Ithkuil/Verbs and Cases

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Assertive illocution proposes statements that can be true or false; Directive illocution issues commands, requests, or promises that can be realized; Interrogative illocution asks a question; Admonitive illocution warns not to follow the statement; and Delarative illocution officially states announcements or changes to take place.



Factual mood marks certainty and Subjunctive mood marks uncertainty, both without any presumption. Assumptive mood marks certainty and Speculative mood marks uncertainty, but with an unknown presumption. Counterfactive mood marks certainty and Hypothetical mood marks uncertainty, but with a false presumption.


Illegal consonant-vowel combinations require use of an alternate form of the Vr. The alternate values are used to avoid illegal consonant-vowel combinations for the preceding letters y and w. The combinations and are illegal, so the alternate Vr values must be used to form and you. Likewise, is an illegal combination, so must be used instead. Remember that the long-vowel notation is not shown in diphthongs and disyllabic conjuncts like ie or (actually pronounced and ), so these forms of Vr may not be used for the preceding consonant is y. For now, Vr will be the first vowel in any given formative, so either value can be used.

Confirmative validation marks a direct observation or knowledge that is verifiable by others; Affirmative validation may or may not be verifiable by others; Reportative validation is unverifiable by others; Inferential validation is based on assuming the statement to be true based on other premises; Intuitive validation is based on an intutive feeling the statement is true; Presumptive validation is based on hearsay from another source. This validation can alternatively be specified through the HSY suffix.


Narrative (NRR)

Discursive (DSV)

Parenthetical (PNT)

Cogitant (COG)

Exemplificative (EXM)

Impressionistic (IPR)



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