Classified Kingdoms/Monera Kingdom

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How is Monera different from other Kingdoms?[edit]

see below for information.

Cell Structure[edit]

The Body Structure of the Monera is irregular, the shape of the body is like stone, not feeling like stone, yet, appearing like stone. Monera is basically bacteria, including both beneficial and some pathogenic species. Monera is a kingdom that contains unicellular organisms without a nucleus.

Some other characteristics are:

  • Monera are about 1 micrometer in size and complex as living molecules.
  • The Monera cell structure is mostly unicellular and some organisms that form groups or filaments.
  • These organisms are the simplest prokaryotic cell structures.
  • The Monera cell structure lacks nuclei and many other cell organelles.
  • Monera are unicellular.
  • They have a cell wall made of polysaccharides with polypeptide cross links with a chemical called peptidoglycan.
  • They lack enclosed sub-cellular organelles like mitochondria and only have ribosomes.
  • The genetic material DNA is contained in the cytoplasm called nucleoid.
  • Many bacterial species contain rings of DNA called plasmids.
  • The cytoplasm is enclosed by plasma membrane that lies beneath the cell wall.
  • The plasma membrane is made up of lipids and proteins.
  • Some Monera have hair like pilli for adhesion or tail-like flagella for locomotion.
  • The source of nutrition for these organisms is usually photosynthesis or chemosynthesis.
  • The characteristics also include the shape of the cell that includes round (cocci), rod-like (bacilli) or spiral (spirochetes or spirilla).
  • Reproduction is asexually through binary fission or sexually by conjugation. The process of circulation and digestion is carried out through diffusion.
  • The Monera kingdom includes all bacteria that may infect animals, humans and plants. But most of the members are termed as beneficial bacteria, rather than pathogenic bacteria.
  • The Monerans kill organisms causing pathogenic diseases, breaks down algae and can even recycle chemical pollutants like hydrogen sulfide and ammonia.
  • Bacteria that grow in the root nodules help break down atmospheric nitrogen into fixed nitrogen,
  • The bacteria that forms the natural flora of the intestines are very important for proper digestion.
  • One of their many characteristics also includes production of antibiotics likes streptomycin that is useful for treatment of infections
  • Monerans can be identified by their characteristic of cell wall that can be or not stained by Gram staining.
  • Most of the Monorans can survive harsh environment by producing spore coat.


  • Deep near the Ocean Floor.
  • Most bacteria lives in or on animals, some bacteria's are beneficial and some are harmful.
  • Monera lives in dirt and soil, especially where there is water.
  • Some Monera lives in the cow's digestive system.

Picture or Physical Description (include color)[edit]

  • All sorts of colors and microscopic sizes.


Can be either autotrophic or heterotrophic

Effect on Humankind[edit]

Some Monera may be pathogenic and can result in diseases such as:

  • Strep Throat
  • Scarlet Fever
  • Salmonella
  • Food Poisoning, probably when the Monera gets into the food.
  • Extra: Bacteria
  • Tooth Decay

Monera may also have positive effects such as:

  • The ability to live in a mutually symbiotic relationship with their hosts. The bacteria that live on and in the body are often referred to as the micro biome. They play a vital role in the health and thriving of living organisms.
  • Lactic acid bacteria like Lactobacillus and Lactococcus have been used in fermentation processes for thousands of years. The ability of the bacteria to degrade a variety of organic compounds has been used in waste management processing and bioremediation.
  • In pest control, bacteria can be used in the place of pesticides as these pesticides are regarded environmentally friendly. The effect of this will lessen the strain on the environment by other pesticides.
  • The ability of the bacteria to divide rapidly and studies on the bacterial genome, these bacteria can be bioengineered for the production of therapeutic proteins like insulin, growth factors and antibodies.


The Monera-s have long hairs on their body called Flagella which drives them like propellers, not really fast, but at the Normal Bacteria speed/rate. The Monera-s usually squiggle and squirm around to get to short distances, like around two feet or so to say. The Monera-s do not have a center control cell, otherwise known as the nucleus.