Fundamental Physics/Formulas

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Contents

Force[edit]

Force is a physical quantity that interacts with matter to perform a task

Force Definition Notation Formula
Motion Force Force that sets matter in motion
Impulse Force that sets a mass in motion
Opposition force Force that opposes the interacting force with matter
Pressure force Force that acts on surface's area
Friction Force Force opposes matter movement on a surface
Elastic Force Force that restores matter equilibrium
Circulation Force Force sets matter in circular motion
Centripetal Force Force that sets matter moves out of circulation motion
Centripugal Force Force that sets matter moves in of circulation motion
Electrostatic Force Attraction force of 2 different polaity charges
Electromotive Force Force sets electric charge in motion
Electromagnetomotive Force Force that sets moving electric charge to move pendicular to the intial travel direction
Electromagnetic Force Summation of 2 force Electromotive force and Electromagnetomotive force

Motion[edit]

Movement of matter from one place to another place caused by a force

Uniform linear motion[edit]

Motion that follows straight path of constant speed for example horizontal uniform linear motion, vertical uniform linear motion,

Notation Horizontal uniform linear motion Vertical uniform linear motion Inclined uniform linear motion
Distance s
Time t
Speed v
Accelleration a
Force F
Work W
Energy E

Non uniform curve motion[edit]

Motion that does not follow a straight path

Notation Formulas
Distance s(t)
Time t
Speed v(t)
Accelleration a(t)
Force F(t)
Work W(t)
Energy E(t)

Periodic motion[edit]

Motion that keeps repeat itself over a period of time

Circular motion[edit]

Motion that follows a circular path

Full circle motion[edit]

Motion that completes a circle

Notation Formulas
Distance s
Time t
Speed v
Angular speed ω
Accelleration a
Force F
Work W
Energy E
Circle's arc motion[edit]

Motion that follows an arc of a circle

Notation Formulas
Distance s
Time t
Speed v
Angular speed ω
Accelleration a
Force F
Work W
Energy E

Wave[edit]

Mathematical formula[edit]

A period motion of a sinusoidal motion

Notation Formulas
Distance s
Time t
Speed v
Angular Speed ω
Frequency f
Wave equation f"(t)
Wave function f(t)

Sinusoidal wave[edit]

Mathematiccaly sinusoidal can be represent by a wave equation and a wave function

Wave equation

Wave function

Oscillation[edit]

Spring's Oscillation[edit]
Spring's Oscillation Symbol Horizontal Vertical
Spring's Oscillation equation
Spring's wave function
Angular speed ω
Pendulum Oscillation[edit]
Oscillating pendulum.gif

The differential equation which represents the motion of a simple pendulum is

 Eq. 1

where g is acceleration due to gravity, l is the length of the pendulum, and θ is the angular displacement.

Electric Oscillation[edit]
Electric's Oscillation RLC series at equilibrium RLC series at resonance LC series at equilibrium LC series at resonance
RLC series circuit v1.svg RLC series circuit v1.svg Series LC Circuit.svg Series LC Circuit.svg
Wave equation
Wave function

FreqWave1.png
Electromagnetic Oscillation[edit]
Electromagnetic's Oscillation Formula
Wave equation
Wave function

Angular speed
Time constant
Wave hape
Onde electromagnetique.svg

Momentum[edit]

Momentum is defined as motion of a mass at a speed caused by a force

Moment

Momentum of a mass in motion[edit]
Notation Formulas
Mass m
Speed v
Moment p
Impulse(Force) F
Work W
Energy E
Momentum of a relativistic mass in motion[edit]

Momentum refers to movement of a mass at a speed relative to the speed of light

Notation Formulas
Mass m
Speed v
Momentum p
Force F
Work W
Energy E
Momentum of a massless quanta in motion[edit]

Momentum refers to movement of a mass at a speed equals to the speed of light

Notation Formulas
Speed v
Work W
Quanta h
Momentum p
Wavelength
Momentum of electric charge[edit]
Momentum of free electron[edit]

Absorbing photon, electron becomes free electron travels outward off the atom's circular orbit

Momentum of a bind electron[edit]

Releasing photon, electron becomes free electron travels inward off the circle orbit

Heat[edit]

Temperature[edit]

Temperature is the measurement of heat's intensity . Temperature is denoted as T measured in degree o

Temperature measurements[edit]

There are 3 temperature measuring system

  1. Degree Celcius,
  2. Degree Kevin ,
  3. Degree Fahenheight ,


Conversion between systems of temperature can be done as shown below

Convert from to ' Formulas
Degree Fahrenheit Celsius °C = (°F – 32) / 1.8
Degree Celsius Fahrenheit °F = °C × 1.8 + 32
Degree Kevin Kelvin K = (°F – 32) / 1.8 + 273.15

Standard temperatures[edit]

Standard temperature Value
Room temperature
Boiling temperature
Frozen temperature

Heat and matter[edit]

Heat and matter interact to create Heat transfer of three phases Heat conduction, Heat convection and Heat radiation

Heat absortion of matter[edit]

  • Matter of dark color absorbs more heat energy than matter of bright color
  • Matter of thin dimension absorbs more heat energy than matter of thich dimension

For example

Dark and thin clothes dry faster than bright and thick clothes

Heat Transfer[edit]

A process of heat interaction with matter through 3 phases of

Heat conduction[edit]

Matter change its temperature when it in contact with heat energy

Heat convection[edit]

Matter absorbs heat energy to its maximum level and gives off visible light

Heat radiation[edit]

Matter is at its saturation . Matter is no longer absorbs heat energy and use the excess energy to release electron of its atom

Heat flow[edit]

Heat flows between 2 objects of different mass follows heat flow rule that heat flows from high temperature to low temperature

Heat energy absorb by mass 1

Heat energy absorb by mass 2

Direction of heat flow

Light[edit]

Speed of visible light[edit]

Speed of light is denoted as C which has a value

m/s

Measurement speed of visible light[edit]

In vacuum By Michael Morrison
In air, as electromagnetic radiation By James clerk Maxwell
In liquid By Lorentz

Visible light[edit]

Characteristics[edit]

Visible light travels at a constant speed in vacuum and in air which has a value

m/s

Travels as Electromagnetic wave of wavelength

m

Of Threshold frequency

Hz

Composite colors[edit]

Visible light passes through prism decomposes itself into its composites color light of 6 colors

Colors Wavelength Angle of refraction
Red
Orange
Yellow
Green
Blue
Violet

Light and matter[edit]

Light and matter interacts with each other to create the following effects

  1. Relection
  2. Refraction
  3. Diffraction
  4. Dispersion
  5. Interference

Sound[edit]

Measurement speed of sound[edit]

Material medium Value
In air
In water
In solid

Audible sound[edit]

Sound spectrum[edit]

Audible sound to human's ears is in the frequency range 20Hz - 20KHz . Sound above 20KHz is called Ultra sound . Sound below 20Hz is called sound

Audible sound wave in air[edit]

In air, audible sound travels as wave of thick and thin columns of air

Medium Speed Frequency Wavelength
In air

Sound and matter[edit]

Sound and matter interacts with each other to create the following effects

  1. Relection
  2. Refraction
  3. Diffraction
  4. Interference

Electricity[edit]

Electricity and a straight line conductor[edit]

Ohms law voltage source.svg
Characteristis Symbols Formulas
Voltage
Current
Resistance
Conductance
Electromagnet's Field strength
Resistance change
Power generated
Power loss
Power transmitted

Electric heat[edit]

Energy Symbol Formula
Electric Heat
. For electric conductor
. For electric semi conductor

Electromagnet[edit]

For a straight line conductor Manoderecha.svg
For a circular loop made from straight line conductor Magnetic field of wire loop.svg
For a coil of N circular loops made from straight line conductor Solenoid-1.png

Electric Oscillation[edit]

Electric's Oscillation RLC series at equilibrium RLC series at resonance LC series at equilibrium LC series at resonance
RLC series circuit v1.svg RLC series circuit v1.svg Series LC Circuit.svg Series LC Circuit.svg
Wave equation
Wave function

FreqWave1.png

Electromagnetism[edit]

Electric current interacts with magnetic material to generate Magnetic field

Electromagnetic Field[edit]

Electromagnetic Field Definition symbol formula
Straight line conductor The magnetic field is made up of circular magnetic circles
rotate counterclockwise or clockwise direction
Circular loop conductor The magnetic field is made up of circular magnetic circle
around a point charge that moves around the circular loop

Coil of N circular loop conductor The magnetic field is made up of elliptic magnetic lines
running from North pole [N] to South pole [S]
With North pole [N] corresponds to positive polarity (+)
and South pole [S] corresponds to negative polarity (-)



Electromagnetic Induction[edit]

For a Faraday's coil of N circular loops . The magnetic field is made up of elliptic magnetic lines running from North pole [N] to South pole [S]

Magnetic Potential Difference
Induced Magnetic Voltage

Electromagnetization[edit]

Process of generating permanent electromagnet from a magnetic material placed in the turns of the magnetic coil

Maxwell's Electromagnetization Vector Equation




Electromagnetic Wave Oscillation[edit]

Electromagnetic Wave Vectore Equation



Electromagnetic Wave Equation

Electromagnetic Wave Function


Electromagnetic Wave Radiation

Electromagnetic wave radiation[edit]

Electromagnetic wave radiation is generated from Electromagnetic wave propagates at speed of visible light



Electromagnetic Wave Radiation States[edit]

Radiant Photon[edit]

Electromagnetic Wave Radiation of Radian Photon just like visible light perceive by human eyes



Non radiant photon[edit]

Electromagnetic Wave Radiation of Non radiant photon that can free electron off matter's atom



Heinseinberg's Uncertainty Principle[edit]
Photon can only exist in one state at a time

Quantization[edit]

Photon is energy of a quantity that process no mass known as Quanta travels at speed of light

Quanta's Wave-Particle Duality[edit]

Quanta processes Wave-Particle Duality . Sometimes, behave like wave of wavelength λ . Sometimes, behave like particle of a momentum p

Wave like .
Particle like .

Quantum Physics[edit]

Radiation[edit]

Sun light radiation
Fire radiation
Black body radiation
Alpha radiation
Beta radiation
Gamma radiation

Electromagnetic radiation[edit]

Radiation from electromagnetic oscillation wave

Electromagnetic radiation and matter[edit]

Radiation interact with matter to create Heat transfer of three phases Heat conduction, Heat convection and Heat radiation

Heat conduction Matter absorbs photon's energy and release heat into the surrounding


Heat convection Matter absorbs photon's energy to the mazximum at Threshold frequency fo and release visible light into the surrounding


Heat radiation Matter's atom releases its electron into the surrounding at frequency greater than threshold frequency fo

Photon[edit]

Photon's characteristics[edit]

Photon is defined as energy of a Quanta travels at speed of visible light

Photon's states[edit]

Photon exists in 2 states .

Radiant photon at carries quantum energy of energy of visible light
Non radiant photon at carries quantum energy greater than energy of visible light with f > fo

Photon cannot exist in 2 states at the same time . The chances of finding photon at any one state is one half . This is the uncertainty principle proposed by schroduinger which can be expressed mathematicaaly as

Photon's radiation spectrum[edit]

Photon has a spectrumand are found in the frequenct bands below

VF
UVF
X
γ

Quanta[edit]

Mathematical formula[edit]

Wave-Particle duality[edit]

Quanta processes Wave-Particle duality

Some time Quanta behaves as a particle of a momentum

Some other time Quanta behaves as a wave of wavelength

Relativity[edit]

Relativistic mass in motion[edit]

Symbol Mathematical formula
Speed
Mass
Moment
Energy

Massless quanta in motion[edit]

Symbol Mathematical formula
Speed
Energy
Quanta
Moment
Wave length

Mass change[edit]

At speed relative to speed of visible light

.

At speed equals to speed of visible light

.

Einstein's relativity theory[edit]

Newton's motion's speed[edit]

When matter travels at any speed less than speed of visible light, matter does not change its mass
Speed of motion Mathematical formula of speed Mathematical formula of mass
At any speed less than speed of visible light

Einstein's motion's speed[edit]

When matter travels at a speed relative to or equal to the speed of visible light . Matter changes its mass
Speed of motion Mathematical formula of speed Mathematical formula of mass
At speed relative to speed of visible light
At speed equals to speed of visible light