# Fundamental Physics/Electromagnetic force

## Electricity charge

Electric charge is refered to matter that carries electricity . In natural state, all matter is neutral in charge . When matter gives or receives electron (negatively charged particle) , matter becomes electric charge . Static Electricity the process matter acquires charged particle (electron) to become electric charge . Matter receives electron will become negative electric charge . Matter gives electron will become positive electric charge

Matter + e- -- > Negative Charge (-)
Matter - e- -- > Positive Charge (+)

## Electric charge properties

### Charge Quantity

Electric charge has a symbol Q measured in Coulomb unit C . One coulomb charge contains N-m

${\displaystyle 1C=}$

Positive electric charge has symbol +Q carries +1C . Negative electric charge has symbol +Q carries +1C

### Electric Field

All charge process electric field lines point inward or outward surround charge . For negative charge, the electric field lines point inward . For positive charge, the electric field lines point outward.

Negative Charge
Positive Charge

### Magnetic Field

All charge process circular magnetic field lines point inward or outward surround charge . For negative charge, the electric field lines point inward . For positive charge, the electric field lines point outward.

Negative Charge . B ↑
Positive Charge . B ↓

## Electric charge interaction

### Electric charges interaction

Coulomb discovered that charges of the same polaities will repulse . Charges of different polarities will attract . Negative charge will attract positive charge . The force of attraction is called Electrostatic force or Coulomb force . Electrostatic force has a symbol FQ measured in unit Newton N

Electrostatic force or Coulomb force is used in calculating the force of negative charge attracts positive charge

${\displaystyle F_{Q}={\frac {|Q_{+}||Q_{-}|}{r^{2}}}}$

### Electric charge and electricity interaction

Ampere discovered that, electricity exerts a force to force electric charge to move in a linear path will create a field of electric lines called Electric field . This force is called Electrodynamic force or Ampere force which has a symbol FE measured in unit Newton N

${\displaystyle F_{E}=QE}$

### Electric charge and magnet interaction

Lorentz discovered that when electric charge travels through a magnet, magnet exerts a force to deflect

${\displaystyle F_{B}=\pm QvB}$

### Electric charge interactions force

• Electrostatic force or Coulomb force is used in calculating the force of negative charge to attract positive charge
${\displaystyle F_{Q}={\frac {|Q_{+}||Q_{-}|}{r^{2}}}}$
• Electrodynamic force or Ampere force is used in calculating the force of electricity to make electric charge to move in a straight line path
${\displaystyle F_{E}=QE}$
• Electromagnetomotive force or Lorentz force is used in calculating the force of magnet to make electric charge to move in a straight line perpendicular to the original path
${\displaystyle F_{B}=\pm QvB}$
${\displaystyle F_{EB}=F_{E}+F_{B}=QE\pm QvB=Q(E\pm vB)}$