# Fundamental Physics/Electricity/Electromagneticism

## Electromagneticism Experiments[edit | edit source]

An understanding of the relationship between electricity and magnetism began in 1819 with work by Hans Christian Ørsted, a professor at the University of Copenhagen, who discovered by the accidental *twitching of a compass needle near a wire carries electric current could create a magnetic field *. This landmark experiment is known as Ørsted's Experiment.

André-Marie Ampère, who in 1820 discovered that the magnetic field circulating in a closed-path was related to the current flowing through the perimeter of the path

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Carl Friedrich Gauss; Jean-Baptiste Biot and Félix Savart, both of whom in 1820 came up with the Biot–Savart law giving an equation for the magnetic field from a current-carrying wire;

Michael Faraday, who in 1831 found that a time-varying magnetic flux through a loop of wire induced a voltage, and others finding further links between magnetism and electricity. James Clerk Maxwell synthesized and expanded these insights into Maxwell's equations, unifying electricity, magnetism, and optics into the field of electromagnetism. In 1905, Einstein used these laws in motivating his theory of special relativity,[8] requiring that the laws held true in all inertial reference frames.

Electromagnetism has continued to develop into the 21st century, being incorporated into the more fundamental theories of gauge theory, quantum electrodynamics, electroweak theory, and finally the standard model.

## Electromagneticism in practice[edit | edit source]

Biot–Savart law 1820 . an equation for the magnetic field from a current-carrying wire | Ampere Law Lorentz Law Faraday Law Maxwell Law