English-Chinese/Milk

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Milk is the primary source of nutrition for infant mammals before they are able to digest other types of food.

奶是婴儿哺乳动物在消化其他类型食物之前的主要营养来源。

Contents

Cow's milk is the most common milk[edit]

In the Western world, cow's milk is produced on an industrial scale and is by far the most commonly consumed form of milk.

在 西方世界,牛奶 是 以工业规模生产的,是 迄今为止 使用最多的 奶类。

Dairy cattle have been bred selectively for increased milk production[edit]

Dairy cattle such as the Holstein have been bred selectively for increased milk production.

像 Holstein 奶牛 这样 的 奶牛 已经 选择性 繁殖,以 增加 产奶量。

Dairy farming using automated milking equipment[edit]

Commercial dairy farming using automated milking equipment produces the vast majority of milk in developed countries.

使用 自动 挤奶 设备 的 商业 奶牛 养殖 在 发达 国家 生产 绝大部分 牛奶。

Dairy products can effectively promote muscle growth[edit]

A report shows that dairy products can effectively promote muscle growth.

报告显示,乳制品可以有效促进肌肉生长。

Doufu[edit]

Raw doufu
Cooked doufu

Doufu is a food made by solidifying soymilk, and then the resulting curd is pressed into blocks. Making doufu with soymilk is similar to using milk to make cheese.

豆腐 是 一种 通过 固化 豆浆 制成的 食物,然后 将 所得的 豆腐 压成 块状。用 豆浆 制作 豆腐 与 使用 牛奶 制作 奶酪 相似。

Doufu is a food made by coagulating soy milk[edit]

Doufu is a food made by coagulating soy milk and then pressing the resulting curds into solid white blocks of varying softness.

豆腐是通过凝结豆浆然后将所得的凝乳压成具有不同柔软度的固体白色块而制成的食物。

Early-lactation milk contains colostrum[edit]

Early-lactation milk contains colostrum, which carries the mother's antibodies to its young and can reduce the risk of many diseases.

早期泌乳的奶含有初乳,初乳中携带母亲的抗体,可以降低患许多疾病的风险。

Food allergens[edit]

A wide variety of foods can cause allergic reactions, but 90% of allergic responses to foods are caused by cow's milk, soy, eggs, wheat, peanuts, tree nuts, fish, and shellfish.

各种各样的食物都会引起过敏反应,但90%的食物过敏反应是由牛奶,大豆,鸡蛋,小麦,花生,坚果,鱼类和贝类引起的。

Food sources of riboflavin[edit]

Food sources of riboflavin include eggs, green vegetables, milk and other dairy product, meat, mushrooms, and almonds.

核黄素的食物来源包括鸡蛋,绿色蔬菜,牛奶和其他乳制品,肉类,蘑菇和杏仁。

Fresh goats' milk has allergic reactions[edit]

Fresh goats' milk is sometimes substituted for breast milk, which introduces the risk of the child developing electrolyte imbalances, metabolic acidosis, megaloblastic anemia, and a host of allergic reactions.

新鲜的山羊奶有时会替代母乳,这会引起孩子患上电解质失衡,代谢性酸中毒,巨幼红细胞性贫血和一系列过敏反应的风险。

Human milk is not produced or distributed industrially or commercially[edit]

Human milk is not produced or distributed industrially or commercially; however, human milk banks collect donated human breastmilk and redistribute it to infants who may benefit from human milk for various reasons (premature neonates, babies with allergies, metabolic diseases, etc.) but who cannot breastfeed.

人乳 不是 在 工业 上 或 商业 上 生产 或 分配 的; 然而,人乳库 收集 捐赠 的 人类 母乳 并 将其 重新 分配 给 可能 因 各种 原因(早产儿,过敏症,代谢性 疾病 等 婴儿)受益于 人乳 但 无法 母乳 喂养 的 婴儿。

In 2011, FAO estimated that 85% of the world's milk came from cows[edit]

In 2011, FAO estimated that 85% of the world's milk came from cows.

2011年,粮农组织 估计 世界上 85% 的 奶 来自 奶牛。

In almost all mammals, milk is fed to infants through breastfeeding[edit]

In almost all mammals, milk is fed to infants through breastfeeding.

在几乎所有哺乳动物中,通过母乳喂养将乳汁喂给婴儿。

India is the largest producer and consumer of cattle and buffalo milk in the world[edit]

India is the largest producer and consumer of cattle and buffalo milk in the world.

印度是世界上最大的牛和水牛奶生产国和消费国。

Interspecies consumption of milk is not uncommon[edit]

Interspecies consumption of milk is not uncommon, particularly among humans, many of whom consume the milk of other mammals.

食用其他物种的奶的情况并不少见,尤其是人类,其中许多人食用其他哺乳动物的奶。

Lactose intolerance[edit]

Lactose intolerance, a common reaction to milk, is not a form of allergy at all, but rather due to the absence of an enzyme in the digestive tract.

乳糖不耐症是对牛奶的常见反应,根本不是一种过敏反应,而是由于消化道中没有消化乳糖的那种酶素。

Livestock[edit]

Livestock are domestic animals that are kept by people for purposes including meat, leather, wool or labor. Taking care of livestock is animal husbandry. Some types of livestock are: cattle, pigs, sheep, goats, and chickens. Chickens produce eggs, pigs produce ham, bulls make leather for their pelts, goats and cows create milk, and sheep create wool. Horses and other large animals do work for people, such as pulling wagons and other vehicles.

牲畜 是 由 人们 为 肉类,皮革,羊毛 或 劳动力 等 目的 而 饲养的 家畜。照顾 牲畜 是 畜牧业。有些 类型的 牲畜 是:牛,猪,绵羊,山羊 和 鸡。鸡 生产 鸡蛋,猪 生产 火腿,牛的 毛皮 制造 皮革,山羊 和 牛 制造 奶,绵羊 生产 羊毛。马 和 其他 大型 动物 为 人类 工作,如 拉 货车 和 其他 车辆。

Mammal[edit]

Mammals are a group of vertebrate animals which form the class Mammalia. They have fur or hair and a very precise kind of temperature regulation.

With the exception of the monotremes, all mammals bear live young. They also produce milk for the young. Parental care of the young is universal among mammals, and it is essential because live birth limits the number of offspring.

哺乳动物 是 一种 形成 哺乳动物类的 脊椎动物。它们 有 毛皮 或 毛发,并有 非常 精确的 体温调节。

除了 单孔目动物,所有的 哺乳动物 都是 胎生。它们 也 生产 奶汁 喂养 婴儿。对哺乳动物而言,父母 照顾 年幼子女 是 普遍的,而且 这是 至关重要的,因为 胎生 限制了 后代的 数量。

Many kinds of livestock provide milk[edit]

Aside from cattle, many kinds of livestock provide milk used by humans for dairy products.

除了 牛,许多种 牲畜 提供 人类 用于 乳制品的 奶。

Meat, products from milk, eggs, soy, and fish are sources of complete protein[edit]

Meat, products from milk, eggs, soy, and fish are sources of complete protein.

肉类,牛奶,鸡蛋,大豆和鱼类的产品是完整蛋白质的来源。

Milk contains many other nutrients including protein and lactose[edit]

Milk contains many other nutrients including protein and lactose.

奶含有许多其他营养成分,包括蛋白质和乳糖。

Milk is a nutrient-rich white liquid[edit]

Milk is a nutrient-rich white liquid food produced by the mammary glands of mammals.

奶是由哺乳动物的乳腺产生的营养丰富的白色液体食物。

Milk is often added to dry breakfast cereal, porridge and granola[edit]

Milk is often added to dry breakfast cereal, porridge and granola.

牛奶 通常 添加到 干早餐谷物,粥 和 麦片中。

Milk is often served in coffee and tea[edit]

Milk is often served in coffee and tea.

牛奶 通常 以 咖啡 和 茶的 形式 供应。

Milk is processed into a variety of products[edit]

Milk is processed into a variety of products such as cream, butter, yogurt, kefir, ice cream, and cheese.

牛奶被加工成各种产品,如奶油,黄油,酸奶,酸牛奶,冰淇淋和奶酪。

Milk is the drink that is produced from the breasts of female mammals[edit]

Milk is the drink that is produced from the breasts of female mammals.

奶是从雌性哺乳动物的乳房产生的饮料。

Milk is used to make yogurt[edit]

Milk is used to make yogurt, cheese, ice milk, pudding, hot chocolate and french toast.

牛奶 用于 制作 酸奶,奶酪,冰牛奶,布丁,热巧克力 和 法式吐司。

Milk of other mammals used as food after infancy[edit]

In many cultures, especially in the West, humans continue to use the milk of other mammals (especially cattle, goats and sheep) as food after infancy.

在许多文化中,特别是在西方,人类在婴儿期后继续使用其他哺乳动物(特别是牛,山羊和绵羊)的奶作为食品。

Milk tea[edit]

Milk being added to black Assam tea

Milk tea refers to several forms of beverage found in many cultures, containing some combination of tea and milk. Beverages vary based on the amount of each of these key ingredients, the method of preparation, and the inclusion of other ingredients (varying from sugar or honey to salt or cardamom). Instant milk tea powder is a mass-produced product.

奶茶 是指 在 很多 文化中 某些 种类的 饮料,包含 茶 和 牛奶的 一些 组合。根据 这些 关键成分的 含量,制备 方法 和 其他 成分(从 糖 或 蜂蜜 到 盐 或 豆蔻 等 不同 成分)的 含量 不同 而 有所 不同。速溶奶茶粉 是 大量生产的 产品。

Milk-protein allergies are most common in children[edit]

Milk-protein allergies are most common in children.

牛奶蛋白过敏在儿童中最常见。

Milk-protein causes flammation of the colon[edit]

Approximately 60% of milk-protein reactions are immunoglobulin E-mediated, with the remaining usually attributable to inflammation of the colon.

大约60%的乳蛋白反应是免疫球蛋白E介导的,其余通常导致结肠发炎。

Modern industrial processes use milk to produce casein[edit]

Modern industrial processes use milk to produce casein, whey protein, lactose, condensed milk, powdered milk, and many other food-additives and industrial products.

现代工业过程使用牛奶生产酪蛋白,乳清蛋白,乳糖,炼乳,奶粉和许多其他食品添加剂和工业产品。

Oat protein is nearly equivalent in quality to soy protein[edit]

Oat protein is nearly equivalent in quality to soy protein, which World Health Organization research has shown to be equal to meat, milk and egg protein.

燕麦蛋白质的质量几乎与大豆蛋白质相当,世界卫生组织的研究表明,燕麦蛋白质与肉,奶和蛋的蛋白质相当。

People converted milk to curd[edit]

People converted milk to curd, cheese and other products to reduce the levels of lactose.

人们将牛奶转化为凝乳,奶酪和其他产品,以降低乳糖水平。

Roughly 10% of children with a milk allergy will have a reaction to beef[edit]

Roughly 10% of children with a milk allergy will have a reaction to beef. Beef contains a small amount of protein that is present in cow's milk.

大约10%的牛奶过敏儿童会对牛肉产生反应。 牛肉中含有少量存在于牛奶中的蛋白质。

Some people are unable to tolerate milk[edit]

Some people are unable to tolerate milk from goats or sheep as well as from cows, and many are also unable to tolerate dairy products such as cheese.

有些人无法忍受山羊或绵羊以及奶牛的乳汁,许多人也无法忍受奶酪等乳制品。

Soya bean can make soya products[edit]

Soya bean is a kind of beans that can make soya products such as doufu and soya milk.

大豆是一种可以制作豆腐和豆浆等大豆制品的豆类。

Soymilk[edit]

Soya milk is a soya product that is made from soya beans.

豆浆是由大豆制成的大豆产品。

Steamed milk is used to prepare espresso-based drinks such as cafe latte[edit]

Steamed milk is used to prepare espresso-based drinks such as cafe latte.

蒸牛奶 用于 制备 浓缩咖啡饮料,如 咖啡拿铁。

The ability to digest milk is limited to children[edit]

The ability to digest milk is limited to children, because adults do not produce lactase, which is essential for lactose digestion in milk.

消化牛奶的能力仅限于儿童,因为成年人不会产生乳糖酶,乳糖酶对牛奶中的乳糖消化至关重要。

The composition of milk varies from species to species[edit]

The composition of milk varies from species to species. Factors such as protein type; ratio of protein, fat and sugar; various vitamins and minerals; the amount of cream and the strength of the curd may vary.

奶的成分因物种而异。 蛋白质类型; 蛋白质,脂肪和糖的比例; 各种维生素和矿物质; 奶油的量和凝乳的强度等因素可能会有所不同。

The early milk from mammals is called colostrum[edit]

The early milk from mammals is called colostrum.

来自哺乳动物的早期乳汁称为初乳。

The enzyme needed to digest lactose[edit]

The enzyme needed to digest lactose, lactase, reaches its highest levels in the human small intestine after birth and then begins a slow decline unless milk is consumed regularly.

消化乳糖,乳糖酶所需的酶在出生后达到人体小肠中的最高水平,然后开始缓慢下降,除非定期饮用牛奶。

The females of all mammal species can by definition produce milk[edit]

The females of all mammal species can by definition produce milk, but cow's milk dominates commercial production.

根据定义,所有哺乳动物物种的雌性都可以生产奶,但牛奶在商业生产中占主导地位。

The sugar lactose is found only in milk, forsythia flowers, and a few tropical shrubs[edit]

The sugar lactose is found only in milk, forsythia flowers, and a few tropical shrubs.

糖乳糖仅存在于牛奶,连翘花和一些热带灌木中。

The use of hydrolysed milk baby formula[edit]

The use of hydrolysed milk baby formula versus standard milk baby formula does not appear to change the risk of allergies.

使用水解牛奶配方奶粉与标准牛奶配方奶粉似乎不会改变过敏的风险。

Those groups who do continue to tolerate milk[edit]

Those groups who do continue to tolerate milk, however, often have exercised great creativity in using the milk of domesticated ungulates, not only of cattle, but also sheep, goats, yaks, water buffalo, horses, reindeer and camels.

然而,那些继续饮用牛奶的群体往往在使用驯养有蹄类动物的牛奶方面发挥了巨大的创造力,不仅是牛,还有绵羊,山羊,牦牛,水牛,马,驯鹿和骆驼。

Varieties of curry dishes[edit]

Curry dishes with origins in India and other northern South Asian countries usually have a yogurt base while those in southern India, Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia generally use coconut milk as their foundation.

起源于印度和其他南亚北部国家的咖喱菜肴通常都有酸奶基料,而印度南部,斯里兰卡和东南亚的咖喱菜肴通常以椰子汁为基础。

Whole milk, butter and cream have high levels of saturated fat[edit]

Whole milk, butter and cream have high levels of saturated fat.

全脂牛奶,黄油和奶油含有高水平的饱和脂肪。

Yogurt[edit]

Yogurt is a milk product made by bacterial fermentation of milk. The lactose in the milk becomes lactic acid when it is fermented. Lactic acid acts on the protein in the milk to make yogurt thick and sour. The milk is heated to about 80 °C to kill any bacteria present, and to change the milk proteins so that they set together instead of becoming curd. After it is cooled to about 45 °C, the bacteria culture is added, and the milk is kept at that temperature for 4 to 7 hours to ferment. Soya yogurt is made from soya milk.

酸奶 是 通过 牛奶 细菌 发酵 制成的 牛奶产品。牛奶中的 乳糖 发酵时 会 变成 乳酸。乳酸 作用于 牛奶中的 蛋白质,使 酸奶 浓稠 并 有酸味。将 牛奶 加热至 约 80°C 以 杀死 任何 存在的 细菌,并且 改变 牛奶蛋白质,使 它们 凝结 而不是 变成 凝乳。将其 冷却至 约 45℃后,加入 细菌培养物,并将 牛奶 保持 在 该 温度下 4至7小时 进行 发酵。大豆酸奶 是 由 豆浆 制成的。