Fundamental Physics/Formulas

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Force[edit | edit source]

Force is a physical quantity that interacts with matter to perform a task

Force Definition Notation Formula
Motion Force Force that sets matter in motion
Impulse Force that sets a mass in motion
Opposition force Force that opposes the interacting force with matter
Pressure force Force that acts on surface's area
Friction Force Force opposes matter movement on a surface
Elastic Force Force that restores matter equilibrium
Circulation Force Force sets matter in circular motion
Centripetal Force Force that sets matter moves out of circulation motion
Centripugal Force Force that sets matter moves in of circulation motion
Electrostatic Force Attraction force of 2 different polaity charges
Electromotive Force Force sets electric charge in motion
Electromagnetomotive Force Force that sets moving electric charge to move perpendicular to the intial travel direction
Electromagnetic Force Summation of 2 force Electromotive force and Electromagnetomotive force

Motion[edit | edit source]

Movement of matter from one place to another place caused by a force

Uniform linear motion[edit | edit source]

Motion that follows straight path of constant speed for example horizontal uniform linear motion, vertical uniform linear motion,

Notation Horizontal uniform linear motion Vertical uniform linear motion Inclined uniform linear motion
Distance s
Time t
Speed v
Acceleration a
Force F
Work W
power E

Non uniform curve motion[edit | edit source]

Motion that does not follow a straight path

Notation Formulas
Distance s(t)
Time t
Speed v(t)
Acceleration a(t)
Force F(t)
Work W(t)
Energy E(t)

Periodic motion[edit | edit source]

Motion that keeps repeat itself over a period of time

Circular motion[edit | edit source]

Motion that follows a circular path

Full circle motion[edit | edit source]

Motion that completes a circle

Notation Formulas
Distance s
Time t
Speed v
Angular speed ω
Acceleration a
Force F
Work W
Energy E
Circle's arc motion[edit | edit source]

Motion that follows an arc of a circle

Notation Formulas
Distance s
Time t
Speed v
Angular speed ω
Acceleration a
Force F
Work W
Energy E

Wave[edit | edit source]

Mathematical formula[edit | edit source]

A period motion of a sinusoidal motion

Notation Formulas
Distance s
Time t
Speed v
Angular Speed ω
Frequency f
Wave equation f"(t)
Wave function f(t)

Sinusoidal wave[edit | edit source]

Mathematiccaly sinusoidal can be represent by a wave equation and a wave function

Wave equation

Wave function

Oscillation[edit | edit source]

Spring's Oscillation[edit | edit source]
Spring's Oscillation Symbol Horizontal Vertical
Spring's Oscillation equation
Spring's wave function
Angular speed ω
Pendulum Oscillation[edit | edit source]
Oscillating pendulum.gif

The differential equation which represents the motion of a simple pendulum is

 Eq. 1

where g is acceleration due to gravity, l is the length of the pendulum, and θ is the angular displacement.

Electric Oscillation[edit | edit source]
Electric's Oscillation RLC series at equilibrium RLC series at resonance LC series at equilibrium LC series at resonance
RLC series circuit v1.svg RLC series circuit v1.svg Series LC Circuit.svg Series LC Circuit.svg
Wave equation
Wave function

FreqWave1.png
Electromagnetic Oscillation[edit | edit source]
Electromagnetic's Oscillation Formula
Wave equation
Wave function

Angular speed
Time constant
Wave hape
Onde electromagnetique.svg

Momentum[edit | edit source]

Momentum is defined as motion of a mass at a speed caused by a force

Moment

Momentum of a mass in motion[edit | edit source]
Notation Formulas
Mass m
Speed v
Moment p
Impulse(Force) F
Work W
Energy E
Momentum of a relativistic mass in motion[edit | edit source]

Momentum refers to movement of a mass at a speed relative to the speed of light

Notation Formulas
Mass m
Speed v
Momentum p
Force F
Work W
Energy E
Momentum of a massless quanta in motion[edit | edit source]

Momentum refers to movement of a mass at a speed equals to the speed of light

Notation Formulas
Speed v
Work W
Quanta h
Momentum p
Wavelength
Momentum of electric charge[edit | edit source]
Momentum of free electron[edit | edit source]

Absorbing photon, electron becomes free electron travels outward off the atom's circular orbit

Momentum of a bind electron[edit | edit source]

Releasing photon, electron becomes free electron travels inward off the circle orbit

Heat[edit | edit source]

Temperature[edit | edit source]

Temperature is the measurement of heat's intensity . Temperature is denoted as T measured in degree o

Temperature measurements[edit | edit source]

There are 3 temperature measuring system

  1. Degree Celcius,
  2. Degree Kevin ,
  3. Degree Fahrenheit ,


Conversion between systems of temperature can be done as shown below

Convert from to ' Formulas
Degree Fahrenheit Celsius °C = (°F – 32) / 1.8
Degree Celsius Fahrenheit °F = °C × 1.8 + 32
Degree Fahrenheit Kelvin K = (°F – 32) / 1.8 + 273.15

Standard temperatures[edit | edit source]

Standard temperature Value
Room temperature
Boiling temperature
Frozen temperature

Heat and matter[edit | edit source]

Heat and matter interact to create Heat transfer of three phases Heat conduction, Heat convection and Heat radiation

Heat absortion of matter[edit | edit source]

  • Matter of dark color absorbs more heat energy than matter of bright color
  • Matter of thin dimension absorbs more heat energy than matter of thich dimension

For example

Dark and thin clothes dry faster than bright and thick clothes

Heat Transfer[edit | edit source]

A process of heat interaction with matter through 3 phases of

Heat conduction[edit | edit source]

Matter change its temperature when it in contact with heat energy

Heat convection[edit | edit source]

Matter absorbs heat energy to its maximum level and gives off visible light

Heat radiation[edit | edit source]

Matter is at its saturation . Matter is no longer absorbs heat energy and use the excess energy to release electron of its atom

Heat flow[edit | edit source]

Heat flows between 2 objects of different mass follows heat flow rule that heat flows from high temperature to low temperature

Heat energy absorb by mass 1

Heat energy absorb by mass 2

Direction of heat flow

Light[edit | edit source]

Speed of visible light[edit | edit source]

Speed of light is denoted as C which has a value

m/s

Measurement speed of visible light[edit | edit source]

In vacuum By Michael Morrison
In air, as electromagnetic radiation By James Clerk Maxwell
In liquid By Lorentz

Visible light[edit | edit source]

Characteristics[edit | edit source]

Visible light travels at a constant speed in vacuum and in air which has a value

m/s

Travels as Electromagnetic wave of wavelength

m

Of Threshold frequency

Hz

Composite colors[edit | edit source]

Visible light passes through prism decomposes itself into its composites color light of 6 colors

Colors Wavelength Angle of refraction
Red
Orange
Yellow
Green
Blue
Violet

Light and matter[edit | edit source]

Light and matter interacts with each other to create the following effects

  1. Reflection
  2. Refraction
  3. Diffraction
  4. Dispersion
  5. Interference

Sound[edit | edit source]

Measurement speed of sound[edit | edit source]

Material medium Value
In air
In water
In solid

Audible sound[edit | edit source]

Sound spectrum[edit | edit source]

Audible sound to human's ears is in the frequency range 20Hz - 20KHz . Sound above 20KHz is called Ultrasound . Sound below 20Hz is called Infrasound

Audible sound wave in air[edit | edit source]

In air, audible sound travels as wave of thick and thin columns of air

Medium Speed Frequency Wavelength
In air

Sound and matter[edit | edit source]

Sound and matter interacts with each other to create the following effects

  1. Relection
  2. Refraction
  3. Diffraction
  4. Interference

Electricity[edit | edit source]

Electricity and a straight line conductor[edit | edit source]

Ohms law voltage source.svg
Characteristis Symbols Formulas
Voltage
Current
Resistance
Conductance
Electromagnet's Field strength
Resistance change
Power generated
Power loss
Power transmitted

Electromagnet[edit | edit source]

For a straight line conductor Manoderecha.svg
For a circular loop made from straight line conductor Magnetic field of wire loop.svg
For a coil of N circular loops made from straight line conductor Solenoid-1.png

Electric Oscillation[edit | edit source]

Electric's Oscillation RLC series at equilibrium RLC series at resonance LC series at equilibrium LC series at resonance
RLC series circuit v1.svg RLC series circuit v1.svg Series LC Circuit.svg Series LC Circuit.svg
Wave equation
Wave function

FreqWave1.png

Electromagnetism[edit | edit source]

Electric current interacts with magnetic material to generate Magnetic field

Electromagnetic Field[edit | edit source]

Electromagnetic Field Definition symbol formula
Straight line conductor The magnetic field is made up of circular magnetic circles
rotate counterclockwise or clockwise direction
Circular loop conductor The magnetic field is made up of circular magnetic circle
around a point charge that moves around the circular loop

Coil of N circular loop conductor The magnetic field is made up of elliptic magnetic lines
running from North pole [N] to South pole [S]
With North pole [N] corresponds to positive polarity (+)
and South pole [S] corresponds to negative polarity (-)



Electromagnetic Induction[edit | edit source]

For a Faraday's coil of N circular loops . The magnetic field is made up of elliptic magnetic lines running from North pole [N] to South pole [S]

Magnetic Potential Difference
Induced Magnetic Voltage

Electromagnetization[edit | edit source]

Process of generating permanent electromagnet from a magnetic material placed in the turns of the magnetic coil

Maxwell's Electromagnetization Vector Equation




Electromagnetic Wave Oscillation[edit | edit source]

Electromagnetic Wave Vectore Equation



Electromagnetic Wave Equation

Electromagnetic Wave Function


Electromagnetic Wave Radiation

Electromagnetic wave radiation[edit | edit source]

Electromagnetic wave radiation is generated from Electromagnetic wave propagates at speed of visible light



Electromagnetic Wave Radiation States[edit | edit source]

Radiant Photon[edit | edit source]

Electromagnetic Wave Radiation of Radian Photon just like visible light perceive by human eyes



Non radiant photon[edit | edit source]

Electromagnetic Wave Radiation of Non radiant photon that can free electron off matter's atom



Heinseinberg's Uncertainty Principle[edit | edit source]
Photon can only exist in one state at a time

Quantization[edit | edit source]

Photon is energy of a quantity that process no mass known as Quanta travels at speed of light

Quanta's Wave-Particle Duality[edit | edit source]

Quanta processes Wave-Particle Duality . Sometimes, behave like wave of wavelength λ . Sometimes, behave like particle of a momentum p

Wave like .
Particle like .

Quantum Physics[edit | edit source]

Radiation[edit | edit source]

Sun light radiation
Fire radiation
Black body radiation
Alpha radiation
Beta radiation
Gamma radiation

Electromagnetic radiation[edit | edit source]

Radiation from electromagnetic oscillation wave

Electromagnetic radiation and matter[edit | edit source]

Radiation interact with matter to create Heat transfer of three phases Heat conduction, Heat convection and Heat radiation

Heat conduction Matter absorbs photon's energy and release heat into the surrounding


Heat convection Matter absorbs photon's energy to the mazximum at Threshold frequency fo and release visible light into the surrounding


Heat radiation Matter's atom releases its electron into the surrounding at frequency greater than threshold frequency fo

Photon[edit | edit source]

Photon's characteristics[edit | edit source]

Photon is defined as energy of a Quanta travels at speed of visible light

Photon's states[edit | edit source]

Photon exists in 2 states .

Radiant photon at carries quantum energy of energy of visible light
Non radiant photon at carries quantum energy greater than energy of visible light with f > fo

Photon cannot exist in 2 states at the same time . The chances of finding photon at any one state is one half . This is the uncertainty principle proposed by schroduinger which can be expressed mathematicaaly as

Photon's radiation spectrum[edit | edit source]

Photon has a spectrumand are found in the frequenct bands below

VF
UVF
X
γ

Quanta[edit | edit source]

Mathematical formula[edit | edit source]

Wave-Particle duality[edit | edit source]

Quanta processes Wave-Particle duality

Some time Quanta behaves as a particle of a momentum

Some other time Quanta behaves as a wave of wavelength

Relativity[edit | edit source]

Relativistic mass in motion[edit | edit source]

Symbol Mathematical formula
Speed
Mass
Moment
Energy

Massless quanta in motion[edit | edit source]

Symbol Mathematical formula
Speed
Energy
Quanta
Moment
Wave length

Mass change[edit | edit source]

At speed relative to speed of visible light

.

At speed equals to speed of visible light

.

Einstein's relativity theory[edit | edit source]

Newton's motion's speed[edit | edit source]

When matter travels at any speed less than speed of visible light, matter does not change its mass
Speed of motion Mathematical formula of speed Mathematical formula of mass
At any speed less than speed of visible light

Einstein's motion's speed[edit | edit source]

When matter travels at a speed relative to or equal to the speed of visible light . Matter changes its mass
Speed of motion Mathematical formula of speed Mathematical formula of mass
At speed relative to speed of visible light
At speed equals to speed of visible light