# Radiation astronomy/Greens/Quiz

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Gases above Io's surface produced a ghostly glow that could be seen at visible wavelengths (red, green, and violet). Credit: NASA/JPL/University of Arizona.

Green astronomy is a lecture and an article from the astronomy department for the course on the principles of radiation astronomy.

You are free to take this quiz based on green radiation astronomy.

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This quiz may need up to an hour to take and is equivalent to an hourly.

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## Quiz

 Point added for a correct answer: Points for a wrong answer: Ignore the questions' coefficients:

1

Which of the following are green radiation astronomy phenomena associated with the Sun?

 the color of the upper rim as seen from Earth an excess brightness at or near the edge of the Sun the iron XIV green line neutron emission polar coronal holes meteor emission changes in the line-blanketing

2

True or False, The Hubble Space Telescope currently uses the Wide Field Planetary Camera (PC-2) with its F492M filter among others for green astronomy.

 TRUE FALSE

3

Which of the following is not a characteristic of green astronomy?

 boron wavelength range of 495-570 nm chlorophyll greenstones phytoplankton

4

Before the current era and perhaps before 6,000 b2k which classical planet may have been green?

5

True or False, The Hβ emission line does not appear when the F492M filter is used on the Hubble Space Telescope because its wavelength is 486.1 nm.

 TRUE FALSE

6

Alpha Centauri A as a star has what green astronomy property?

 it's a primordial population III star it passes once a year across the Lockman Hole silicates have been discovered in its interior structure it has a surface temperature of 5790 K optical reflectance studies have found evidence of magnesium it has a surface temperature of ~700 K

7

Complete the text:

 Capella B has a surface temperature of approximately , is spectral type , has an orbital period with Capella A of about , and is a variable.

8

True or False, Any small luminous green dot appearing in the cloudless portion of the night sky, especially with a fixed location relative to other such dots is most likely to be an active galactic nucleus.

 TRUE FALSE

9

When ionization cones are present, what green characteristics are usually readily observed?

 O III green emission line green continua biconical structure a common cone axis and apex ionized gas neon clouds

10

For web colors the RGB decimal code (0 255 0) is what color?

11

True or False, In hexadecimal code, a hex triplet, #008000 or 00 80 00 is green.

 TRUE FALSE

12

Which of the following is not a prominent feature associated with the greenness response?

 M cone cells a green light source L cones "bluish green" 493-498 nm "yellowish green" 530-559 nm "yellow green" 559-570 nm

13

Green earth is a natural pigment composed of what likely source of green?

14

True or False, There are green or green mineral containing meteorites.

 TRUE FALSE

15

Which of the following is not a phenomenon usually associated with solar wanderers?

 green aurora oxygen production of 7Be carbon or C2 airglow nitrogen olivine

16

Complete the text:

 "In the green, the of the pure composition qualitatively appears a better to the shape of the observed polarization curves."

17

True or False, The silicates used to model the cometary coma dust are olivene (Mg-rich is green) and the pyroxene, asbestos.

 TRUE FALSE

18

Which of the following is not a phenomenon associated with a comet?

 airglow elongated dust particles high albedo olivine Rayleighs coronal mass ejection

19

With respect to protoplanetary disks what green mineral has been found?

20

True or False, A green light coming from a nebula may be due to oxygen illuminated by a stellar wind.

 TRUE FALSE

21

Which of the following emission/absorption phenomena are associated with green astronomy?

 Helium lines at 501 and 505 nm the strong C2 (1,2) band nitrogen emission in plasmas at 566.934 nm from N VIII Helium emission line at 5876 Å neutral iron line at 526.96 nm Calcium yellow line at 569.4 nm

22

Green astronomy observation is performed all around the surface of the Earth by?

23

True or False, Bremsstrahlung radiation may be a source of the green continuum.

 TRUE FALSE

24

Which of the following are phenomena usually associated with fluorine emission?

 fluorine emission lines in the green are relatively weak fluorine lines in the near infrared are usually much stronger than the green lines F I has lines in the green F II has lines in the green F III has at least one line in the green the Fraunhofer E line

25

The chromium +1 ion has an emission line often observed in solar what?

26

True or False, Ground-based observations around the solar limb of the Fe 530.3 line vary greatly among themselves.

 TRUE FALSE

27

Which of the following are likely associated with a green emission line control group?

 rocky objects high peak to background plasma objects a G2V photosphere rotation watery surface spots

28

An emission line occurring in the solar corona at 511.603 nm is likely to be from what?

29

True or False, The striking absence of green emission above both polar regions at activity minimum is likely due to iron deficiency.

 TRUE FALSE

30

Which of the following are characteristic of solar green astronomy?

 limb faculae polar coronal holes black body temperature of the photosphere the electron neutrino iron (Fe XIV) green line neutrons

31

Venus at times shows the oxygen green line emission with an intensity equal to what?

32

True or False, Airglow is the emission of light by atoms and molecules in the upper atmosphere after they are excited by X-ray radiation.

 TRUE FALSE

33

Which geographical phenomena are associated with Iapetus?

 dark territory of Cassini Regio manifesting intense magnetic fields equatorial ridge that bisects Cassini Regio global "color dichotomy" global brightness dichotomy different color hues leading vs. the trailing side color hues

34

A fine spray of small, icy particles detected in green light is emanating from what surrounding, warm, geologically unique province of Enceladus?

35

True or False, A plume of water ice particles emanating from Enceladus is reaching altitudes as high as 400 km above the surface.

 TRUE FALSE

36

Phenomena associated with the green vapor above Io are?

 collisions with energetic charged particles Jupiter's magnetic field aurora-like behavior dense plumes of volcanic vapor Galileo spacecraft Io is in eclipse

37

The Na I green lines at 568.2 and 568.8 nm arise in the what?

38

True or False, Stars of spectral classes F and G, such as our sun, have color temperatures that make them look "greenish".

 TRUE FALSE

39

Which of the following are green observatories in orbit around the Earth?

 Chandra X-ray Observatory Big Bear TRACE Kodaikanal the Hubble Lomnický štít McMath-Pierce SOFIA Rosetta

40

McDonald Observatory is located in.

41

True or False, Some observed properties of the Sun still defy explanation, such as the degree of Li depletion: the solar Li abundance is roughly a factor of 200 below the meteoritic abundance. This has been confirmed using the lithium 555.2 nm line.

 TRUE FALSE

42

Which of the following are associated with the McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope?

 a launch location Fabry-Perot interferometer a heliostat a distinctive diagonal shaft that continues underground a theoretical resolution of 0.07" NOAA designations

43

"Carroll et al. (1976) detected a number of coincidences between laboratory lines of FeH and weak unidentified what?

44

True or False, The pale green patterns tinting the water along the Namibian coast in late February 2012 indicated high concentrations of sulfur.

 TRUE FALSE

45

The auroral green line at 557.7 nm has been suggested as originating from which of the following elemental emission lines?

 solid nitrogen mixtures of oxygen and helium pure helium pure oxygen neon and oxygen mixtures mercury iron

46

What are pale green when viewed through the water of the Persian Gulf fringing the shoreline and islands of the UAE in a Landsat image?

47

True or False, From a satellite's vantage point, the wash of green that appears across the forests of the eastern United States is one of the most noticeable signs of winter's passing.

 TRUE FALSE

48

Which of the following strongly influence phytoplankton blooms in the northern Arabian Sea?

 seasonal wind shifts the monsoon southwesterly winds large-scale ocean circulation northeast winds in winter landlocked to the north

49

What underwater events are the milky green swirls in the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of El Hierro due to?

50

True or False, The Mauna Kea Observatories are used for scientific research across the electromagnetic spectrum from visible light to radio, and comprise the largest such facility in the world.

 TRUE FALSE

51

Which of the following are associated with greenstone belts?

 metamorphosed mafic sequences ultramafic volcanic sequences Archaean and Proterozoic cratons chlorite Humphreys series Rydberg series green hue of metamorphic minerals

52

True or False, The O I 557.7 nm line occurs in some meteor wake spectra generally confined to the height interval of 80 - 90 km.

 TRUE FALSE

53

Which of the following phenomena are associated with earthshine?

 reflected earthlight the Moon's night side the tachocline a test of vegetation the Pacific Ocean ashen light

54

True or False, The zodiacal light has components in the green that are linearly polarized.

 TRUE FALSE

55

True or False, There are clear trends in the significant day-to-day and month-to-month changes in the zodiacal light.

 TRUE FALSE

56

Which of the following is not a characteristic of radiation?

 throwing a beam a stream of charged or neutral particles the process of calculating the energy of a beam sending out a traveling ray a secondary hazard

57

True or False, A principle is a law or rule that has to be followed.

 TRUE FALSE

58

Using the equation ${\displaystyle {\frac {c2}{\lambda T}}{\frac {1}{e^{\frac {c2}{\lambda T}}-1}}e^{\frac {c2}{\lambda T}}-5=0}$ what temperature corresponds approximately to a Planckian peak wavelength of 510 nm?

 5700 K 5800 K 5900 K 6000 K 5870 K 5880 K

59

True or False, In the first derivative of Planck's equation to generate a wavelength, temperature pair like (495 nm, 6100 K), the constant c2 has units of nm K.

 TRUE FALSE

60

If Osiris in ancient Egyptian mythology/observational astronomy corresponds to Saturn, and Horus is the son of Osiris, what classical planet does Horus correspond to?

 the green planet Mercury Mars Uranus Venus Jupiter

61

True or False, Telluric mercury lines are light polution lines occurring in the Martian atmosphere.

 TRUE FALSE

62

Which of the following are characteristic of the telluric mercury green line?

 546.1 nm light pollution at the Calar Alto observatory a decay product of uranium mercury vapour lamps tropospheric scattering y-band of the ubvy Strömgren photometric system

63

True or False, Green radiation bursts are the most luminous electromagnetic events known to occur in the universe.

 TRUE FALSE

64

Which of the following is not a phenomenon associated with optical green astronomy?

 actuators may be a part of active optics the Spitzer satellite is the first device in space ever to detect optical green bursts the Moon an emission with a wavelength of 520 nm adaptive optics airglow emissions

65

True or False, The rocky surface of the planet Venus can be detected when Venus is observed using green astronomy.

 TRUE FALSE

66

Which of the following is not a phenomenon associated with green astronomy?

 photographs of the planet Venus taken in 1999 Alpha Centauri A ionization cones a moderately intense aluminum line at 5593.302 Å a xenon emission line at 541.915 nm the lithium beta line

67

True or False, The dark green filter improves imaging of cloud patterns on Venus.

 TRUE FALSE

68

Observations of comets have benefited greatly from what phenomena of green astronomy?

 elongated dust particles the Rosetta spacecraft O (1S) metastable line methane possesses prominent absorption bands in the visible airglow the light of the neutral CN-radical

69

True or False, Olivine is a silicate mineral that may be detected in cometary coma dust with green astronomy.

 TRUE FALSE

70

Which of the following is a phenomenon associated with nebulae?

 green light oxygen line emission 297.2 nm line aboard HST the use of the PC-2 and F547M phosphorus TiO

71

True or False, The red shift cannot affect green stars.

 TRUE FALSE

72

Which of the following is not a phenomenon associated with green astronomy?

 a stellar class G dwarf the hydrogen Balmer beta line the photosphere of the Sun an emission with a wavelength of 618 nm "ionization cones" boron ion emission

73

True or False, The Earth's atmosphere does not transmit green radiation between 480 and 500 nm in wavelength because of water vapor.

 TRUE FALSE

74

Green astronomy may help to detect what type of astronomical object?

 a stellar class G dwarf the hydrogen Balmer alpha line the photosphere of the Sun extrasolar planets lithium the CMB

75

True or False, The position of the Sun can be determined directly with the use of green astronomy.

 TRUE FALSE

76

Green astronomy has helped to verify what famous theories?

 Cherenkov radiation the universe consists primarily of perfect vacuum tachyonic gamma rays extrasolar planets warp drive general relativity quantum mechanics

77

True or False, A green metallic or stony object that is the remains of a meteor is called a meteoroid.

 TRUE FALSE

78

Various green radiation observatories occur at different altitudes and geographic locations due to what effect?

 the presence of oceans on the Earth locally available carving tools light pollution most astronomical objects are observed at night currently dormant volcanoes seldom erupt human habitation increases near an astronomical observatory

79

True or False, The V 2 rocket was first used as a sounding rocket for green astronomy before being converted to a weapon.

 TRUE FALSE

80

Moldavite is a mineral that may be associated with what green astronomy phenomenon?

 predicting the end of the Earth determine the accuracy of local computers meteorite impacts demonstrating that Venus was once a comet predict when currently dormant volcanoes will erupt green fireballs

81

True or False, The emission of synchrotron light from the Sun may more accurately fit the spectral radiance of the Sun than black body radiation.

 TRUE FALSE

82

True or False, Green Bremsstrahlung radiation is not detected from the Sun because the photosphere isn't ionized enough to produce it.

 TRUE FALSE

83

Which of the following is involved in planetary astronomy more so than planetary science?

 the occurrence of green rock types on the surface of rocky objects the Earth and other rocky objects have a green mineral containing mantle checking equations about complex systems the advantages of a 559 nm band pass digging holes in the surface of the Moon surface temperatures low enough to produce methane lakes

84

What green astronomy phenomena are associated with Mars?

 it may help with faster-than-light travel O(1S) lines ice polar caps the Greenwich meridian it demonstrates that a power law is better than an exponential law

85

True or False, The Mars Exploration Rover uses its green filter to take panoramic mosaics.

 TRUE FALSE

86

Which of the following is not a green characteristic of solar active regions?

 iron green spectral lines are 1.4 % shallower at solar maximum coronal clouds spot central meridian passage a surface coverage of at least 95%.

87

During the late 1600s the sunspot cycle lost its usual intensity and became what?

88

True or False, Naked sunspots seen in Hβ which are devoid of plage are never associated with coronal holes.

 TRUE FALSE

89

The Sun as a star has what green geographical property?

 it's a primordial population III star it passes once a year across the Lockman Hole silicates have been discovered in its interior structure optical reflectance studies have found evidence of magnesium it has a surface temperature of ~700 K polar coronal holes it has a longitude and latitude grid system for locating active regions

90

Complete the text:

 "In 1999, observations of the Venus with the telescope showed that the 5577 Å oxygen green line was a ".

91

True or False, The PC-1 F502N is centered at 501.85 nm with a band pass of 2.97 nm.

 TRUE FALSE

92

When close binary stars are present, what characteristics are readily observed?

 iron XIV green line facular excess brightness starspots magnetic poles flares neon clouds

93

The population of coronal loops can be directly linked with the?

94

True or False, Coronal loops project into the coronal cloud, through the transition region and the chromosphere.

 TRUE FALSE

95

Which of the following is not a prominent contributor associated with a variable star?

 star spots chromospheric activity rotation brightness fluctuations flares iron XIV green line

96

Astronauts onboard the International Space Station used a Nikon digital camera to take pictures of what green astronomy phenomenon?

97

True or False, Chemiluminescence caused mainly by oxygen and nitrogen reacting with hydroxyl ions at heights of a few hundred kilometers contributes to airglow.

 TRUE FALSE

98

Which of the following is not a phenomenon usually associated with regions?

 a connected part of a space a tract of green fields definite extent of a corn field Capella B temporal change in green radiation flux weather

99

Complete the text:

 "Auroras result from emissions of in the Earth's upper , above 80 km (50 mi), from ionized atoms regaining an electron, and and atoms returning from as excited state to state.

100

Yes or No, Oxygen emissions can be green or brownish-red depending on the amount of energy absorbed.

 Yes No

## Hypotheses

Main source: Hypotheses
1. Green astronomy studies all the astronomical objects of the Solar System.