Fundamental Physics/Electricity/Electric Conductor

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Electricity And Matter[edit]

Matter that interacts with electricity are divided into three types Conductor, Semi Conductor, and Non Conductor

  • Conductor . All matter allow current to flow easily like Metal Ferrite, Copper
  • Semi Conductor . All matter does not allow current to flow easily like Semi Conductor Silicon, Germanium
  • Non Conductor . All matter does not allow current to flow like Rubber

Electric Conductor[edit]

Resistor[edit]

Resistor is a electric component thats exhibit resistance to the current flow . Resistance has a symbol R measured in ohm unit Ω .

Resistor is made from straight wire line conductor

DC Circuit Response From ohm's law

From Watt's law

AC Response Circuit Impedance , Resistance to the AC current flow

Current , Current flows through resistor

Voltage, Voltage of the resistor

Power, Power of the resistor


Capacitor[edit]

Capacitor in DC Circuit Capacitance has a symbol C measured in Farat unit F

Capacitance .
Charge .
Current .
Voltage .
Power .

Capacitor in AC Circuit

Voltage .
Current .
Reactance . Resistance to the AC current flow
In time domain
In frequency domain
In phasor domain
Impedance . Resistance to the AC current flow
In time domain .
In frequency domain
In phasor domain
Time Constant
Power . Power of the capacitor

Inductor[edit]

Inductor in DC Circuit Inductance . Inductance has a symbol L measured in Henry unit H

Magnetic Intensity . Measurement of magnetic strength

Current

Inductor in AC Circuit

Voltage .

Current .

Reactance . Resistance to the AC current flow

In frequency domain
In phasor domain

Impedance . Resistance to the AC current flow

In frequency domain


In phasor domain

Time Constant

Power . Power of the capacitor

Electric Semi Conductor[edit]

Semi conductors like Si, Ge normally very low in conducting electricity . But if they are doped with impurity, they become doped negative or positive semi conductor which are easy to conduct electricity

Semi conductor + impurity --> [N] typed Semi conductor] or [P] typed Semi conductor]

Diode[edit]

A device made from joining one negative typed semi conductor with one positive typed semi conductor

- o--[N|P]--o +

Diode's circuit sysmbol

Diode symbol.svg

The IV chracteristic of diode is specified in IV Graph

Rectifier vi curve.GIF

As seen in the graph above the diode actually works in both the forward region and the backward region. In the forward region the value of I and V are positive and in the backward region I and V are negative.

Diode does not conduct current or turned OFF at of
Diode starts to conduct current or turned ON at of
Diode conducts current at at

Transistor[edit]

Transistor Symbol Construction
NPN transistor BJT symbol NPN.svg o-- [N P N] --o
PNP transistor BJT symbol PNP.svg o-- [P N P] --o

Manufacturer's IV Graph specification tell transistor operation

. Transistor is OFF
. Transistor is ON
. Transistor is saturated

With the right connection, by connecting transistor with resistor(s) Transistor can acts as

An electronics amplifier

Provided that, transistor should be turned ON with biased voltage at the base must be greater than diode's break over voltage

.

An electronics switch

Transistor is switch On when
Transistor is switch Off when