Fundamental Physics/Electricity/Electromagnetism

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Electromagneticism[edit]

Manoderecha.svg, Magnetic field of wire loop.svg, Solenoid-1.png, Electromagnet1.png

Electric charge[edit]

Electric charge is refered to matter that carries electricity . In natural state, all matter is neutral in charge . When matter gives or receives electron (negatively charged particle) , matter becomes electric charge . Static electricity the process matter acquires charged particle (electron) to become electric charge . Matter receives electron will become negative electric charge . Matter gives electron will become positive electric charge

Matter + e- -- > Negative Charge (-)
Matter - e- -- > Positive Charge (+)

Electric charge properties[edit]

Charge Quantity[edit]

Electric charge has a symbol Q measured in Coulomb unit C . One coulomb charge contains N-m . Positive electric charge has symbol +Q carries +1C . Negative electric charge has symbol +Q carries +1C

Electric Field[edit]

All electric charge process electric field lines pointing inward or outward . For negative charge, the electric field lines point inward . For positive charge, the electric field lines point outward.

Negative Charge VFPt minus thumb.svg . Positive Charge VFPt plus thumb.svg

Magnetic Field[edit]

All charge process circular magnetic field lines point inward or outward surround charge . For negative charge, the electric field lines point inward . For positive charge, the electric field lines point outward.

Negative Charge . B ↑
Positive Charge . B ↓

Interaction of electric charge[edit]

Electric charges interaction[edit]

Coulomb discovered that charges of the same polaities will repulse . Charges of different polarities will attract . Negative charge will attract positive charge . The force of attraction is called Electrostatic force or Coulomb force . Electrostatic force has a symbol FQ measured in unit Newton N

Electrostatic force or Coulomb force is used in calculating the force of negative charge attracts positive charge

Electric charge and electricity interaction[edit]

Ampere discovered that, electricity exerts a force to force electric charge to move in a linear path will create a field of electric lines called Electric field . This force is called Electrodynamic force or Ampere force which has a symbol FE measured in unit Newton N

Electric charge and magnet interaction[edit]

Lorentz discovered that when electric charge travels through a magnet, magnet exerts a force to deflect

Electromagnetic Force[edit]

Electrostatic force VFPt charges plus minus thumb.svg
Electrodynamic force
Electromagnetomotive force
Electromagnetic force

Electromagnetic field[edit]

Electromagnetic field[edit]

Experiment has shown that non zero current flows inside conductor generates magnetic field around conductor

Straight line conductor Manoderecha.svg Magnetic field is made of circular loops around straight line conductor
Circular loop conductor Magnetic field of wire loop.svg Magnetic field is made of circular loops around a point charge on the circle
Coil of N circular loops Solenoid-1.png Magnetic field is made of eleptic loops run from north pole to south pole

Electromagnetic field's strength[edit]

The strength of magnetic field can be calculated by Ampere's law as follow

Straight line conductor Manoderecha.svg
Circular loop conductor Magnetic field of wire loop.svg
Coil of N circular loops Solenoid-1.png

Electromagnetic induction[edit]

Electromagnetic induction is found by Lorentz and Faraday

Lorentz's electromagnetic induction

Faraday's electromagnetic induction


Circular loop Magnetic field of wire loop.svg
Coil of N circular loops Solenoid-1.png



Electromagnetization[edit]

Permanent Electromagnet Field Electromagnet1.png
Vector equations



Electromagnetic oscillation wave[edit]

A coil of N circular loops VFPt Solenoid correct2.svg
Electromagnetic oscillation vector equations



Electromagnetic wave's equations

Electromagnetic wave's function
Onde electromagnetique.svg




Electromagnetic wave radiation[edit]

Electromagnetic wave radiation




Quatization
Wave particle duality
Wave like .
Particle like .
Photon's state
Radiant photon
Non radiant photon
Heinsberg's uncertainty principle

Electromagnetic radiation[edit]

Electromagnetic radiation[edit]

Configuration Straight line conductor Coil conductor Coil conductor
Magnetic field's strength


Radiation condition



Radiation's energy


Matter's quantity


Matter's wave


Matter's momentum


Photon state uncertainty


Frequency spectrum


Frequency range
RF , uF , IF

VF

UVF , X , G

Electromagnetic radiation spectrum[edit]

The Electromagnetic spectrum includes, in order of increasing frequency and decreasing wavelength

EM Spectrum Properties edit.svg


Frequency spectrum Characteristics
Radio wave , RF
Microwave , uF
Infrared , IF
Visible light , VF
Ultraviolet light , UVF
X ray, X
Gamma ray, G

Electromagnetic radiation and matter[edit]

Heat transfer[edit]

Heat transfer Heat conduction Heat convection Heat radiation
Condition


Energy


Matter's quantity



Matter's decay radiation[edit]

Matter decay Alpha decay Beta decay Gamma decay
Radiation's speed


Radiation's matter quantity


Energy


Momentum


Wavelength


Applications[edit]

Electricity Generators[edit]

Electricity grid simple- North America.svg

Lights[edit]

Lâmpadas.jpg

Electromagnets[edit]

Electromagnets are very widely used in electric and electromechanical devices, including:

Scientific equipment such as mass spectrometers[edit]

See Also[edit]