Fundamental Physics/Electric conductor

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Electric conductor[edit]

Matter that interacts with electricity are divided into three types Conductor, Semi Conductor, and Non Conductor

  • Conductor . All matter allow current to flow easily like Metal for example Ferrite, Copper
  • Semi Conductor . All matter does not allow current to flow easily like Semi Conductor for example Silicon, Germanium
  • Non Conductor . All matter does not allow current to flow like Rubber


DC and AC response[edit]

Resistor[edit]

Characteristics DC AC
Voltage
Current
Resistance
Power provided
Power Loss
Power delivered
Reactance
Impedance
Phase

Capacitor[edit]

Characteristics DC AC
Voltage
Charge
Capacitance
Current
Power provided
Reactance


Impedance


Phase
Time Constant

Inductor[edit]

Characteristics DC AC
Magnetic Field Strength
Current
Inductance
Current
Power provided
Reactance


Impedance


Phase
Time Constant

Diode[edit]

A device made from joining one negative typed semi conductor with one positive typed semi conductor

- o--[N|P]--o +

Diode's circuit sysmbol

Diode symbol.svg

The IV chracteristic of diode is specified in IV Graph

Rectifier vi curve.GIF

As seen in the graph above the diode actually works in both the forward region and the backward region. In the forward region the value of I and V are positive and in the backward region I and V are negative.

Diode does not conduct current or turned OFF at of
Diode starts to conduct current or turned ON at of
Diode conducts current at at

Transistor[edit]

Transistor Symbol Construction
NPN transistor BJT symbol NPN.svg o-- [N P N] --o
PNP transistor BJT symbol PNP.svg o-- [P N P] --o

Manufacturer's IV Graph specification tell transistor operation

. Transistor is OFF
. Transistor is ON
. Transistor is saturated

With the right connection, by connecting transistor with resistor(s) Transistor can acts as

An electronics amplifier

Provided that, transistor should be turned ON with biased voltage at the base must be greater than diode's break over voltage

.

An electronics switch

Transistor is switch On when
Transistor is switch Off when