Genomics is a branch of molecular biology concerned with the structure, function, evolution, and mapping of genomes.
The H (heavy, outer circle) and L (light, inner circle) strands are given with their corresponding genes. There are 22 transfer RNA (TRN) genes for the following amino acids: F, V, L1 (codon UUA/G), I, Q, M, W, A, N, C, Y, S1 (UCN), D, K, G, R, H, S2 (AGC/U), L2 (CUN), E, T and P (white boxes). There are 2 ribosomal RNA (RRN) genes: S (small subunit, or 12S) and L (large subunit, or 16S) (blue boxes). There are 13 protein-coding genes: 7 for NADH dehydrogenase subunits (ND, yellow boxes), 3 for cytochrome c oxidase subunits (COX, orange boxes), 2 for ATPase subunits (ATP, red boxes), and one for cytochrome b (CYTB, coral box). Two gene overlaps are indicated (ATP8-ATP6, and ND4L-ND4, black boxes).
The control region (CR) is the longest non-coding sequence (grey box). Its three hyper-variable regions are indicated (HV, green boxes).
Def. the "study of the complete genome of an organism" is called genomics.
Genomics involves the sequencing and analysis of genomes through uses of high throughput DNA sequencing and bioinformatics to assemble and analyze the function and structure of entire genomes.
Def. the "modification of the expression of a gene by another unrelated one" is called epistasis.
Def. the "tendency of cross-breeding to produce an animal or plant with a greater hardiness than its parents; hybrid vigour" is called heterosis.
Def. the "influence of a single gene on multiple phenotypic traits; pleiotropism" is called pleiotropy.
"Genomics includes the scientific study of complex diseases such as heart disease, asthma, diabetes, and cancer because these diseases are typically caused more by a combination of genetic and environmental factors than by individual genes."
Genomic "mutations that cause mitochondrial disease [in T-cell mitochondria such as those imaged on the right] may also compromise affected people's immune response."
This raises new challenges in structural bioinformatics, i.e. determining protein function from its 3D structure.
Epigenomics is the study of the complete set of epigenetic modifications on the genetic material of a cell, known as the epigenome. Epigenetic modifications are reversible modifications on a cell’s DNA or histones that affect gene expression without altering the DNA sequence (Russell 2010 p. 475). Epigenetic modifications play an important role in gene expression and regulation, and are involved in numerous cellular processes such as in differentiation/development and tumorigenesis. The study of epigenetics on a global level has been made possible only recently through the adaptation of genomic high-throughput assays.
Metagenomics is the study of metagenomes, genetic material recovered directly from environmental samples. The vast majority of microbial biodiversity had been missed by cultivation-based methods. Recent studies use "shotgun" chain termination methods (Sanger sequencing) or massively parallel (pyrosequencing) to get largely unbiased samples of all genes from all the members of the sampled communities. Because of its power to reveal the previously hidden diversity of microscopic life, metagenomics offers a powerful lens for viewing the microbial world that has the potential to revolutionize understanding of the entire living world.
- The human genome has less than 40,000 isoforms.
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- SemperBlotto (7 April 2008). pleiotropy. San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retrieved 11 June 2017.
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