Draft:Theology

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French theosophy logo digitalized : The Star of David, Ouroboros, positive swastika, ankh and aum. It reads : "There is no religion higher than truth". Credit: Mspecht.

Theology is "the rational and systematic study of religion and its influences and of the nature of religious truth [, or] the learned profession acquired by specialized courses in religion (usually at a college or seminary".[1]

Theoretical theology[edit]

Def. "reasoning or discussion concerning the Deity"[2], is called theologia.[1]

Def. "the science of things divine"[3], is called theology.[1]

Def. a deity, a god, God is called a theos.

Def.

  1. the single deity of various monotheistic religions,
  2. the single male deity of various duotheistic religions,
  3. an impersonal and universal spiritual presence or force,
  4. an omnipotent being, creator of the universe (as in deism),
  5. the (personification of the) laws of nature, and
  6. the Horned God",

is called God.

Usage notes

God is often referred to by masculine pronouns, not necessarily implying that the speaker believes that God is male. He is also referred to by pronouns that begin with a capital letter, as a sign of respect, in many languages written in Latin script. In English, these would include He, Him, His and Himself. Many Jews follow a prohibition in their tradition against using it and other equivalents in writing (see G-d).

Holy Land[edit]

The Holy Land or Palestine shows not only the Old Kingdoms of Judea and Israel but also the 12 Tribes Distinctly. Credit: Tobias Lotter.

Def. that part of Asia, consisting mostly of Israel and Palestine, in which most Biblical events are set is called a Holy Land.

The Holy Land is approximately 31°N latitude.

Borneo[edit]

The best and still unsurpassed study of a traditional Dayak religion in Kalimantan is that of Hans Scharer, Ngaju Religion: The Conception of God among a South Borneo People; translated by Rodney Needham (The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1963). The practice of Kaharingan differs from group to group, but shamans, specialists in ecstatic flight to other spheres, are central to Dayak religion, and serve to bring together the various realms of Heaven (Upper-world) and earth, and even Under-world, for example healing the sick by retrieving their souls which are journeying on their way to the Upper-world land of the dead, accompanying and protecting the soul of a dead person on the way to their proper place in the Upper-world, presiding over annual renewal and agricultural regeneration festivals, etc.[32]

Borneo is approximately 1°N latitude. The equator passes through Borneo.

Mexico[edit]

This is a pre-Columbian image of Huitzilopochtli the patron god of the Mexica tribe. Credit: Giggette.

Huitzilopochtli on the right was the patron god of the Mexica tribe. Originally he was of little importance to the Nahuas, but after the rise of the Aztecs, Tlacaelel reformed their religion and put Huitzilopochtli at the same level as Quetzalcoatl, Tlaloc, and Tezcatlipoca, making him a solar god.

North Pole[edit]

"The religions of all ancient nations ... associate the abode of the supreme God with the North Pole, the centre of heaven; or with the celestial space immediately surrounding it."[4]

"Saturn, the old man who lives at the north pole, and brings with him to the children of men a sprig of evergreen (the Christmas tree), is familiar to the little folks under the name Santa Claus, for he brings each winter the gift of a new year."[5]

Eastern Mediterranean Sea[edit]

"Lenormant, speaking of Rome and Olympia, remarks, "It is impossible not to note that the Capitoline was first of all the Mount of Saturn, and that the Roman archaeologists established a complete affinity between the Capitoline and Mount Cronios in Olympia, from the standpoint of their traditions and religious origin (Dionysius Halicarn., i., 34). This Mount Cronios is, as it were, the Omphalos of the sacred city of Elis, the primitive centre of its worship. It sometimes receives the name Olympos."1 Here is not only symbolism in general, but also a symbolism pointing to the Arctic Eden, already shown to be the primeval mount of Kronos, the Omphalos of the whole earth.2"[4]

God[edit]

The image shows "The Creation". Credit: Michelangelo Buonarroti, Titimaster.

Def. God, in Islamic or Arabic contexts is called Allah.

"We are too much men and women; we are yet formed in the image of the Creator, and what can we say of Him with any certainty except that He, whoever He may be—Christ, Yahweh, Allah—He made us, did He not, because even He in His Infinite Perfection could not bear to be alone."[6]

Usage notes

While the Arabic الله is used generically to refer to God in Jewish, Christian, and Islamic contexts, current English usage almost always restricts the corresponding term Allah to Islamic contexts only. Various newspaper style manuals recommend translating the Arabic word in English as God, as this better reflects Arabic usage, but the term is often left untranslated in Islamic contexts. Thus either “Allah is great” or “God is great” may be seen.

Def.

  1. the single deity of various monotheistic religions,
  2. the single male deity of various bitheistic or duotheistic religions,
  3. an impersonal and universal spiritual presence or force,
  4. creator of the universe (as in deism), or
  5. the (personification of the) laws of nature

is called God.

Usage notes

God is often referred to by masculine pronouns, not necessarily implying that the speaker believes God to be male. God is also referred to by pronouns that begin with a capital letter, as a sign of respect, in many languages written in Latin script. In English, these include He, Him, His and Himself. Many Jews follow a prohibition in their tradition against using this term and other equivalents in writing (see G-d).

Synonyms

  • Allah, Almighty, cosmocrat, Divine Father, G-d, god, Jah, Jehovah, Lord, LORD, Most High, Yahweh, Brahman, Ahura Mazda, Ra, Waheguru, Sage, Odin, Zeus.

Saturn[edit]

The planet Saturn is seen in approximate natural color by the Hubble Space Telescope. Credit: Hubble Heritage Team (AURA/STScI/NASA/ESA).

"Saturday is the day of Saturn, and the color of Saturn, according to astronomers, is said to be black".[7]

Recent history[edit]

This painting of God the Father dates to ca. 1380 (620 b2k). Credit: Anonymous (France or Flanders).
God the Father is depicted with a dark halo. Credit: Anonymous (Swabia).
This is the frontispiece of Riccioli's 1651 New Almagest. Credit: G. B. Riccioli.
Here, God the Father has an apparent halo. Credit: Master of the Bonn Diptych.
Here, Michelangelo painted God in white with some green nearby. Credit: Michelangelo Buonarroti.
The page shows Huygens Systema Saturnium. Credit: Christiaan Huygens.
Here again, God the Father is painted in white. Credit: Ludovico Mazzolino.
This illustration included in Cellarius' book is a plate depicting the Earth-centered universe theorized by Claudius Ptolemy, the 2nd century A.D. geographer who lived in Alexandria, Egypt. Credit: Andreas Cellarius.
God the Father has a whitish bald head partially surrounded with whitish hair. Credit: Guercino.
This is a chart of the solar system out to the orbit of the planet Saturn. Credit: Richard Cumberland, translated from Latin by John Maxwell.

The recent history period dates from around 1,000 b2k to present.

The Franco-Flemish painting on the right has God the Father with a halo, dated to circa 1380 (620 b2k).

On the left is the frontispiece "of Riccioli's 1651 New Almagest. [In it mythological] figures observe the heavens with a telescope and weigh the heliocentric theory of Copernicus in a balance against his modified version of Tycho Brahe's geo-heliocentric system, in which the Sun, Moon, Jupiter and Saturn orbit the Earth while Mercury, Venus, and Mars orbit the Sun. The old Ptolemaic geocentric theory lies discarded on the ground, made obsolete by the telescope's discoveries. These are illustrated at top and include phases of Venus and Mercury and a surface feature on Mars (left), moons of Jupiter, rings of Saturn, and features on the moon (right). The balance tips in favor of Riccioli's "Tychonic" system."[8]

In the second image down on the right, God the Father has a dark halo. Dated circa 4th quarter of the 15th century (1475-1500, 525-500 b2k).

The third image down on the right is dated circa 1480-1490 (520-510 b2k) with God the Father having an apparent halo in white.

The second figure on the left contains Huygens Systema Saturnium. The top diagram shows how Saturn's appearance to us changes due the changing positions of the Earth (E) and Saturn as they orbit the Sun (G). The bottom portion contains Huygens observation of Saturn presenting its rings to us at their greatest inclination. Both parts date from 1659, 341 b2k.

In the fourth image down on the right, Michelangelo painted God in white with some green nearby, dated to 1508-1512 (492-588 b2k).

The fifth image down on the right has God the Father painted in white by Ludovico Mazzolino, dated to from 1510 until 1520 (490-480 b2k). The halo is gone but it appears a bald head replaces the disk of Saturn.

The third page down on the left is dated to 1661, 339 b2k, and describes the theory of Ptolemy.

The sixth image down on the right dated to circa 1635-1640 has God the Father with a whitish bald head partially surrounded with whitish hair.

The fourth page on the left is a chart of the Solar System up to the orbit of the planet Saturn. The tracks of three comets are indicated, which appeared in the years 1662, 1680 and 1682, respectively. The page is dated to 1727, 273 b2k.

During the High Middle Ages, theology was therefore the ultimate subject at universities, being named "The Queen of the Sciences" and serving as the capstone to the Trivium and Quadrivium that young men were expected to study. This meant that the other subjects (including Philosophy) existed primarily to help with theological thought.[9]

Hypotheses[edit]

  1. Religion in the northern hemisphere of Earth has its origins in celestial events that killed hominins.
  2. There were no deities in the southern hemisphere except in those cultures that also crossed the equator into the northern hemisphere.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 WordNet Search - 3.1 for theology. Princeton, New Jersey USA: Princeton University. November 23, 2013. Retrieved 2013-11-23.
  2. City of God Book VIII. i. "de divinitate rationem sive sermonem"
  3. Of the Laws of Ecclesiastical Polity, 3.8.11
  4. 4.0 4.1 William Fairfield Warren (1885). Paradise Found The Cradle of the Human Races at the North Pole. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin and Company. Retrieved 2013-01-06.
  5. Manly Palmer Hall (1928). Secret Teachings of All Ages. San Francisco: Hall Publishing Company. p. 648. Retrieved 2013-01-06.
  6. Anne Rice (1998). The Vampire Armand. New York: Knopf. p. 273. ISBN 9780679454472. |access-date= requires |url= (help)
  7. Glenn D. Lowry (1987). "Humayun's Tomb: Form, Function, and Meaning in Early Mughal Architecture". Muqarnas 4: 133-48. doi:10.2307/1523100. http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.2307/1523100. Retrieved 2012-04-24. 
  8. Wiccioli (24 September 2011). File:AlmagestumNovumFrontispiece.jpg. San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retrieved 2015-05-03.
  9. Thomas Albert Howard, Protestant Theology and the Making of the Modern German University (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006), p.56: 'Philosophy, the scientia scientarum in one sense, was, in another, portrayed as the humble "handmaid of theology".'

External links[edit]

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