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The image shows electrocardiograms of a twenty-three year old Japanese male. Credit: Tanadesuka.

ECG is an abbreviation for electrocardiogram.

Control groups[edit]

This is an image of a Lewis rat. Credit: Charles River Laboratories.

The findings demonstrate a statistically systematic change from the status quo or the control group.

In the design of experiments, treatments [or special properties or characteristics] are applied to [or observed in] experimental units in the treatment group(s).[1] In comparative experiments, members of the complementary group, the control group, receive either no treatment or a standard treatment.[2]

Proof of concept[edit]

Def. a “short and/or incomplete realization of a certain method or idea to demonstrate its feasibility"[3] is called a proof of concept.

Def. evidence that demonstrates that a concept is possible is called proof of concept.

The proof-of-concept structure consists of

  1. background,
  2. procedures,
  3. findings, and
  4. interpretation.[4]

Proof of technology[edit]

The objective of a proof of technology is to determine the solution to some technical problem, such as how two systems might be integrated or that a certain throughput can be achieved with a given configuration.

Def. "[a]n original object or form which is a basis for other objects, forms, or for its models and generalizations"[5] is called a prototype.

Def. "[a]n early sample or model built to test a concept or process"[5] is called a prototype.

Def. "[a]n instance of a category or a concept that combines its most representative attributes"[5] is called a prototype.

Def. "[t]o test something using the conditions that it was designed to operate under, especially out in the real world instead of in a laboratory or workshop"[6] is called "field-test", or a field test.

A "proof-of-technology prototype ... typically implements one critical scenario to exercise or stress the highest-priority requirements."[7]

"[A] proof-of-technology test demonstrates the system can be used".[8]

"The strongest proof of technology performance is based on consistency among multiple lines of evidence, all pointing to similar levels of risk reduction."[9]


The diagram shows the approximately proper locations to apply the adhesive electrodes. Credit: BruceBlaus.

The diagram on the right shows the approximately proper locations to apply the adhesive electrodes for performing an electrocardiogram.


ECG of a heart is in normal sinus rhythm. Credit: .

In a conventional 12-lead ECG, electrodes are placed on the patient's limbs and on the surface of the chest, the overall magnitude of the heart's electrical potential is then measured from twelve different angles ("leads") and is recorded over a period of time (usually ten seconds), thus the overall magnitude and direction of the heart's electrical depolarization is captured at each moment throughout the cardiac cycle.[10]


Theoretical electrocardiograms[edit]

Def. a "visual output that an electrocardiograph produces"[11] is called an electrocardiogram, or ECG, EKG.

EKG comes from the German term Elektrokardiogramm.[12]

ECG - the AMA Manual of Style and – under its stylistic influence – most American medical publications use ECG instead of EKG.[13]

See also[edit]


  1. Klaus Hinkelmann, Oscar Kempthorne (2008). Design and Analysis of Experiments, Volume I: Introduction to Experimental Design (2nd ed.). Wiley. ISBN 978-0-471-72756-9.
  2. R. A. Bailey (2008). Design of comparative experiments. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-68357-9.
  3. proof of concept. San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 10 November 2012. Retrieved 13 January 2013.
  4. Ginger Lehrman and Ian B Hogue, Sarah Palmer, Cheryl Jennings, Celsa A Spina, Ann Wiegand, Alan L Landay, Robert W Coombs, Douglas D Richman, John W Mellors, John M Coffin, Ronald J Bosch, David M Margolis (August 13, 2005). "Depletion of latent HIV-1 infection in vivo: a proof-of-concept study". Lancet 366 (9485): 549-55. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(05)67098-5. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0140673605670985. Retrieved 2012-05-09. 
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 prototype. San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 8 December 2013. Retrieved 3 January 2014.
  6. field-test. San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. August 5, 2012. Retrieved 3 January 2014.
  7. A. Liu; I. Gorton (March/April 2003). "Accelerating COTS middleware acquisition: the i-Mate process". Software, IEEE 20 (2): 72-9. doi:10.1109/MS.2003.1184171. http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpls/abs_all.jsp?arnumber=1184171. Retrieved 2012-02-15. 
  8. Rhea Wessel (January 25, 2008). "Cargo-Tracking System Combines RFID, Sensors, GSM and Satellite". RFID Journal: 1-2. http://www.rfidjournal.com/article/pdf/3870/1/1/rfidjournal-article3870.PDF. Retrieved 2012-02-15. 
  9. P. Suresh, C. Rao, M.D. Annable and J.W. Jawitz (August 2000). E. Timothy Oppelt, ed. In Situ Flushing for Enhanced NAPL Site Remediation: Metrics for Performance Assessment, In: Abiotic In Situ Technologies for Groundwater Remediation Conference (PDF). Cincinnati, Ohio: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. p. 105. Retrieved 15 February 2012.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  10. Aswini Kumar MD. ECG- simplified. LifeHugger. Retrieved 11 February 2010.
  11. electrocardiogram. San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 6 June 2014. Retrieved 15 August 2014.
  12. EKG. Oxford Online Dictionaries
  13. AMA Manual of Style, section=15.3.1 Electrocardiographic Terms. American Medical Association.CS1 maint: Missing pipe (link)

External links[edit]