Draft:Language families

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Projected on a world map are the principal language families of the world (and in some cases geographic groups of families).
For greater detail, see Distribution of languages in the world. Note that some families pictured here are controversial, and are not wholly agreed upon. Credit: PiMaster3.

A language that can be shown to have evolved from the same ancestor as another language is in the same language family as the latter.

Linguistics[edit]

Def. "the scientific study of language"[1] is called linguistics.

Languages[edit]

Def. a "form of communication using words either spoken or[2] gestured with the hands, often[3] with a writing system, usually structured with grammar"[4] is called a language.

Families[edit]

The web edition of the Ethnologue contains a list of language families:[5]

  1. Afro-Asiatic (376)
  2. Algic (42)
  3. Altaic (65)
  4. Amto-Musan (2)
  5. Andamanese (14)
  6. Arafundi (3)
  7. Arai (Left May) (6)
  8. Arauan (5)
  9. Australian (378)
  10. Austro-Asiatic (170)
  11. Austronesian (1257)
  12. Aymaran (3)
  13. Barbacoan (4)
  14. Bayono-Awbono (2)
  15. Border (15)
  16. Bororoan (3)
  17. Botocudoan (1)
  18. Caddoan (5)
  19. Cahuapanan (2)
  20. Cariban (32)
  21. Central Solomons (4)
  22. Chapacuran (5)
  23. Chibchan (20)
  24. Chimakuan (1)
  25. Chinookan (2)
  26. Chipaya-Uru (2)
  27. Chocoan (8)
  28. Cholonan (2)
  29. Chon (2)
  30. Chukotko-Kamchatkan (5)
  31. Chumashan (6)
  32. Cochimí-Yuman (9)
  33. Constructed language (1)
  34. Coosan (1)
  35. Creole (93)
  36. Deaf sign language (138)
  37. Dravidian (85)
  38. East Bird’s Head-Sentani (8)
  39. East Geelvink Bay (12)
  40. Eastern Trans-Fly (4)
  41. East New Britain (7)
  42. Eskimo-Aleut (11)
  43. Eyak-Athabaskan (44)
  44. Fas (2)
  45. Guajiboan (5)
  46. Guaykuruan (5)
  47. Haida (2)
  48. Harákmbut (2)
  49. Hmong-Mien (38)
  50. Huavean (4)
  51. Indo-European (445)
  52. Iroquoian (9)
  53. Jabutian (2)
  54. Japonic (12)
  55. Jean (16)
  56. Jicaquean (1)
  57. Jivaroan (4)
  58. Kamakanan (1)
  59. Karajá (1)
  60. Kartvelian (5)
  61. Katukinan (2)
  62. Kaure (4)
  63. Kaweskaran (2)
  64. Keresan (2)
  65. Khoisan (28)
  66. Kiowa-Tanoan (5)
  67. Kwomtari (3)
  68. Lakes Plain (20)
  69. Language isolate (82)
  70. Lencan (1)
  71. Lower Mamberamo (2)
  72. Maiduan (4)
  73. Maipurean (60)
  74. Mairasi (3)
  75. Mapudungu (2)
  76. Mascoyan (6)
  77. Matacoan (7)
  78. Maxakalian (2)
  79. Mayan (31)
  80. Maybrat (2)
  81. Misumalpan (5)
  82. Miwok-Costanoan (8)
  83. Mixe-Zoquean (17)
  84. Mixed language (22)
  85. Mongol-Langam (3)
  86. Mosetenan (1)
  87. Muran (1)
  88. Muskogean (6)
  89. Nambiquaran (6)
  90. Niger-Congo (1545)
  91. Nilo-Saharan (206)
  92. Nimboran (5)
  93. North Bougainville (4)
  94. North Caucasian (34)
  95. Otomanguean (177)
  96. Paezan (8)
  97. Palaihnihan (2)
  98. Panoan (27)
  99. Pauwasi (5)
  100. Piawi (2)
  101. Pidgin (16)
  102. Pomoan (7)
  103. Puinavean (7)
  104. Purian (2)
  105. Quechuan (46)
  106. Ramu-Lower Sepik (32)
  107. Sahaptian (5)
  108. Salish (26)
  109. Sálivan (3)
  110. Senagi (2)
  111. Sepik (55)
  112. Sino-Tibetan (460)
  113. Siouan-Catawban (14)
  114. Skou (8)
  115. Somahai (2)
  116. South Bougainville (9)
  117. South-Central Papuan (22)
  118. Tacanan (6)
  119. Tai-Kadai (95)
  120. Takelman (1)
  121. Tequistlatecan (2)
  122. Tarascan (2)
  123. Tiniguan (1)
  124. Tor-Kwerba (24)
  125. Torricelli (57)
  126. Totonacan (12)
  127. Trans-New Guinea (480)
  128. Tsimshian (3)
  129. Tucanoan (25)
  130. Tupian (76)
  131. Unclassified (64)
  132. Uralic (38)
  133. Uto-Aztecan (61)
  134. Wakashan (6)
  135. West Papuan (23)
  136. Wintuan (3)
  137. Witotoan (7)
  138. Yaguan (2)
  139. Yanomaman (4)
  140. Yele-West New Britain (3)
  141. Yeniseian (2)
  142. Yokutsan (1)
  143. Yuat (6)
  144. Yukaghir (2)
  145. Yukian (2)
  146. Zamucoan (2)
  147. Zaparoan (5)

Def. "a language family spoken in northern Africa and southwest Asia, and including Semitic, Egyptian, Berber, Omotic, Cushitic, and Chadic languages"[6] is called an Afro-Asiatic language family.

Def. a "major language family which includes many of the [native] languages between Europe and India,[7] with notable Indic, Iranian and European sub-branches"[8] is called an Indo-European language family.

Theoretical language families[edit]

Def. "a group of languages believed to have descended from the same ancestral language"[9] is called a family.

Def. a "set of languages which have evolved from a common ancestor"[10] is called a language family.

Evolution[edit]

Def. "gradual directional change[11] especially one leading to a more advanced or complex form"[12] is called evolution.

Hypotheses[edit]

  1. Going back 40,000 b2k may indicate some languages came from these earlier times.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. Bluelion~enwiktionary (13 June 2003). "linguistics". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retrieved 23 February 2019.
  2. EncycloPetey (28 August 2008). "language". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retrieved 22 February 2019.
  3. 216.82.180.24 (24 April 2009). "language". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retrieved 22 February 2019.
  4. Esteban.barahona (28 August 2008). "language". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retrieved 22 February 2019.
  5. M. Paul Lewis, Gary F. Simons, and Charles D. Fennig, ed. (2014). "Browse by Language Family, In: Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Seventeenth edition". 7500 West Camp Wisdom Road, Dallas, Texas 75236-5629 USA: SIL International Publications. Retrieved 2014-06-08.CS1 maint: Multiple names: editors list (link)
  6. PierreAbbat (9 October 2006). "Afro-Asiatic". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retrieved 23 February 2019.
  7. 172.167.252.38 (31 August 2004). "Indo-European". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retrieved 23 February 2019.
  8. Eclecticology (27 January 2005). "Indo-European". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retrieved 23 February 2019.
  9. Aaaaaaaah! (13 August 2006). family. San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retrieved 23 February 2019.
  10. PierreAbbat (6 September 2007). "language family". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retrieved 23 February 2019.
  11. Gregcaletta (14 May 2010). "evolution". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retrieved 23 February 2019.
  12. Silence~enwiktionary (9 January 2007). "evolution". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retrieved 23 February 2019.

External links[edit]

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