Draft:Gases

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Natural gas comes out of the ground in Taiwan. Credit: (WT-shared) Naplee12 at wts wikivoyage.

A gas has the characteristic of being a substance which expands freely to fill any space.

Its atoms or molecules remain independent subject to temperature or pressure.

The gaseous state of matter is found between the liquid and plasma states,[1] the latter of which provides the upper temperature boundary for gases. Bounding the lower end of the temperature scale lie degenerative quantum gases[2] or Bose–Einstein condensate.[3]

Theoretical gases[edit]

Def. any "matter that can be contained only if it is fully surrounded by a solid (or in a bubble of liquid) (or held together by gravitational pull)"[4] is called a gas.

The ideal gas laws describe a theoretical gas.

Def. relating "to, or existing as, gas"[5] is called gaseous.

Intermolecular forces[edit]

Intermolecular forces that result from electrostatic interactions between gas particles: (1) like-charged areas of different gas particles repel, while oppositely charged regions of different gas particles attract one another; (2) gaseous compounds with polar covalent bonds contain permanent charge imbalances and so experience relatively strong intermolecular forces, although the molecule while the compound's net charge remains neutral; (3) transient, randomly induced charges exist across non-polar covalent bonds of molecules and electrostatic interactions caused by them are Van der Waals forces vary within a substance to determine many of the physical properties unique to each gas.[6][7] A comparison of boiling points for compounds formed by ionic and covalent bonds leads to this conclusion.[8]

Inert gases[edit]

Def. a "gas which does not undergo chemical reactions"[9] is called an inert gas.

Noble gases[edit]

Def. any "of the elements of group 18 of the periodic table, being monatomic and (with very limited exceptions) inert"[10] is called a noble gas.

Def. any "monatomic and (with very limited exceptions) inert"[10] gas is called a noble gas.

Gaseous objects[edit]

Gaseous objects have at least one chemical element or compound present in the gaseous state. These gaseous components make up at least 50 % of the detectable portion of the gaseous object.

Hydrogens[edit]

Spectrum = gas discharge tube filled with hydrogen H2, used with 1.8 kV, 18 mA, 35 kHz. ≈8" length. Credit: Alchemist-hp.
Spectrum = gas discharge tube filled with deuterium D2, used with 1.8 kV, 18 mA, 35 kHz. ≈8" length. Credit: Alchemist-hp.

Molecular hydrogen gas is excited in the discharge tube shown on the right. When an electron returns to a lower energy orbital state the purple color is observed.

"Molecular hydrogen (H2) [is] a colourless, odourless and flammable gas at room temperature."[11]

The familiar red H-alpha [Hα 656 nm] spectral line of hydrogen gas, which is the transition from the shell n = 3 to the Balmer series shell n = 2, is one of the conspicuous colors of the universe. It contributes a bright red line to the spectra of emission or ionization nebula, like the Orion Nebula, which are often H II regions found in star forming regions. In true-color pictures, these nebula have a distinctly pink color from the combination of visible Balmer lines that hydrogen emits.

A "high-resolution spectrum of the Becklin-Neugebauer (BN) infrared point source located in [the region of the Orion Nebula] ... with the Steward Observatory 2.29 m (90 inch) telescope ... [confirmed] the reality of [the 2.12 μ] line ... on 1976 January 15 and 16. The line was then identified by R. Treffers as the S(1) line of the 1-0 vibration-rotation quadrupole spectrum of H2. Six other lines of the same band were also found. The presence of two of our lines has been confirmed by Grasdalen and Joyce (1976). Electronic transitions of interstellar H2 have previously been observed in the ultraviolet (Carruthers 1970; Smith 1973; Spitzer et al. 1973)."[12]

Heliums[edit]

Spectrum = gas discharge tube: the noble gas: helium He, used with 1.8 kV, 18 mA, 35 kHz. ≈8" length. Credit: Alchemist-hp.

Helium is a "colorless and inert gas".[13]

Helium is a noble gas.

Nitrogens[edit]

Spectrum = gas discharge tube filled with nitrogen N2, used with 1.8 kV, 18 mA, 35 kHz. ≈8" length. Credit: Alchemist-hp.

"Molecular nitrogen (N2) [is] a colorless, odorless gas at room temperature."[14]

Oxygens[edit]

Spectrum = gas discharge tube filled with oxygen O2, used with 1.8 kV, 18 mA, 35 kHz. ≈8" length. Credit: Alchemist-hp.

"Molecular oxygen (O2) [is] a colorless, odorless gas at room temperature."[15]

Fluorines[edit]

Observation of fluorine's color (2) and comparison to air (1) or chlorine (3), published in 1892. Credit: Henri Moissan.

The set of images on the right compare the color of air (1) with fluorine (2) and chlorine (3) gases.

Neons[edit]

Spectrum = gas discharge tube: the noble gas: neon Ne, used with 1.8 kV, 18 mA, 35 kHz. ≈8" length. Credit: Alchemist-hp.

Neon is a noble gas.

Chlorines[edit]

Chlorine gas is contained in an ampoule. Credit: W. Oelen.

Chlorine is a "toxic, green gaseous chemical element".[16]

Argons[edit]

Spectrum = gas discharge tube: the noble gas: argon Ar, used with 1.8 kV, 18 mA, 35 kHz. ≈8" length.Alchemist-hp.

Argon is a noble gas.

Kryptons[edit]

Spectrum = gas discharge tube: the noble gas: krypton Kr. Used with 1,8kV, 18mA, 35kHz. ≈8" length. Credit: Alchemist-hp.

Krypton is a noble gas.

Xenons[edit]

Spectrum = gas discharge tube: the noble gas: xenon Xe. Used with 1,8kV, 18mA, 35kHz. ≈8" length. Credit: Alchemist-hp.

Xenon is a "heavy, gaseous chemical element ... of the noble gases group".[17]

Mercuries[edit]

Spectrum = gas discharge tube filled with mercury Hg vapor, used with 1.8 kV, 18 mA, 35 kHz. ≈8" length. Credit: Alchemist-hp.

Radons[edit]

Radon is "one of the noble gases."[18]

Natural gases[edit]

"Natural gas is a combustible mixture of hydrocarbon gases. While natural gas is formed primarily of methane, it can also include ethane, propane, butane and pentane. The composition of natural gas can vary widely [below is a] typical makeup of natural gas before it is refined."[19]

Typical Makeup of Natural Gas before Refining
Molecules Formula Molecular percents
Methane CH4 70-90 %
Ethane C2H6 0-20 %
Propane C3H8 0-20 %
Butane C10H10 0-20 %
Carbon dioxide CO2 0-8 %
Oxygen O2 0-0.2 %
Nitrogen N2 0-5 %
Hydrogen sulphide H2S 0-5 %
Rare gases Ar, He, Ne, Xe trace

Volcanic gases[edit]

Schematic show volcano injection of aerosols and gases. Credit: cflm.{{free media}}

Water vapour is consistently the most common volcanic gas, normally comprising more than 60% of total emissions. Carbon dioxide typically accounts for 10 to 40% of emissions.[20]

Volcanoes located at convergent plate boundaries emit more water vapor and chlorine, higher H2O/H2, H2O/CO2, CO2/He and N2/He ratios than volcanoes at geologic hot spots or divergent plate boundaries per the addition of seawater into magmas formed at subduction zones.[20]

In volcanoes with an open path to the surface, e.g. Stromboli in Italy, bubbles may reach the surface and as they pop small explosions occur, where the gas can flow rapidly through the continuous permeable network towards the surface, which explains activity at Santiaguito, Santa Maria volcano, Guatemala[21] and Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat.[22]

Volcanic gases were directly responsible for approximately 3% of all volcano-related deaths of humans between 1900 and 1986.[20]

The greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide, is emitted from volcanoes, accounting for nearly 1% of the annual global total.[23]

Some volcanic gases including sulfur dioxide, hydrogen chloride, hydrogen sulfide and hydrogen fluoride react with other atmospheric particles to form aerosols.[20]

Technology[edit]

A dual chamber helium leak detection machine is photographed. Credit: .





Circle frame.svg

Estimated 2013 U.S. fractional helium use by category. Total use is 47 million cubic meters.[24]

  Cryogenics (32%)
  Pressurizing and purging (18%)
  Welding (13%)
  Controlled atmospheres (18%)
  Leak detection (4%)
  Breathing mixtures (2%)
  Other (13%)
Because of its low density and incombustibility, helium is the gas of choice to fill airships such as the Goodyear blimp. Credit: .
This is a liquid methane pumping station. Credit: hollander.nl.
This rocket engine uses liquid methane to produce a 7,500-pound thrust. Credit: NASA.

"Turbines have been around for a long time—windmills and water wheels are early examples. The name comes from the Latin turbo, meaning vortex, and thus the defining property of a turbine is that a fluid or gas turns the blades of a rotor, which is attached to a shaft that can perform useful work."[25]

A gas detector is a device which detects the presence of various gases within an area or volume.

The combination of nanotechnology and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology allows the production of a hydrogen microsensor that functions properly at room temperature. One type of MEMS-based hydrogen sensor is coated with a film consisting of nanostructured [indium(III)] indium oxide (In2O3) and tin oxide (SnO2).[26] A typical configuration for mechanical Pd-based hydrogen sensors is the usage of a free-standing cantilever that is coated with Pd.[27][28] In the presence of H2, the Pd layer expands and thereby induces a stress that causes the cantilever to bend. Pd-coated nano-mechanical resonators have also been reported in literature, relying on the stress-induced mechanical resonance frequency shift caused by the presence of H2 gas. In this case, the response speed was enhanced through the use of a very thin layer of Pd (20 nm). Moderate heating was presented as a solution to the response impairment observed in humid conditions.[29]

"Care for the environment is becoming more and more of an issue in business today, also in the transport sector and liquid methane gas is a good alternative for diesel fuel."[30]

"Liquid methane gas and diesel fuel are used in combination. When the liquid methane gas and the diesel fuel are mixed in a proportion of 75-25 a truck can run 500 to 1000 km. depending on the driving circumstances."[30]

"The use of the liquid gas depends on economies that are made by using it. The gas is cheaper. One kilo (liquid methane is expressed in kilos) costs less than one litre of diesel and contains 35% more energy. A truck running on it, is far more expensive though. A normal truck costs 100.000 Euro, a truck running on liquid gas, 35.000 Euro more. And also the refuelling possibilities are restricted. Some more facilities are planned though."[30]

"Rocket engines aren't exactly synonymous with liquid methane, but NASA's latest project shows just what this natural gas is capable of -- produces 7,500-pound thrust in this case. Best of all, "you don't have to put on a HAZMAT suit to handle it like fuels used on many space vehicles.""[31]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. This early 20th century discussion infers what is regarded as the plasma state. See page 137 of American Chemical Society, Faraday Society, Chemical Society (Great Britain) The Journal of Physical Chemistry, Volume 11 Cornell (1907).
  2. Tanya Zelevinsky (2009). "84Sr—just right for forming a Bose-Einstein condensate". Physics 2: 94. doi:10.1103/physics.2.94. http://physics.aps.org/articles/v2/94. 
  3. Quantum Gas Microscope Offers Glimpse Of Quirky Ultracold Atoms. ScienceDaily. 4 November 2009.
  4. gas. San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 16 April 2015. Retrieved 20 April 2015.
  5. gaseous. San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 29 September 2013. Retrieved 5 October 2013.
  6. Cornell (1907) pp. 164–5.
  7. Michael Faraday, 1833, see page 45 of John Tyndall's Faraday as a Discoverer (1868).
  8. John S. Hutchinson (2008). Concept Development Studies in Chemistry. p. 67.
  9. inert gas. San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 5 October 2014. Retrieved 20 April 2015.
  10. 10.0 10.1 noble gas. San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 19 September 2013. Retrieved 5 October 2013.
  11. hydrogen. San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 1 September 2013. Retrieved 5 October 2013.
  12. T. N. Gautier II and Uwe Fink, Richard R. Treffers, and Harold P. Larson (15 July 1976). "Detection of Molecular Hydrogen Quadrupole Emission in the Orion Nebula". The Astrophysical Journal 207 (07): L129-33. doi:10.1086/182195. http://adsabs.harvard.edu/full/1976ApJ...207L.129G. Retrieved 5 October 2013. 
  13. helium. San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 1 October 2013. Retrieved 5 October 2013.
  14. nitrogen. San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 22 September 2013. Retrieved 5 October 2013.
  15. oxygen. San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 16 September 2013. Retrieved 5 October 2013.
  16. chlorine. San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 28 August 2013. Retrieved 5 October 2013.
  17. xenon. San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 5 October 2013. Retrieved 5 October 2013.
  18. radon. San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 27 September 2013. Retrieved 5 October 2013.
  19. natgas (20 September 2013). Background. NaturalGas. Retrieved 21 May 2016.
  20. 20.0 20.1 20.2 20.3 H. Sigurdsson et al. (2000) Encyclopedia of Volcanoes, San Diego, Academic Press
  21. Holland et al. (2011), Degassing processes during lava dome growth: Insights from Santiaguito lava dome, Guatemala, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research vol. 202 p153-166
  22. Hautmann et al. (2014), Strain field analysis on Montserrat (W.I.) as a tool for assessing permeable flow paths in the magmatic system of Soufrière Hills Volcano, Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems vol. 15 p676-690
  23. Royal Society Climate Change Controversies, London, June 2007
  24. U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey (2014). "Helium". Mineral Commodity Summaries 2014. pp. 72–73.
  25. Lee S. Langston (July-August 2013). "The Adaptable Gas Turbine". American Scientist. http://www.americanscientist.org/issues/pub/2013/4/the-adaptable-gas-turbine. Retrieved 5 October 2013. 
  26. Gustavo Alverio. A Nanoparticle-based Hydrogen Microsensor. University of Central Florida. Retrieved 21 October 2008.
  27. D.R. Baselt. "Design and performance of a microcantilever-based hydrogen sensor". Sensors and Actuators B. 
  28. Sumio Okuyama. Hydrogen Gas Sensing Using a Pd-Coated Cantilever. Japanese Journal of Applied Physics. http://jjap.jsap.jp/link?JJAP/39/3584/. Retrieved 2013-02-26. 
  29. Jonas Henriksson. "Ultra-low power hydrogen sensing based on a palladium-coated nanomechanical beam resonator". Nanoscale Journal. 
  30. 30.0 30.1 30.2 holander (7 September 2012). Liquid methane gas alternative for diesel fuel. The Netherlands: holander.nl. Retrieved 16 June 2015.
  31. NASA (19 July 2008). Liquid Methane-Powered Rocket Engine. TecheBlog. Retrieved 16 June 2015.

External links[edit]