Ithkuil/Roots and Stems
|This page is currently under construction|
Ithkuil has 45 consonants and 15 vowels. Because the script does not directly map phonemes to graphemes, a romanization system is used to help with pronounciation.
The consonantal characters explicitly mark the pronunciation of words. These are used in roots and proper nouns, as well as in word suffixes and mathematical expressions. Note that the digraphs dh and xh are individual consonants.
Below is a chart of the handwritten consonants.
In addition, there are 29 extensions that can be placed on the bottom of consonantal characters as prefixes.
Below is a chart of the handwritten consonant extensions applied to the letters t, k and g.
There are also 13 diacritics that serve as suffixes, prefixes, or, as will later be seen, tone markings.
|s+||z+||š+||ž+||f / v+||ţ / dh+|
The vowel extensions below only apply to proper nouns. They can be used alone with a top bar or with one of the above consonantal characters.
It is important to be able to distinguish between the main 13 vowels. For example, tal and tâl use different cases. The former means lifeform, while the latter is in a possessive case (lifeform's).
|unrounded • rounded||Front||Central||Back|
|High||î • (ü)||• ü||• û|
|Mid-High||i •||• u|
|Mid||ê • ö||ë •||• ô|
|Mid-Low||e • ö||• o|
|Low||a •||â •|
The diphthongs ai, au, ei, eu, ëi, ëu, iu, oi, ou, öi, öu and ui are monosyllabic. They are pronounced aî, aû, êî, eû, ëî, ëû, iû, oî, oû, öî, öû, and uî respectively. All other vowel pairs are disyllabic. To mark them as disyllabic conjuncts, a grave is written over the second vowel unless it is stressed, in which case the accent becomes an acute.
By default, Ithkuil words have a falling tone and stress on the second-to-last (penultimate) syllable.
The diacritics below are used in proper nouns to transliterate tone.
As an exercise, try to write your own name using the consonantal characters and character extensions.
Every root has three holistic stems (which are applied to three patterns): stem 1 refers to the general concept, stem 2 usually refers to a specific or tangible instance, and stem 3 usually refers to another reference or related concept.
|Root: -d-||Root: -x-||Root: -q-|
|Pattern 1 Stem 1||(a)dal name and referent; being called||Pattern 1 Stem 1||(a)xal sight||Pattern 1 Stem 1||(a)qal higher-order being|
|Pattern 1 Stem 2||edal designation and referent; being referred to as||Pattern 1 Stem 2||exal eye||Pattern 1 Stem 2||eqal human|
|Pattern 1 Stem 3||udal label and referent; going by a nickname||Pattern 1 Stem 3||uxal visualize||Pattern 1 Stem 3||uqal beast|
The three stems are complementary even if another pattern or format is used on the root. By default, Ithkuil words are stressed on the second-to-last (penultimate) syllable. Note that the a can be omitted before the root if there are no preceding characters and the stress is penultimate. In analysis, this word's stress would still be considered penultimate.
|Root: -q-||Root: -q-||Root: -q- [formal]|
|P2 S1||oqal male higher-order being||P3 S1||âqal female higher-order being||P1 S1||aqál officially designated person / beast|
|P2 S2||öqal man||P3 S2||êqal woman||P1 S2||eqál authorized person|
|P2 S3||îqal / ûqal male beast||P3 S3||ôqal female beast||P1 S3||uqál pet / zoo animal|
|P1 S1||nuclear family member||P1 S1||living thing|
|P1 S2||male family member||P1 S2||animal|
|P1 S3||female family member||P1 S3||plant|
|P2 S1||parent||P2 S1||male being|
|P2 S2||father||P2 S2||male animal|
|P2 S3||mother||P2 S3||male plant|
|P3 S1||child||P3 S1||female being|
|P3 S2||son||P3 S2||female animal|
|P3 S3||daughter||P3 S3||female plant|
Stems and pattern
|Pattern 1||Pattern 2||Pattern 3|
|Stem 1||Stem 2||Stem 3||Stem 1||Stem 2||Stem 3||Stem 1||Stem 2||Stem 3|
|(a)-||e-||u-||o-||ö-||î- / û-||â-||ê-||ô-|
- Write the following names in the handwritten script, including epal prior to each:
- /Qin ~Shi /Huang
- gaius juli.us kaesar
- Genghis Khan
- Martin Luther
- Galileo Galilei
- John Smith
- Rene Descartes
- Franklin Delano Roosevelt
- Elvis Presley
- Translate the following places
- New York
- Write your name in the Ithkuil scriptǃ