Fundamental Physics/Electricity/Electricity Source/ElectroVoltaic
Volta developed the voltaic cell about 1792, and presented his work March 20, 1800 . Volta ordered the metals in a 'tension series', “that is to say in an order such that any one in the list becomes positive when in contact with any one that succeeds, but negative by contact with any one that precedes it. Volta's law about opposing electrode emfs implies that, given ten electrodes (for example, zinc and nine other materials), 45 unique combinations of voltaic cells (10 × 9/2) can be created.
|EMF||Cell chemistry||Common name|
|1.2 V||Cadmium||Water, potassium hydroxide||NiO(OH)||nickel-cadmium|
|1.2 V||Mischmetal (hydrogen absorbing)||Water, potassium hydroxide||Nickel||nickel–metal hydride|
|1.5 V||Zinc||Water, ammonium or zinc chloride||Carbon, manganese dioxide||Zinc carbon|
|2.1 V||Lead||Water, sulfuric acid||Lead dioxide||Lead–acid|
|3.6 V to 3.7 V||Graphite||Organic solvent, Li salts||LiCoO2||Lithium-ion|
|1.35 V||Zinc||Water, sodium or potassium hydroxide||HgO||Mercury cell|
A typical symbolic convention in a schematic of this circuit
would have a long electrode 1 and a short electrode 2, to indicate that electrode 1 dominates.