Ithkuil/Basic Adjuncts

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Narrative (NRR) Register is the default.

Discursive (DSV) Register is for direct speech, marked with ah.

Parenthetical (PNT) Register is for parenthetical asides, marked with eh.

Specificative (SPF) Register is used for proper names, marked with ih.

Exemplificative (EXM) Register is for examples, marked with öh.

Cogitant (COG) Register is for silent thoughts or subjective impressions, marked with oh.

Mathematical (MAT) Register is for the mathematical sublanguage, marked with uh.

A non-Narrative register clause may be pronounced with low pitch on the last word of the clause, in which case the register clause does not require the end-register final adjunct made by reversing the starting adjunct and appending u.

If the word/phrase within the register is a proper name or foreign word/phrase, indicate this by ending the register clause using the CAR end-register adjunct ëh.


Factual mood (FAC) marks

Subjunctive mood (SUB) marks

Assumptive mood (ASM) arks

Speculative mood (SPC) marks

Counterfactive mood (COU) marks

Hypothetical mood (HYP) marks

Table of Moods:

h / ç hr hm
hl hw hn


Retrospective aspect (RTR) marks

Prospective aspect (PRS) marks

Habitual aspect (HAB) marks

Progressive aspect (PRG) marks

Imminent aspect (IMM) marks

Precessive aspect (PCS) marks

Regulative aspect (REG) marks

Experiential aspect (EPR) marks

Resumptive aspect (RSM) marks

Cessative aspect (CSS) marks

Recessative aspect (RCS) marks

Pausal aspect (PAU) marks

Regressive aspect (RGR) marks

Preclusive aspect (PCL) marks

Continuative aspect (CNT) marks

Incessative aspect (ICS) marks

Preemptive aspect (PMP) marks

Climactic aspect (CLM) marks

Protractive aspect (PTC) marks

Temporary aspect (TMP) marks

Motive aspect (MTV) marks

Consequential aspect (CSQ) marks

Sequential aspect (SQN) marks

Expeditive aspect (EPD) marks

Disclusive aspect (DCL) marks

Conclusive aspect (CCL) marks

Culminative aspect (CUL) marks

Intermediative aspect (IMD) marks

Tardative aspect (TRD) marks

Transitional aspect (TNS) marks

Intercommutative aspect (ITC) marks

Consumptive aspect (CSM) marks

Valence Adjunct[edit]

Examples include: öļ, eiļo, hnuiļļia

Monoactive valence (MNO) marks

Parallel valence (PRL) marks

Corollary valence (CRO) marks

Reciprocal valence (RCP) marks

Complementary valence (CPL) marks

Nonrelational valence (NNR) marks

Duplicative valence (DUP) marks

Demonstrative valence (DEM) marks

Resistive valence (RES) marks

Imitative valence (IMT) marks

Contingent valence (CNG) marks

Participative valence (PTI) marks

Indicative valence (IDC) marks

Mutual valence (MUT) marks


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