organizations will leverage new broadcasting power with streaming options like Facebook Live and will look more like local television stations. Both will place less weight on driving readers to our own .coms and seek instead to engage with them wherever we can find them. And we’ll make a little bit of cash by selling ad adjacencies, at an premium, on those platforms."[14]

"If local news organizations want to jump on this train, they will need to sharpen their focus to producing meaningful experiences and irreplicable content only — useful breaking news, purposeful beat coverage, jaw-dropping investigations, and moving storytelling centered around regional identity."[14]

Medical journalism[edit]

A medical journalist calls a researcher that conducted the study she will report on. Credit: Danielle Krol, Daily Dose MD.

On the right is a photo of Danielle Krol, MD, calling a researcher that conducted the study she will report on.

Political journalism[edit]

President Nixon poses with members of the press in Shanghai. Credit: Byron E. Schumaker.

President Richard M. Nixon, USA, poses with members of the press during his trip to Shanghai, China on 28 February 1972.

Sports journalism[edit]

Marcos René Maidana is interviewed just after the victory in Buenos Aires, Argentina on September 23, 2011. Credit: Galeria de Daniel Ivoskus.

Sports reporters converge on Marcos René Maidana at right after his victory in Buenos Aires, Argentina on September 23, 2011.

Technology journalism[edit]

Reporter Josh Topolsky interviews Julie Uhrman about Ouya. Credit: Kevin Krejci from Near the Pacific Ocean, USA.

On the right, tech journalism reporter Joshua Topolsky interviews Julie Uhrman about OUYA! at SZSW.

Video-game journalism[edit]

Team Dignitas player Shaun "Apollo" Clark being interviewed by BBC Radio 1. Credit: MepHiii.

In the image at right Shaun Clark is interviews by a British Broadcasting Company reporter regarding Team Dignitas.

Video journalism[edit]

An African journalist uses a mobile phone as a reporting tool. Credit: Zia505.{{free media}}

"Video Journalism will assist you to develop a video news story that may have the density for further development, to become a current affairs piece and ultimately a documentary film. This study schedule, therefore, is a production process that an independent video journalist can follow with the view to broadcasting their work through reputable news outlets, or disseminating it through online open source news media channels like Wikinews."[15]

War journalism[edit]

Marion von Haaren, a correspondent for the German public television station ARD interviews German Army General Karl-Heinz Lather. Credit: Rebecca F. Corey, U.S. Air Force.

In the image on the right, Marion von Haaren, a correspondent for the German public television station ARD interviews German Army General Karl-Heinz Lather, chief of staff of Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe, Allied Command Operations, NATO, after a mission briefing Oct. 7, 2009, at Forward Operating Base Ghazni, Afghanistan.

Compositions[edit]

The Inverted pyramid method is visualised. Credit: The US Air Force Departmental Publishing Office (AFDPO).

A newspaper, or online, feature article is composed of the following:

  1. a lede,
  2. topic sentence,
  3. a body, and an
  4. ending.[16]

The ratio of each of these may depend on the audience. In an inverted pyramid style the ratios are about 5:3:2 for lede (including topic sentence), body, and ending.

There is also what's called a "news-peg" or "hook", a focus, something that will interest a reader, usually the first sentence or the title.

The following elements should be present: What, When, Where, Why, Who, and How. Nearly all of these elements must appear somewhere in the story.

Hypotheses[edit]

Main source: Hypotheses
  1. The dominant group in journalism determines the course and focus of journalists.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. "Journalism, In: Wikipedia". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. May 6, 2014. Retrieved 2014-05-06. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 "journalism, In: Wiktionary". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. April 20, 2014. Retrieved 2014-05-06. 
  3. Christine Cooper (June 1995). "Ideology, hegemony and accounting discourse: a case study of the National Union of Journalists". Critical Perspectives on Accounting 6 (3): 175-209. doi:10.1006/cpac.1995.1019. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1045235485710192. Retrieved 2014-05-06. 
  4. Pi zero (21 March 2014). "Wikinews:Newsworthiness, In: Wikinews". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retrieved 2017-01-08. 
  5. Pi zero (21 March 2014). "Wikinews:Newsworthiness, In: Wikinews". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retrieved 2017-01-08. 
  6. Tempodivalse (21 March 2014). "Wikinews:Newsworthiness, In: Wikinews". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retrieved 2017-01-08. 
  7. Widsith (19 September 2010). "interview, In: Wiktionary". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retrieved 2017-01-08. 
  8. "investigative journalism, In: Wiktionary". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. March 1, 2014. Retrieved 2014-05-06. 
  9. Steve Weinberg, The Reporter's Handbook: An Investigator's Guide to Documents and Techniques, St. Martin's Press, 1996
  10. Investigative Journalism: Context and Practice, Hugo de Burgh (ed), Routledge, London and New York, 2000
  11. Rasmus Kleis Nielsen (2017). "Local Journalism the decline of newspapers and the rise of digital media". University of Oxford, 13 Norham Gardens, Oxford, OX2 6PS, United Kingdom: Reuters Institute. Retrieved 2017-02-09. 
  12. Bob Franklin (2017). "Local Journalism the decline of newspapers and the rise of digital media". University of Oxford, 13 Norham Gardens, Oxford, OX2 6PS, United Kingdom: Reuters Institute. Retrieved 2017-02-09. 
  13. David Ryfe (2017). "Local Journalism the decline of newspapers and the rise of digital media". University of Oxford, 13 Norham Gardens, Oxford, OX2 6PS, United Kingdom: Reuters Institute. Retrieved 2017-02-09. 
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 14.3 14.4 14.5 Ashley C. Woods (December 2016). "Local journalism will fight a new fight". Walter Lippmann House, One Francis Ave, Cambridge, MA 02138: NiemanLab. Retrieved 2017-02-09. 
  15. Leighblackall (2 May 2017‎). "Video journalism, In: Wikiversity". San Francisco, California USA: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retrieved 2017-06-01. 
  16. Franklynn Peterson and Judi Kesselman-Turkel (1 January 1982). The Magazine Writer's Handbook. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey USA 07632: Prentice-Hall, Inc.. pp. 263. ISBN 0-13-543751-2. https://books.google.com/books/about/The_Magazine_Writer_s_Handbook.html?id=85sWD1B4xvcC&printsec=frontcover&source=kp_read_button&hl=en#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved 2016-04-30. 

External links[edit]

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