Energy, Society, and the Environment/Hydrogen Fuel And Its Implication On Human Energy

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                                                             =='Renewable Options For Hydrogen Production'==

Introduction[edit | edit source]

we are moving away from fossil fuel based energy production to renewable energy souses to fulfill our energy demand. To meet the ever-growing energy demand in a sustainable and eco friendly way without harming the environment this shift is necessary. Many alternatives energy sources has been placed as a substitute to our fossil fuel based energy production which includes hydrogen as one of them as a secondary energy source.[1]. which made hydrogen production a subject of study. This paper will try to review what are the best possible technology avail avail for us to produce hydrogen from renewable sources and what is the best possible way to provide energy to that technology. IN this analyses all the hydrogen production system discussed will be in environmentally friendly way rather than fossil-based. Hydrogen one of the most abundant elements in the universe. The heat release per unit mass of hydrogen is calculated to be three times more that of gasoline. It is a clean, renewable source of energy. Which makes hydrogen energy a viable solution for present and future energy needs.[2]

Principal To Approach Hydrogen[edit | edit source]

For better environment hydrogen production conducted from renewable source such as Solar energy, Wind energy, Hydro energy, Tidal energy, Geothermal energy, Biomass Energy. which can be directly used or to produce electricity to produce hydrogen for example by converting wind power to electricity by windmill to do electrolysis of water or using hydro power to produce electricity for hydrogen generation or using biomass energy to directly convert it to hydrogen. however if we take a deep look at all the system avail avail to us we can clearly see wind photo voltaic tidal can be put into the same category because it is producing electricity for water electrolysis. In case of thermolysis high temperature[7] which can be provided by wind or solar energy. And on the other hand biomass is producing hydrogen by converting biological energy to hydrogen which is another category. Out of all the process avail avail to us today these two process are the only effective method by comparing their production and end result.

Energy Production For Electrolysis[edit | edit source]

One of most common way to produce hydrogen is Water electrolysis. A electrolysis module has cathode and an anode immersed in an electrolyte, when electrical current is applied through the electrolyte water begins to splits and hydrogen is produced at the cathode and oxygen is in the anode. which can be explained by the following reaction: 2H2O-2H2+O2. .[3].The energy required for the electrolysis must be provided from renewables like solar, wind, hydro sources.

Assuming 1 kg of hydrogen from electrolysis needs 80 w of power and a 160 W PV panel needs 1.9 m2 space [4]. If a hydrogen fueled car can hold 6 kg of hydrogen then to run a hydrogen powered car total area will be needed 5.7 m2. If we consider this electricity from wind power then the area needed will be 4Dx7D [5] Assuming a turbine with a rotor diameter of 129 m produce 200 w of power and takes 8 km2 of space then the total area needed to produce the same amount of hydrogen will be 16.8 km2

Solar energy is our largest source of renewable energy supply avail avail right now which can vary from 0.06kW/m2 to 0.25kW/m2 depending on latitudes and wind energy comes after it.[6] Although both way seems promising its implication depends on several fact. for example in some places there might not be that much sunlight but has a lots of wind potential in that case wind turbine is the best choice and places like desert where wind potential not much high but loads of surface area and sunlight avail avail pv panel will be the the best choice. things like maintenance, weather, land area, also affect the energy production.

Biomass[edit | edit source]

Biomass hydrogen production consists of thermal and fermentation process which creates hydrogen as a byproduct. [7][7]. In this system crops, plants, animal waste is being used as a fuel source which makes it a good competitor against electrolysis because unlike wind or or solar it is not un sustainable because till human cultivate to produce there wont be any problem for this fuel to be sourced. A typical biomass plant takes about 188.289 acres of land produce 10000 MWH energy.[8] According to U.S energy information administration this fuel produced 71.4 billion kilowatt-hours of electricity in 2016 [9].

conclusion[edit | edit source]

Many alternative options are avail avail for us to produce hydrogen but to produce it in a efficient way is important for both out energy use and environment. electrolysis and biomass hydrogen production are the best two option for us to generate hydrogen in efficient way. electricity can be generated from almost any renewable sources and and biomass fuel can be provided as long as human exist in this world.

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  2. Review of renewable energy-based hydrogen production processes for sustainable energy innovation https://www.gei-journal.com/en/journalEN/201905/20191105GEI201905009.html
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  5. Review of solutions to global warming, air pollution, and energy security https://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlehtml/2009/ee/b809990c?casa_token=5TSUkqRf1w0AAAAA:lIZivBdWQ4j0Ozmg8tDHz1aoLVmoGrE70USI-kbaOBb9A7hiJ91jVUCf1D4NG2UQkwry4ZfHdAcA9Hk
  6. A Review of Solar Energy Markets, Economics and Policies https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/bitstream/handle/10986/3612/WPS5845.pdf
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  8. The Free Energy Project https://www.freeingenergy.com/math/biomass-bioelectricity-land-acres-m127/
  9. https://www.eia.gov/todayinenergy/detail.php?id=33872