- Gozzi, D. et al, X-ray, heat excess and 4He in the D:Pd system, J. Electroanal. Chem. 1998, 452, 253
- Spzak et al, On the behavior of Pd deposited in the presence of evolving deuterium, J. Electroanal. Chem. 1991, 302, 255
- Spzak et al, On the behavior of Pd deposited in the presence of evolving deuterium, J. Electroanal. Chem. 1990, 30, 255-60.
- there is likely an error here, this is probably one paper cited differently.
- Miles et al, Anomalous effects involving excess power, radiation, and helium production during D2O Electrolysis using palladium cathodes, Fusion Technol. 1994, 25, 478-486.
- Spzak, et al, On the behavior of cathodically polarized Pd/D system: search for emanating radiation. Phys. Lett. A, 1995, 210, 382-390.
- Violante, et al, X-ray emissionj during electrolysis of light water on palladium and nickel thin films, in Condensed Matter Nuclear Science: Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, 2002, Tsinghua University Press.
- Li, et al, The precursor of cold fusion phenomenon in deuterium/solid systems, in Anomalous Nuclear effects in deuterium/solid systems, American Institute of Physics Conference proceedings 228 (1991).
- Krivit, "Low Energy Nuclear Reactions: The Emergence of Condensed Matter Nuclear Science," Low Energy Nuclear Reactions Sourcebook, American Chemical Society, 2008, p. 11:
- LENR experiments produce various forms of nuclear radiation.[18,19] Types of prompt radiations detected include x-ray, gamma ray, and energetic particles (ions and electrons). All of these radiations are emitted at very low intensities so they are difficult to measure in LENR experiments. Furthermore, most x-rays and energetic particles rarely travel outside of a LENR experiment so, typically, a detector for them must be located inside the experimental vessel.
- 18. Gozzi et al (1998)
- 19. Szpak et al (1991)
- Mosier-Boss et al, Detection of energetic particles and neutrons emitted during Pd/D codeposition, Low Energy Nuclear Reactions Sourcebook, American Chemical Society, 2008, p. 313
- There have been previous reports of soft X-ray emission by Pd/D substrates as measured using photographic film[11,12], HPGE γ ray and Li doped Si X-ray detectors[13,14] and CaF2 thermoluminescence dosimeters.
- 11. Miles, et al (1994)
- 12. Spzak, et al (1990)
- 13. Spzak, et al (1995)
- 14, Violante et al (2002)
- 15, Li, et al (1991)
- Storms, The Science of Low Energy Nuclear Reaction, World Scientific (2007)
- Storms gives two pages to X-ray emissions (pp 105-106); his chart of radiation reports includes Karabut[40, 214]], Lipson[295,541], Violante, Tian, Iwamura, Mosier-Boss, Celluci, Itoh, Bush.
- primary sources to be added for these references.
Radiation results in cold fusion experiments have been quite variable. X-rays are not found to be correlated with excess heat, unlike helium. All the various forms of radiation found are at levels well below those expected if the reaction producing the helium and heat were one involving detectable radiation. Hagelstein (2010) uses the relative absence of bremsstrahlung X-radiation to set an upper limit for the generation of energetic particles in the primary reaction of about 20 KeV. However, there is evidence for secondary reactions, such as the neutrons found by Mosier-Boss et al, and these reactions may produce hot charged products and thus X-rays, at low levels.
- Huizenga, Cold fusion, the scientific fiasco of the century, Oxford University Press (1994), has 11 listings for X-rays in the index, to be reported here, but not all refer to X-ray reports. Huizenga lists reports not listed by Storms, such as Kucherov.