# Fundamental Physics/Electric conductor

## Electric conductor

Matter that interacts with electricity are divided into three types Conductor, Semi Conductor, and Non Conductor

• Conductor . All matter allow current to flow easily like Metal for example Ferrite, Copper
• Semi Conductor . All matter does not allow current to flow easily like Semi Conductor for example Silicon, Germanium
• Non Conductor . All matter does not allow current to flow like Rubber

## DC and AC response

### Resistor

 Characteristics DC AC Voltage ${\displaystyle V=IR}$ ${\displaystyle v=iR}$ Current ${\displaystyle I={\frac {V}{R}}}$ ${\displaystyle i={\frac {v}{R}}}$ Resistance ${\displaystyle R={\frac {V}{I}}}$ ${\displaystyle R={\frac {v}{i}}}$ Power provided ${\displaystyle P_{V}=IV}$ ${\displaystyle P_{V}=iv}$ Power Loss ${\displaystyle P_{R}=I^{2}R(T)={\frac {V^{2}}{R(T)}}}$ ${\displaystyle P_{R}=i^{2}{\frac {v^{2}}{R(T)}}}$ Power delivered ${\displaystyle P=P_{V}-P_{R}}$ Reactance ${\displaystyle X_{R}=0}$ Impedance ${\displaystyle Z_{R}=X_{R}+R=R}$ Phase ${\displaystyle 0}$

### Capacitor

 Characteristics DC AC Voltage ${\displaystyle V=QC={\frac {W}{Q}}}$ ${\displaystyle v={\frac {1}{C}}\int idt}$ Charge ${\displaystyle Q={\frac {V}{C}}}$ Capacitance ${\displaystyle C={\frac {V}{Q}}}$ Current ${\displaystyle I={\frac {Q}{t}}}$ ${\displaystyle i=C{\frac {dv}{dt}}}$ Power provided ${\displaystyle P_{V}=IV=({\frac {Q}{t}})({\frac {W}{Q}})={\frac {W}{t}}}$ ${\displaystyle p={\frac {1}{2}}Cv^{2}}$ Reactance ${\displaystyle X_{C}(t)={\frac {v}{i}}}$ ${\displaystyle X_{C}(j\omega )={\frac {1}{j\omega C}}}$ ${\displaystyle X_{C}(\omega \theta )={\frac {1}{\omega C}}\angle -90}$ Impedance ${\displaystyle Z_{C}(t)=X_{C}+R_{C}}$ ${\displaystyle Z_{C}(j\omega )={\frac {1}{j\omega C}}+R_{C}}$${\displaystyle Z_{C}(\omega \theta )={\frac {1}{\omega C}}\angle -90+R\angle 0}$ Phase ${\displaystyle Tan\theta ={\frac {1}{\omega T}}}$ Time Constant ${\displaystyle T=CR_{C}}$

### Inductor

 Characteristics DC AC Magnetic Field Strength ${\displaystyle B=LI}$ Current ${\displaystyle I={\frac {B}{L}}}$ Inductance ${\displaystyle C={\frac {B}{I}}}$ Current ${\displaystyle I={\frac {Q}{t}}}$ Power provided ${\displaystyle P_{V}=IV=({\frac {B}{l}})({\frac {W}{Q}})={\frac {W}{t}}}$ Reactance ${\displaystyle X_{L}(t)={\frac {v}{i}}}$ ${\displaystyle X_{L}(j\omega )=j\omega L}$ ${\displaystyle X_{L}(\omega \theta )=\omega L\angle 90}$ Impedance ${\displaystyle Z_{C}(t)=X_{C}+R_{C}}$ ${\displaystyle Z_{C}(j\omega )=j\omega L+R_{L}}$${\displaystyle Z_{C}(\omega \theta )=\omega L\angle 90+R\angle 0}$ Phase ${\displaystyle Tan\theta =\omega T}$ Time Constant ${\displaystyle T={\frac {L}{R_{L}}}}$

### Diode

A device made from joining one negative typed semi conductor with one positive typed semi conductor

- o--[N|P]--o +

Diode's circuit sysmbol

The IV chracteristic of diode is specified in IV Graph

As seen in the graph above the diode actually works in both the forward region and the backward region. In the forward region the value of I and V are positive and in the backward region I and V are negative.

Diode does not conduct current or turned OFF at ${\displaystyle V=V_{d}}$ of ${\displaystyle I=0}$
Diode starts to conduct current or turned ON at ${\displaystyle V=V_{d}}$ of ${\displaystyle I=1mA}$
Diode conducts current at ${\displaystyle V>V_{d}}$ at ${\displaystyle I=I_{o}[e^{({\frac {V_{d}}{nV_{T}}})t}-1]}$

### Transistor

 Transistor Symbol Construction NPN transistor o-- [N P N] --o PNP transistor o-- [P N P] --o

Manufacturer's IV Graph specification tell transistor operation

${\displaystyle V . Transistor is OFF
${\displaystyle V=V_{d}.I=1mA}$ . Transistor is ON
${\displaystyle V>V_{d}.I=I_{o}e^{\frac {V}{V_{d}}}}$
${\displaystyle V=V_{S}.I=I_{s}}$ . Transistor is saturated

With the right connection, by connecting transistor with resistor(s) Transistor can acts as

${\displaystyle i_{b}>0}$
${\displaystyle i_{e}>\alpha i_{b}}$
${\displaystyle i_{c}>\beta i_{b}}$

Provided that, transistor should be turned ON with biased voltage at the base must be greater than diode's break over voltage

${\displaystyle v_{b}>v_{be}}$ . ${\displaystyle v_{be}=v_{d}}$
Transistor is switch On when ${\displaystyle V_{b}>V_{be}}$
Transistor is switch Off when ${\displaystyle V_{b}