Ithkuil/The Ca Affix

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Affixes[edit | edit source]

Some roots correspond to the Cs component of affixes. Below is a table of the Vx values. The value öi is used for Ca stacking.

Degree Type 1 Type 2 Type 3
1 a ai ia / uä
2 ä au iä / uë
3 e ei ie / üä
4 i eu ië / üë
5 ëi ëu
6 ö ou uö / öë
7 o oi uo / öä
8 ü iu ue / ië
9 u ui ua / iä
0 ae ea äi

Ca[edit | edit source]

Affiliation Plexity, Similarity,

Connectedness

Extension Perspective

+ Essence

CSL ø UPX/DPX ø s DEL ø NRM
ASO l (nļ) MS S t c PRX d / t M [ø] (l)
VAR r (rļ) C k ks ICP g / k G r
COA ř (řļ) F p ps ATV b / p N w (v)
MD S ţ ţs GRA gz / g A y (j)
C f fs DPL bz / b RPV
F ç š M l (tļ)
MF S z č G ř
C ž N m / h
F A n / ç

Configuration[edit | edit source]

The forms of similarity are similar (-S-), dissimilar (-D-), and fuzzy (-F-), the last of which indicates uncertainty to whether something belongs to the category you're ascribing it. The duplex configurations are the same as the multiplex ones, but with only two members. Duplex forms are the same as MS-, but similar forms take the -s- infix. Default extension values also used when Perspective + Essence is non-zero

Extension[edit | edit source]

The six extensions are Delimitive (DEL), Proximal (PRX), Inceptive (ICP), Terminative (TRM), Depletive (DPL) and Graduative (GRA). The default Delimitive extension indicates the entire context of an entity with clear boundaries in space/time. Proximal extension indicates part of an entity in the present relevant context. Inceptive extension indicates coming to the beginning boundary of an entity. Terminative extension indicates coming to the end boundary of an entity. Depletive extension indicates coming to a trailing or petering edge of an entity. Graduative extension indicates coming to a fading or diffusing onset of an entity.

Essence[edit | edit source]

The two types of essence are Normal (NRM) and Representative (RPV). The default Normal essence indicates real-world concepts. Representative essence indicates hypothetical concepts that are as yet unrealized or alternative representations of reality. Such nouns often follow modalities representing verbs like must, can, and should. Normal (NRM) and Representative (RPV) Essence scope after all the other Ca categories. The latter should not be confused with Representational context, which indicates metonymy and scopes after all Ca categories.

Ca Allomorphic Substitutions[edit | edit source]

pp -> mp, pb -> mb, rr -> ns, [C]gm -> [C]x, [C]bm -> [C]f / [C]v, tt -> nt, kg -> ng, rř -> nš, [C]gn -> [C]ň, [C]bn -> [C]ţ / [C]ḑ. kk -> nk, çy -> nd, řr -> ňs, ngn -> ňn, ff -> vw, ll -> pļ, řř -> ňš, [C]çx -> [C]xw, ţţ -> ḑy

Ca is also geminated when affixes are present before it.

pt -> bbḑ, pk -> bbv, kt -> ggḑ, kp -> ggv, tk -> ḑvv, tp -> ddv,, pm -> vmm, pn -> vvn, km -> xxm, kn -> xxn, tm -> ḑḑm, tn -> ḑḑn, bm -> bžžm, bn -> bžžn, gm -> gžžm, gn -> gžžn, dm -> jjm, dn -> jjn

Apply these before any preceeding l-, r-, or ř-. If it sounds wrong, geminate the l-, r-, or ř- instead.

Exercises[edit | edit source]

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