# Fundamental Physics/Electricity/Electromagnetism/Electric charge

Electric charge is refered to matter that carries electricity . In natural state, all matter is neutral in charge . When matter gives or receives electron (negatively charged particle) , matter becomes electric charge . Static electricity the process matter acquires charged particle (electron) to become electric charge . Matter receives electron will become negative electric charge . Matter gives electron will become positive electric charge

Matter + e- -- > Negative Charge (-)
Matter - e- -- > Positive Charge (+)

### Electric charge properties

#### Charge Quantity

Electric charge has a symbol Q measured in Coulomb unit C . One coulomb charge contains N-m . Positive electric charge has symbol +Q carries +1C . Negative electric charge has symbol +Q carries +1C

$1C=$ #### Electric Field

All electric charge process electric field lines pointing inward or outward . For negative charge, the electric field lines point inward . For positive charge, the electric field lines point outward.

Negative Charge . Positive Charge #### Magnetic Field

All charge process circular magnetic field lines point inward or outward surround charge . For negative charge, the electric field lines point inward . For positive charge, the electric field lines point outward.

Negative Charge . B ↑
Positive Charge . B ↓

### Interaction of electric charge

#### Electric charges interaction

Coulomb discovered that charges of the same polaities will repulse . Charges of different polarities will attract . Negative charge will attract positive charge . The force of attraction is called Electrostatic force or Coulomb force . Electrostatic force has a symbol FQ measured in unit Newton N

Electrostatic force or Coulomb force is used in calculating the force of negative charge attracts positive charge

$F_{Q}={\frac {|Q_{+}||Q_{-}|}{r^{2}}}$ #### Electric charge and electricity interaction

Ampere discovered that, electricity exerts a force to force electric charge to move in a linear path will create a field of electric lines called Electric field . This force is called Electrodynamic force or Ampere force which has a symbol FE measured in unit Newton N

$F_{E}=QE$ #### Electric charge and magnet interaction

Lorentz discovered that when electric charge travels through a magnet, magnet exerts a force to deflect

$F_{B}=\pm QvB$ 