Ithkuil/Verbs and Cases

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Verbal categories[edit | edit source]

Let's work with the root -tx- meaning 'to eat'. etxulá (a)lalo ačpwale

Specification STA Stative DYN Dynamic
EXS FNC RPS AMG EXS FNC RPS AMG
BSC Basic a ai ia ao u ui ua oa
CTE Contential ä au ie ü iu ue öa
CVS Constitutive e ei io eo o oi uo oe
OBJ Objective i eu ö ou öe

Validation[edit | edit source]

Confirmative validation marks a direct observation or knowledge that is verifiable by others; Affirmative validation may or may not be verifiable by others; Reportative validation is unverifiable by others; Inferential validation is based on assuming the statement to be true based on other premises; Intuitive validation is based on an intutive feeling the statement is true

Extension[edit | edit source]

Delimitive extension (DEL) is the default. Proximal extension (PRX) marks part of something. Inceptive extension (ICP) marks the beginning of something. Attenuative extension (ATV) marks the end of something. Graduative extension (GRA) marks the gradual end of something. Depletive extension (DPL) marks its depletion.

Affiliation Configuration Extension Perspective
CSL ø UPX ø DEL ø M [ø] (l)
ASO l (nļ) MS Multiplex S Separate t PRX d / t G r
VAR r (rļ) C Connected k ICP g / k N w (v)
COA ř (řļ) F Fused p ATV b / p A y (j)
Extension uses the alternate form when

preceded by non-zero Configuration

GRA gz / g Lone forms are given

in parentheses

DPL bz / b

Shortcut VV forms used in slot II:

Vv PRX G RPV N A G/RPV PRX/RPV
Stem 1 wa ya wai yai wia yuä wao yao
Stem 2 we ye wei yei wio yüä wea yeo
Stem 3 wu yu wui yui wiä yua woa yoa
Stem 0 wo yo woi yoi wöä yuo woe yoe

Register[edit | edit source]

Narrative register (NRR) is the default. Discursive register (DSV) is for direct speech, marked with ha. Parenthetical register (PNT) is for parenthetical asides, marked with he. Specificative register (SPF) is used for proper names, marked with hi. Exemplificative register (EXM) is for examples, marked with ho. Cogitant register (CGT) is for silent thoughts or subjective impressions, marked with . Mathematical register (MTH) is for the mathematical sublanguage, marked with hu. A non-Narrative register clause may be pronounced with low pitch on the last word of the clause, in which case the register clause does not require the end-register final adjunct made by taking the starting adjunct and appending i, expect for SPF which appends u. If the word/phrase within the register is a proper name or foreign word/phrase, indicate this by ending the register clause using the CAR end-register adjunct hü. CAR here stands for Carrier.

Mood[edit | edit source]

Factual mood (FAC) marks certainty for a true presumption.

Subjunctive mood (SUB) marks uncertainty for a true presumption.

Assumptive mood (ASM) marks certainty for a presumption which isn't known to be true or false.

Speculative mood (SPC) marks uncertainty for a presumption which isn't known to be true or false.

Counterfactive mood (COU) marks certainty for a false presumption.

Hypothetical mood (HYP) marks uncertatinty for a false presumption.

Valence[edit | edit source]

Monoactive valence (MNO) marks an activity being done by one party, either singular or plural as indicated by Ca.

Parallel valence (PRL) marks a second party doing the same activity at the same time.

Corollary valence (CRO) marks a second party doing a related activity at the same time.

Reciprocal valence (RCP) marks a second party doing the same activity as the first toward each other, e.g. they hate one another.

Complementary valence (CPL) marks a second party doing a complementary activity to that of the first party, e.g. pitch the ball, lead us, read a story, and it itches implicitly mean there's hitting, following, listening, and scratching respectively.

Duplicative valence (DUP) marks a second party copying or repeating the activity of the first.

Demonstrative valence (DEM) marks the first party showing a second party how to do something, e.g. we (show how to) play chess to someone, they (teach how to) fight with us.

Contingent valence (CNG) marks a second party doing an activity dependent on that of the first party, e.g. I create fire implies something like (s)he cooks the food.

Participative valence (PTI) marks an activity having a greater whole, with other parties also taking part.

Level[edit | edit source]

Minimal level (MIN) marks the least possible extent.

Subequative level (SBE) marks an extent less than or equal to the formative marked with the CMP case.

Inferior level (IFR) marks the smallest extent within or among the formative marked with the CMP case.

Deficient level (DFT) marks an extent less than the formative marked with the CMP case.

Equative level (EQU) marks the same extent as the formative marked with the CMP case.

Surpassive level (SUR) marks an extent greater than the formative marked with the CMP case.

Superlative level (SPL) marks the largest extent within or among the formative marked with the CMP case.

Superequative level (SPQ) marks an extent greater than or equal to the formative marked with the CMP case.

Maximal level (MAX) marks the highest possible extent.

In the absence of a CMP-marked formative, Level compares the extent of the verb with a previous state, e.g. less than or equal to before. For IFR and SPL, the comparison is to any previous state ever, e.g. to the largest extent ever.

Aspect[edit | edit source]

Aspect puts formatives with temporal descriptions. Whereas we saw Ca's Extension applies to either space or time, Aspect only works with time.

Aspect VN Aspect VN
RTR Retrospective a PMP Preemptive ia
PRS Prospective ä CLM Climactic ie
HAB Habitual e DLT Dilatory io
PRG Progressive i TMP Temporary
IMM Imminent ëi XPD Expenditive
PCS Precessive ö LIM Limitative
REG Regulative o EPD Expeditive uo
SMM Summative ü PTC Protractive ue
ATP Anticipatory u PPR Preparatory ua
RSM Resumptive ai DCL Disclusive ao
CSS Cessative au CCL Conclusive
PAU Pausal ei CUL Culminative eo
RGR Regressive eu IMD Intermediative
PCL Preclusive ëu TRD Tardative
CNT Continuative ou TNS Transitional öe
ICS Incessative oi ITC Intercommutative oe
EXP Experiential iu MTV Motive öa
IRP Interruptive ui SQN Sequential oa

First up are Aspects which place an event/state at some point or duration along a past-to-future linear timeline:

Retrospective aspect (RTR) marks past tense as in ‘have’. With N or A perspective, it adds ‘and it’s always been that way’.

Prospective aspect (PRS) marks future tense as in ‘will’. With N or A perspective, it adds ‘and it’ll always be that way’ or ‘from now on’.

Habitual aspect (HAB) marks for ‘always’ or ‘continues to’.

Progressive aspect (PRG) marks an act in progress, like the Spanish present participle, ‘in the midst of -ing’.

Imminent aspect (IMM) marks something imminently happening, ‘(just) about to’ or ‘on the verge of’

Precessive aspect (PCS) marks something immediately preceding, ‘just (now)’.

Regulative aspect (REG) marks something extending into the past and future, ‘engaged in’ or ‘involved in’.

Summative aspect (SMM) marks something entirely in the past, ‘have already’.

Anticipatory aspect (ATP) marks something entirely in the future ‘have yet to (begin)’.

Followed by Aspects which describe the “shape” or structure of a durational event:

Resumptive aspect (RSM) marks resumption after previously having ceased, ‘start again’.

Cessative aspect (CSS) marks cessation, ‘stop’. Use CSS aspect and the ITN/2 affix for the old Recessative aspect

Pausal aspect (PAU) marks a pause with implied intention to resume, ‘take a break from’.

Regressive aspect (RGR) marks regression after a long intervening period, ‘return to’

Preclusive aspect (PCL) marks something from start to finish all at once, ‘all in one go’ or ‘without stopping’.

Continuative aspect (CNT) marks continuation, ‘keep on’ or ‘still’ or ‘stay’ or ‘yet’. In the negative it marks ‘no longer’ or ‘not anymore’.

Incessative aspect (ICS) marks continuation without stopping, ‘…on and on’ or ‘…away’.

Experiential aspect (EPR) marks something within the realm of one's experience, ‘ever’.

Interruptive aspect (IRP) marks interruption, ‘getting only so far/much before having to stop’

Next are Aspects which associate an effect or “consequence” to the temporal aspect of a state/event on a past-to-future linear timeline:

Preemptive aspect (PMP) marks something singular and initial which is long-expected or anticipated, ‘for once’ or ‘for the first time’ or ‘at last’ or ‘after all this time’ or ‘finally’.

Climactic aspect (CLM) marks something singular and final, ‘once and for all’ or ‘for the last time’

Dilatory aspect (DLT) marks something ‘long-delayed’.

Temporary aspect (TMP) marks something in the present range, ‘for the time being’ or ‘for now’.

Consumptive Expenditive (XPD) marks something all-consuming which interferes with other events from occurring, ‘spend one’s time’ or ‘away’.

Limitative aspect (LIM) marks culmination in an anticipatory context ‘(just) in time’.

Expeditive aspect (EPD) marks haste in something, ‘hurry (up)’.

Protractive aspect (PTC) marks slowness in, ‘take one’s time’.

Preperatory (PPR) marks something done in preparation for a future situation, ‘in advance’.

Lastly are Aspects which associate non-temporal adverbial notions to the start or end of a state/event and three miscellaneous ones:

Disclusive aspect (DCL) marks revelatory nature, ‘turn out that’.

Conclusive aspect (CCL) marks the direct outcome of something within the short-term, ‘end up’ or ‘get to the point where’.

Culminative aspect (CUL) marks the eventual long-term outcome of something, ‘in the end’ or ‘eventually come to the point where’.

Intermediative aspect (IMD) marks something taking place within the timeline or duration of a different context, ‘at some point’ or ‘somewhere along the way’.

Tardative aspect (TRD) marks lessening, dwindling, or slackening in energy, intensity, or effect by exhaustion of the active source of energy or agency, or by dissipation of the foundational context involved, ‘get tired of’ or ‘peter out’ or ‘trail off’.

Transitional aspect (TNS) marks the initial stage of preparation, adjustment, or accustomization to something long-term, ‘take up’ ‘start to’.

Intercommutative aspect (ITC) marks sequential reciprocity as consequent reciprocation triggered by, or in reaction to, an initiating action, ‘back’ as in throw back or stare back.

Motive aspect (MTV) marks a participant's absence from the present context, ‘be off’ or ‘go off to’.

Consequential aspect (CSQ) marks use DLB/8 instead

Sequential aspect (SQN) marks a sequential progression of several instances comprising a single event, usually with an implied culmination point, ‘off’ as in list off or die off.

Cases[edit | edit source]

Relational[edit | edit source]

The Pertinential case (PRN) marks the thing being regarded or pertained to (about the weather, song of love, attitude toward men)

The Assimilative (ASI) marks something as an analogy or comparison (like a butterfly, as if he were a child)

The Essive case (ESS) marks (our only hope, as the child he is)

The Correlative case (COR) marks (career goals, soup of the day, direction of the road, velocity determines the winner, sex and/in art, years of wonder, clown planet, spacial coordinate, political economy, dangerous situation)

The Compositive case (CPS) marks

The Comitative case (COM) marks

The Utilitative case (UTL) marks

The RelAtive case (RLT) marks

The Activative case (ACT) marks

The Descriptive case (DSP) marks

The Terminative case (TRM) marks

The Selective case (SEL) marks

The Conformative case (CFM) marks

The Dependent case (DEP) marks

The Predicative acase (PRD) marks

The Vocative case (VOC) marks direct address of something (oh you!, hey Arnold!)

PRN Pertinential a’a Ithkuil-case-referential.jpg ACT Activative a’i Ithkuil-case-activative.jpg
ASI Assimilative ä’ä Ithkuil-case-assimilative.jpg DSC Descriptive a’u
ESS Essive e’e Ithkuil-case-essive.jpg TRM Terminative e’i
COR Correlative ë’ë Ithkuil-case-correlative.jpg SEL Selective e’u Ithkuil-case-episodic.jpg
CPS Compositive i’i Ithkuil-case-compositive.jpg CFM Conformative ë’i
COM Comitative ö’ö Ithkuil-case-comitative.jpg DEP Dependent o’u Ithkuil-case-dependent.jpg
UTL Utilitative o’o Ithkuil-case-utilitative.jpg PRD Predicative o’i Ithkuil-case-predicative.jpg
REL Relative u’u VOC Vocative u’i Ithkuil-case-vocative.jpg

Spatio-Temporal[edit | edit source]

The Locative case (LOC) marks the location where something occurs or is situated at / in / on / by

The Attendant case (ATD) marks whatever is present at something, making it vaguely involved as a witness bearing memory or even reacting to it (test in his presence; shout before her)

The Allative case (ALL) marks where something approaches toward (into the light)

The Ablative case (ABL) marks where something recedes from (from straight up)

The Orientative case (ORI) marks the interface or front/head end of something in motion (papers strewn about the desk, go toboggan-ward, descending feet-first)

The Interrelative case (IRL) marks a spaciotemporal reference (behind him, relative to when my work shift ends)

The Intrative case (INV) marks a spaciotemporal boundary (between the corners, as of the announcement, until nightfall)

The Navigative case (NAV) marks something relative to which a vector or trajectory occurs (down the street, along the middle of the room)

The default navigative vector for describing positions is the arrow pointing from the sunrise to the sunset. The X-axis points north perpendicular to this vector and the Z-axis points up, starting at whatever is marked by the IRL case.

LOC Locative i’a Ithkuil-case-locative.jpg CNR Concursive a’o Ithkuil-case-concursive.jpg
ATD Attendant i’ä ASS Assessive a’e Ithkuil-case-assessive.jpg
ALL Allative i’e Ithkuil-case-allative.jpg PER Periodic e’a Ithkuil-case-periodic.jpg
ABL Ablative i’ë Ithkuil-case-ablative.jpg PRO Prolapsive e’o Ithkuil-case-prolapsive.jpg
ORI Orientative ë’u Ithkuil-case-orientative.jpg PCV Precursive e’ë Ithkuil-case-precursive.jpg
IRL Interrelative u’ö PCR Postcursive ö’e Ithkuil-case-postcursive.jpg
INV Intrative u’o ELP Elapsive o’e Ithkuil-case-elapsive.jpg
NAV Navigative u’a Ithkuil-case-navigative.jpg PLM Prolimitive o’a Ithkuil-case-prolimitive.jpg

The Concursive case (CNR) marks the time during which something occurs (during empanada brunch)

The Assessive case (ASS) marks a unit ratio of time or space (three per hour, five for every answer)

The Periodic case (PER) marks the span or timeframe over which something nonconsecutive occurs (learn it in a week, throughout his childhood)

The Prolapsive case (PRO) marks how long something occurs (for seven minutes, for a painting session)

The Precursive case (PCV) marks the time before which something occurs (before the wedding)

The Postcursive case (PCR) marks the time after which something occurs (after the divorce)

The Elapsive case (ELP) marks the duration between the present and an event in the past or future (a month ago, two generations from now)

The Prolimitive case (PLM) marks a spaciotemporal boundary before which something occurs (within a minute, by the end of her rebellious phase)

Orientation[edit | edit source]

We typically communicate the relative position of things according to a coordinate system facing forwards towards the direction of the sunset so that North is to our right, South is to our left, and East is right behind. This system works at night, in inclement weather, or even indoors, so long as the speakers are aware of the Y-axis delineated by the direction of the sun's apparent movement. We make it 3D by including the Z-axis going up. In some indoor situations, an arbitrary Y-axis is connoted by the length of the room in a direction away from whichever end of the room displays a visibly unique feature (e.g., the doorway, a window, an alcove, an imposing piece of furniture, a stage or dais, etc.), this symbolically substituting for the position of the rising sun. This is the coordinate system which would be employed in theaters, enclosed banquet halls without windows, and cellars without windows or ready access to outside orientation. You can also use an arbitrarily delineated axis based on local landmarks, objects, or persons. This is similar to a Western relative system in which the speaker announces the orientation perspective being utilized. It is possible to use the Navigative case to designate a personally defined reckoning system using words to designate the origin point and direction of the Y-axis vector. The primary use for this system of reckoning is literary or narrative, such as when a speaker tells a story of another time and place, where they wish to describe spatial relationships solely within the context of the story in order to convey a mental map or image of the goings-on to the audience.

Girth is the direction in which your hips swing, reach is the direction in which your eyes look, and amplitude is the direction you jump or crouch in. These are the x, y, and z axes respectively. We can use these axes to divide a scene into eight octants. +X / +Y / +Z (fpyal); +X / +Y / -Z (fpwal); +X / -Y / +Z (fkyal); +X / -Y / -Z (fkwal); -X / +Y / +Z (vbyal); -X / +Y / -Z (vbwal); -X / -Y / +Z (vgyal); -X / -Y / -Z (vgwal). There are also locations between quadrantsː (fpal) and (fkal), (vbal) and (vgal), (fyal) and (fwal), and (vyal) and (vwal). Of course, there's also general positioning (ţal), the center (ḑal), and six basic directions (ţyal), (ţwal), (pal), (kal), (fal), and (val). You can describe its dimensions.

-TR- motion motion toward the topical referent, i.e., “come; approach” motion away from the topical referent, i.e., “go; move away”
-PR- movement up/down

-KR- movement ascending/descending at an angle/slant

-DR- movement along a line/path on a horizontal plane between the topical referent and a second location

-FR- movement along same path/trajectory as the topical referent

-BR- movement right/left relative to the topical referent.

-GR- movement laterally at an oblique angle on same horizontal plane as the topical referent

-GL- random directed movement within/throughout a 2D horizontal plane.

-DL- random directed movement within/throughout a 2D vertical plane.

-KL- random directed movement within/throughout a 2D vertical plane across one’s visual field or directional path, analogous to a painting or flat screen held up in front of a person.

-PL- parabolic/arc-like trajectory relative to gravity

-BL- movement in a curve

-FL- movement in a circular counter-clockwise/clockwise path

-TL- random directed movement within/throughout a 3D space

(pfal) is the front part of something. (clal) is the center parallel to the long axis of something. (cral) is the center perpendicular to the long axis of something. And (kfal) is the back/rear of something. Use the static qualities of width, depth, and height.

Looking at a person in front of you facing to your left, they have little width, medium depth, and large height. Looking at yourself, you have medium width, little depth, and large height. If you laterally inverted reality, map view would be just the same as drawing one from looking at everything upside down. If you vertically inverted reality, left would be right and visa-versa. If instead you turn about the y-plane or rotate about your right leg, then you're looking in the opposite direction. You could also look into a mirror and even though left would be right and visa-versa, you would see behind you. You can topologically invert a sphere by making the lines of latitude alternate patterns of convexity and concavity, pushing these strips through each other, rotating the poles opposite to each other, and pushing the strips back through each other, and returning the sphere to its state of rotundity.

Exercises[edit | edit source]