Radiation astronomy/Greens/Quiz

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Gases above Io's surface produced a ghostly glow that could be seen at visible wavelengths (red, green, and violet). Credit: NASA/JPL/University of Arizona.

Green astronomy is a lecture and an article as part of the astronomy course on the principles of radiation astronomy.

You are free to take this quiz based on green radiation astronomy.

To improve your scores, read and study the lecture, the links contained within, and listed under See also. This should give you adequate background to get 100 %.

As a "learning by doing" resource, this quiz helps you to assess your knowledge and understanding of the information, and it is a quiz you may take over and over as a learning resource to improve your knowledge, understanding, test-taking skills, and your score.

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1. Which of the following are green radiation astronomy phenomena associated with the Sun?

the color of the upper rim as seen from Earth
an excess brightness at or near the edge of the Sun
the iron XIV green line
neutron emission
polar coronal holes
meteor emission
changes in the line-blanketing

2. True or False, The Hubble Space Telescope currently uses the Wide Field Planetary Camera (PC-2) with its F492M filter among others for green astronomy.


3. Which of the following is not a characteristic of green astronomy?

wavelength range of 495-570 nm

4. Before the current era and perhaps before 6,000 b2k which classical planet may have been green?

5. True or False, The Hβ emission line does not appear when the F492M filter is used on the Hubble Space Telescope because its wavelength is 486.1 nm.


6. Alpha Centauri A as a star has what green astronomy property?

it's a primordial population III star
it passes once a year across the Lockman Hole
silicates have been discovered in its interior structure
it has a surface temperature of 5790 K
optical reflectance studies have found evidence of magnesium
it has a surface temperature of ~700 K

7. Complete the text:

Capella B has a surface temperature of approximately , is spectral type , has an orbital period with Capella A of about , and is a variable.

8. True or False, Any small luminous green dot appearing in the cloudless portion of the night sky, especially with a fixed location relative to other such dots is most likely to be an active galactic nucleus.


9. When ionization cones are present, what green characteristics are usually readily observed?

O III green emission line
green continua
biconical structure
a common cone axis and apex
ionized gas
neon clouds

10. For web colors the RGB decimal code (0 255 0) is what color?

11. True or False, In hexadecimal code, a hex triplet, #008000 or 00 80 00 is green.


12. Which of the following is not a prominent feature associated with the greenness response?

M cone cells
a green light source
L cones
"bluish green" 493-498 nm
"yellowish green" 530-559 nm
"yellow green" 559-570 nm

13. Green earth is a natural pigment composed of what likely source of green?

14. True or False, There are green or green mineral containing meteorites.


15. Which of the following is not a phenomenon usually associated with solar wanderers?

green aurora
production of 7Be
carbon or C2

16. Complete the text:

"In the green, the of the pure composition qualitatively appears a better to the shape of the observed polarization curves."

17. True or False, The silicates used to model the cometary coma dust are olivene (Mg-rich is green) and the pyroxene, asbestos.


18. Which of the following is not a phenomenon associated with a comet?

elongated dust particles
high albedo
coronal mass ejection

19. With respect to protoplanetary disks what green mineral has been found?

20. True or False, A green light coming from a nebula may be due to oxygen illuminated by a stellar wind.


21. Which of the following emission/absorption phenomena are associated with green astronomy?

Helium lines at 501 and 505 nm
the strong C2 (1,2) band
nitrogen emission in plasmas at 566.934 nm from N VIII
Helium emission line at 5876 Å
neutral iron line at 526.96 nm
Calcium yellow line at 569.4 nm

22. Green astronomy observation is performed all around the surface of the Earth by?

23. True or False, Bremsstrahlung radiation may be a source of the green continuum.


24. Which of the following are phenomena usually associated with fluorine emission?

fluorine emission lines in the green are relatively weak
fluorine lines in the near infrared are usually much stronger than the green lines
F I has lines in the green
F II has lines in the green
F III has at least one line in the green
the Fraunhofer E line

25. The chromium +1 ion has an emission line often observed in solar what?

26. True or False, Ground-based observations around the solar limb of the Fe 530.3 line vary greatly among themselves.


27. Which of the following are likely associated with a green emission line control group?

rocky objects
high peak to background
plasma objects
a G2V photosphere
watery surface

28. An emission line occurring in the solar corona at 511.603 nm is likely to be from what?

29. True or False, The striking absence of green emission above both polar regions at activity minimum is likely due to iron deficiency.


30. Which of the following are characteristic of solar green astronomy?

limb faculae
polar coronal holes
black body temperature of the photosphere
the electron neutrino
iron (Fe XIV) green line

31. Venus at times shows the oxygen green line emission with an intensity equal to what?

32. True or False, Airglow is the emission of light by atoms and molecules in the upper atmosphere after they are excited by X-ray radiation.


33. Which geographical phenomena are associated with Iapetus?

dark territory of Cassini Regio
manifesting intense magnetic fields
equatorial ridge that bisects Cassini Regio
global "color dichotomy"
global brightness dichotomy
different color hues
leading vs. the trailing side color hues

34. A fine spray of small, icy particles detected in green light is emanating from what surrounding, warm, geologically unique province of Enceladus?

35. True or False, A plume of water ice particles emanating from Enceladus is reaching altitudes as high as 400 km above the surface.


36. Phenomena associated with the green vapor above Io are?

collisions with energetic charged particles
Jupiter's magnetic field
aurora-like behavior
dense plumes of volcanic vapor
Galileo spacecraft
Io is in eclipse

37. The Na I green lines at 568.2 and 568.8 nm arise in the what?

38. True or False, Stars of spectral classes F and G, such as our sun, have color temperatures that make them look "greenish".


39. Which of the following are green observatories in orbit around the Earth?

Chandra X-ray Observatory
Big Bear
the Hubble
Lomnický štít

40. McDonald Observatory is located in.

41. True or False, Some observed properties of the Sun still defy explanation, such as the degree of Li depletion: the solar Li abundance is roughly a factor of 200 below the meteoritic abundance. This has been confirmed using the lithium 555.2 nm line.


42. Which of the following are associated with the McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope?

a launch location
Fabry-Perot interferometer
a heliostat
a distinctive diagonal shaft that continues underground
a theoretical resolution of 0.07"
NOAA designations

43. "Carroll et al. (1976) detected a number of coincidences between laboratory lines of FeH and weak unidentified what?

44. True or False, The pale green patterns tinting the water along the Namibian coast in late February 2012 indicated high concentrations of sulfur.


45. The auroral green line at 557.7 nm has been suggested as originating from which of the following elemental emission lines?

solid nitrogen
mixtures of oxygen and helium
pure helium
pure oxygen
neon and oxygen mixtures

46. What are pale green when viewed through the water of the Persian Gulf fringing the shoreline and islands of the UAE in a Landsat image?

47. True or False, From a satellite's vantage point, the wash of green that appears across the forests of the eastern United States is one of the most noticeable signs of winter's passing.


48. Which of the following strongly influence phytoplankton blooms in the northern Arabian Sea?

seasonal wind shifts
the monsoon
southwesterly winds
large-scale ocean circulation
northeast winds in winter
landlocked to the north

49. What underwater events are the milky green swirls in the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of El Hierro due to?

50. True or False, The Mauna Kea Observatories are used for scientific research across the electromagnetic spectrum from visible light to radio, and comprise the largest such facility in the world.


51. Which of the following are associated with greenstone belts?

metamorphosed mafic sequences
ultramafic volcanic sequences
Archaean and Proterozoic cratons
Humphreys series
Rydberg series
green hue of metamorphic minerals

52. True or False, The O I 557.7 nm line occurs in some meteor wake spectra generally confined to the height interval of 80 - 90 km.


53. Which of the following phenomena are associated with earthshine?

reflected earthlight
the Moon's night side
the tachocline
a test of vegetation
the Pacific Ocean
ashen light

54. True or False, The zodiacal light has components in the green that are linearly polarized.


55. True or False, There are clear trends in the significant day-to-day and month-to-month changes in the zodiacal light.


56. Which of the following is not a characteristic of radiation?

throwing a beam
a stream of charged or neutral particles
the process of calculating the energy of a beam
sending out a traveling ray
a secondary hazard

57. True or False, A principle is a law or rule that has to be followed.


58. Using the equation \frac{c2}{\lambda T}\frac{1}{ e^{\frac{c2}{\lambda T}} - 1}e^{\frac{c2}{\lambda T}} - 5 = 0 what temperature corresponds approximately to a Planckian peak wavelength of 510 nm?

5700 K
5800 K
5900 K
6000 K
5870 K
5880 K

59. True or False, In the first derivative of Planck's equation to generate a wavelength, temperature pair like (495 nm, 6100 K), the constant c2 has units of nm K.


60. If Osiris in ancient Egyptian mythology/observational astronomy corresponds to Saturn, and Horus is the son of Osiris, what classical planet does Horus correspond to?

the green planet

61. True or False, Telluric mercury lines are light polution lines occurring in the Martian atmosphere.


62. Which of the following are characteristic of the telluric mercury green line?

546.1 nm
light pollution at the Calar Alto observatory
a decay product of uranium
mercury vapour lamps
tropospheric scattering
y-band of the ubvy Strömgren photometric system

63. True or False, Green radiation bursts are the most luminous electromagnetic events known to occur in the universe.


64. Which of the following is not a phenomenon associated with optical green astronomy?

actuators may be a part of active optics
the Spitzer satellite is the first device in space ever to detect optical green bursts
the Moon
an emission with a wavelength of 520 nm
adaptive optics
airglow emissions

65. True or False, The rocky surface of the planet Venus can be detected when Venus is observed using green astronomy.


66. Which of the following is not a phenomenon associated with green astronomy?

photographs of the planet Venus taken in 1999
Alpha Centauri A
ionization cones
a moderately intense aluminum line at 5593.302 Å
a xenon emission line at 541.915 nm
the lithium beta line

67. True or False, The dark green filter improves imaging of cloud patterns on Venus.


68. Observations of comets have benefited greatly from what phenomena of green astronomy?

elongated dust particles
the Rosetta spacecraft
O (1S) metastable line
methane possesses prominent absorption bands in the visible
the light of the neutral CN-radical

69. True or False, Olivine is a silicate mineral that may be detected in cometary coma dust with green astronomy.


70. Which of the following is a phenomenon associated with nebulae?

green light
oxygen line emission
297.2 nm line
aboard HST the use of the PC-2 and F547M

71. True or False, The red shift cannot affect green stars.


72. Which of the following is not a phenomenon associated with green astronomy?

a stellar class G dwarf
the hydrogen Balmer beta line
the photosphere of the Sun
an emission with a wavelength of 618 nm
"ionization cones"
boron ion emission

73. True or False, The Earth's atmosphere does not transmit green radiation between 480 and 500 nm in wavelength because of water vapor.


74. Green astronomy may help to detect what type of astronomical object?

a stellar class G dwarf
the hydrogen Balmer alpha line
the photosphere of the Sun
extrasolar planets
the CMB

75. True or False, The position of the Sun can be determined directly with the use of green astronomy.


76. Green astronomy has helped to verify what famous theories?

Cherenkov radiation
the universe consists primarily of perfect vacuum
tachyonic gamma rays
extrasolar planets
warp drive
general relativity
quantum mechanics

77. True or False, A green metallic or stony object that is the remains of a meteor is called a meteoroid.


78. Various green radiation observatories occur at different altitudes and geographic locations due to what effect?

the presence of oceans on the Earth
locally available carving tools
light pollution
most astronomical objects are observed at night
currently dormant volcanoes seldom erupt
human habitation increases near an astronomical observatory

79. True or False, The V 2 rocket was first used as a sounding rocket for green astronomy before being converted to a weapon.


80. Moldavite is a mineral that may be associated with what green astronomy phenomenon?

predicting the end of the Earth
determine the accuracy of local computers
meteorite impacts
demonstrating that Venus was once a comet
predict when currently dormant volcanoes will erupt
green fireballs

81. True or False, The emission of synchrotron light from the Sun may more accurately fit the spectral radiance of the Sun than black body radiation.


82. True or False, Green Bremsstrahlung radiation is not detected from the Sun because the photosphere isn't ionized enough to produce it.


83. Which of the following is involved in planetary astronomy more so than planetary science?

the occurrence of green rock types on the surface of rocky objects
the Earth and other rocky objects have a green mineral containing mantle
checking equations about complex systems
the advantages of a 559 nm band pass
digging holes in the surface of the Moon
surface temperatures low enough to produce methane lakes

84. What green astronomy phenomena are associated with Mars?

it may help with faster-than-light travel
O(1S) lines
polar caps
the Greenwich meridian
it demonstrates that a power law is better than an exponential law

85. True or False, The Mars Exploration Rover uses its green filter to take panoramic mosaics.


86. Which of the following is not a green characteristic of solar active regions?

green spectral lines are 1.4 % shallower at solar maximum
coronal clouds
spot central meridian passage
a surface coverage of at least 95%.

87. During the late 1600s the sunspot cycle lost its usual intensity and became what?

88. True or False, Naked sunspots seen in Hβ which are devoid of plage are never associated with coronal holes.


89. The Sun as a star has what green geographical property?

it's a primordial population III star
it passes once a year across the Lockman Hole
silicates have been discovered in its interior structure
optical reflectance studies have found evidence of magnesium
it has a surface temperature of ~700 K
polar coronal holes
it has a longitude and latitude grid system for locating active regions

90. Complete the text:

"In 1999, observations of the Venus with the telescope showed that the 5577 Å oxygen green line was a ".

91. True or False, The PC-1 F502N is centered at 501.85 nm with a band pass of 2.97 nm.


92. When close binary stars are present, what characteristics are readily observed?

iron XIV green line
facular excess brightness
magnetic poles
neon clouds

93. The population of coronal loops can be directly linked with the?

94. True or False, Coronal loops project into the coronal cloud, through the transition region and the chromosphere.


95. Which of the following is not a prominent contributor associated with a variable star?

star spots
chromospheric activity
brightness fluctuations
iron XIV green line

96. Astronauts onboard the International Space Station used a Nikon digital camera to take pictures of what green astronomy phenomenon?

97. True or False, Chemiluminescence caused mainly by oxygen and nitrogen reacting with hydroxyl ions at heights of a few hundred kilometers contributes to airglow.


98. Which of the following is not a phenomenon usually associated with regions?

a connected part of a space
a tract of green fields
definite extent of a corn field
Capella B
temporal change in green radiation flux

99. Complete the text:

"Auroras result from emissions of in the Earth's upper , above 80 km (50 mi), from ionized atoms regaining an electron, and and atoms returning from as excited state to state.

100. True or False, Oxygen emissions can be green or brownish-red depending on the amount of energy absorbed.


Your score is 0 / 0



  1. Green astronomy studies all the astronomical objects of the Solar System.

Control groups[edit]

This is an image of a Lewis rat. Credit: Charles River Laboratories.

The findings demonstrate a statistically systematic change from the status quo or the control group.

“In the design of experiments, treatments [or special properties or characteristics] are applied to [or observed in] experimental units in the treatment group(s).[1] In comparative experiments, members of the complementary group, the control group, receive either no treatment or a standard treatment.[2]"[3]

Proof of concept[edit]

Def. a “short and/or incomplete realization of a certain method or idea to demonstrate its feasibility"[4] is called a proof of concept.

Def. evidence that demonstrates that a concept is possible is called proof of concept.

The proof-of-concept structure consists of

  1. background,
  2. procedures,
  3. findings, and
  4. interpretation.[5]

See also[edit]


  1. Klaus Hinkelmann, Oscar Kempthorne (2008). Design and Analysis of Experiments, Volume I: Introduction to Experimental Design (2nd ed.). Wiley. ISBN 978-0-471-72756-9. http://books.google.com/?id=T3wWj2kVYZgC&printsec=frontcover. 
  2. R. A. Bailey (2008). Design of comparative experiments. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-68357-9. http://www.cambridge.org/uk/catalogue/catalogue.asp?isbn=9780521683579. 
  3. "Treatment and control groups, In: Wikipedia". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. May 18, 2012. Retrieved 2012-05-31. 
  4. "proof of concept, In: Wiktionary". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. November 10, 2012. Retrieved 2013-01-13. 
  5. Ginger Lehrman and Ian B Hogue, Sarah Palmer, Cheryl Jennings, Celsa A Spina, Ann Wiegand, Alan L Landay, Robert W Coombs, Douglas D Richman, John W Mellors, John M Coffin, Ronald J Bosch, David M Margolis (August 13, 2005). "Depletion of latent HIV-1 infection in vivo: a proof-of-concept study". Lancet 366 (9485): 549-55. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(05)67098-5. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1894952/. Retrieved 2012-05-09. 

External links[edit]

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