# Charges

The locus of the abrupt change in conductance that clearly moves away from the 1D parabola is the chargon. Credit: Y. Jompol, C. J. B. Ford, J. P. Griffiths, I. Farrer, G. A. C. Jones, D. Anderson, D. A. Ritchie, T. W. Silk and A. J. Schofield.

Charge is usually thought of as a property of matter that is responsible for electrical phenomena, existing in a positive or negative form.

## Theoretical charges

Def. "the quantity of unbalanced positive or negative ions in or on an object; measured in coulombs"[1] is called charge, or electric charge.

## Chargons

Main sources: Charges/Chargons and Chargons

Def. "a quasiparticle produced as a result of electron spin-charge separation"[2] is called a chargon.

A chargon possesses the charge of an electron without a spin.

A spinon, in turn, possesses the spin of an electron without charge. The suggestion is that an elementary particle such as a positron may consist of at least two parts: spin and charge.

In the figure at the top of the page "the 1D parabola tracks the spin excitation (spinon)."[3]

Def. a "quasiparticle, corresponding to the orbital energy of an electron, which can result from an electron apparently ‘splitting’ under certain conditions"[4] is called an orbiton.

Both an orbiton and a spinon are kinetic or kinematic concepts applied to an electron.

Def. "a discrete particle having zero rest mass, no electric charge, and an indefinitely long lifetime"[5] is called a photon.

An electron may be thought of as a stable subatomic particle with a charge of negative one.

## Electrons

Main sources: Charges/Electrons and Electrons

“The electron is a subatomic particle with a negative charge, equal to -1.60217646x10-19 C. Current, or the rate of flow of charge, is defined such that one coulomb, so 1/-1.60217646x10-19, or 6.24150974x1018 electrons flowing past a point per second give a current of one ampere. The charge on an electron is often given as -e. Note that charge is always considered positive, so the charge of an electron is always negative."[6]

Def. the "quantity of matter which a body contains, irrespective of its bulk or volume"[7] is called mass.

"The electron has a mass of 9.10938188x10-31 kg, or about 1/1840 that of a proton. The mass of an electron is often written as me."[6]

"When working, these values can usually be safely approximated to:

-e = -1.60x10-19 C
me = 9.11x10-31kg[6]

“It has no known components or substructure; in other words, it is generally thought to be an elementary particle.[8][9] ... The intrinsic angular momentum (spin) of the electron is a half-integer value in units of ħ, which means that it is a fermion.”[10]

## Positrons

Main sources: Charges/Positrons and Positrons

Def. "[t]he antimatter equivalent of an electron, having the same mass but a positive charge"[11] is called a positron.

## Muons

This lepton box provides information about muons. Credit: MissMJ.
This is a Feynman Diagram of the most common of Muon Decays. Credit: Richard Feynman.

"TeV muons from γ ray primaries ... are rare because they are only produced by higher energy γ rays whose flux is suppressed by the decreasing flux at the source and by absorption on interstellar light."[12]

"The muon ... from the Greek letter mu (μ) used to represent it) is an elementary particle similar to the electron, with unitary negative electric charge (−1) and a spin of 12. Together with the electron, the tau, and the three neutrinos, it is classified as a lepton. As is the case with other leptons, the muon is not believed to have any sub-structure at all (i.e., is not thought to be composed of any simpler particles)."[13]

"The muon is an unstable subatomic particle with a mean lifetime of 2.2 us. This comparatively long decay lifetime (the second longest known) is due to being mediated by the weak interaction. The only longer lifetime for an unstable subatomic particle is that for the free neutron, a baryon particle composed of quarks, which also decays via the weak force. Muon decay produces three particles, an electron plus two neutrinos of different types."[13]

"Like all elementary particles, the muon has a corresponding antiparticle of opposite charge (+1) but equal mass and spin: the antimuon (also called a positive muon). Muons are denoted by μ
and antimuons by μ+
."[13]

## Tauons

Common possible decays of the Tau lepton by emission of a W boson are shown in a Feynman diagram. Credit: JabberWok and Time3000.
τ+
ν
τ
+ W+
.

## Neutrinos

Main sources: Charges/Neutrinos and Neutrinos
In this photograph is recorded "[t]he first use of a hydrogen bubble chamber to detect neutrinos, on November 13, 1970. A neutrino hit a proton in a hydrogen atom. The collision occurred at the point where three tracks emanate on the right of the photograph. Credit: Argonne National Laboratory.

“A neutrino is an electrically neutral, weakly interacting elementary subatomic particle[14] with half-integer spin. ... Neutrinos do not carry electric charge, which means that they are not affected by the electromagnetic forces that act on charged particles such as electrons and protons. Neutrinos are affected only by the weak sub-atomic force, of much shorter range than electromagnetism, and gravity, which is relatively weak on the subatomic scale. They are therefore able to travel great distances through matter without being affected by it.”[15]

"If neutrinos have negligible rest mass, the present density expected for relic neutrinos from the big bang is nν = 110 (Tγ/2.7 K)3 cm–3 for each two-component species. This is of order the photon density nγ, differing just by a factor 3/11 (i.e. a factor 3/4 because neutrinos are fermions rather than bosons, multiplied by 4/11, the factor by which the neutrinos are diluted when e+–e annihilation boosts the photon density). This conclusion holds for non-zero masses, provided that mvc2 is far below the thermal energy (~ 5 MeV) at which neutrinos decoupled from other species and that the neutrinos are stable for the Hubble time. Comparison with the baryon density, related to Ω via nb = 1.5 x 10–5 Ωb h2 cm–3, shows that neutrinos outnumber baryons by such a big factor that they can be dynamically dominant over baryons even if their masses are only a few electron volts. In fact, a single species of neutrino would yield a contribution to Ω of Ωv = 0.01 h–2 (mv)eV, so if h = 0.5, only 25 eV is sufficient to provide the critical density."[16]

"Neutrinos of nonzero mass would be dynamically important not only for the expanding universe as a whole but also for large bound systems such as clusters of galaxies. This is because they would now be moving slowly: if the universe had cooled homogeneously, primordial neutrinos would now be moving at around 200 (mv)-1eV km s–1. They would be influenced even by the weak (~ 10–5 c2) gravitational potential fluctuations of galaxies and clusters. If the three (or more) types of neutrinos have different masses, then the heaviest will obviously be gravitationally dominant, since the numbers of each species should be the same."[16]

## Photons

Main sources: Charges/Photons and Photons

Def. "a discrete particle having zero rest mass, no electric charge, and an indefinitely long lifetime"[5] is called a photon.

## Intermediate bosons

The Feynman diagram for the beta-negative decay of a neutron into a proton. Credit: Richard Feynman.

The W±
and Z0
bosons are elementary particles with a spin of 1.

p + pW+
+ X,
W+
e+
+ ν
e
, where X denotes the fragmentation of spectator partons.[17]

"The W field should exhibit a universal coupling strength for all the fundamental lepton doublets [...]. This implies - apart from small phase-space corrections - equality of the branching ratios of the decay processes"

W+
μ+
+ ν
μ
,
W+
τ+
+ ν
τ
,
W
μ
+ ν
μ
,
W
τ
+ ν
τ
.[17]
Z0
e+
+ e
+ γ,[17]
Z0
μ+
+ μ
+ γ,[17]
Z0
τ+
+ τ
+ γ.

## Weak interactions

It "is the weak process

p + p → 2H + e+ + ve

that controls the main burning reactions in the sun."[17]

## Hypotheses

Main source: Hypotheses
1. Electron-positron annihilation is the reorientation of the spinons and chargons to generate two identical photons, or 0.511 MeV γ rays, that are out of phase with each other and have their own kinematics including the spinons and chargons.
2. Nucleons are composed of electrons, positrons and neutrinos.

## References

1. "electric charge, In: Wiktionary". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 24 July 2015. Retrieved 2015-08-08.
2. Xhienne (30 April 2012). "chargon, In: Wiktionary". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retrieved 2015-08-08.
3. Y. Jompol, C. J. B. Ford, J. P. Griffiths, I. Farrer, G. A. C. Jones, D. Anderson, D. A. Ritchie, T. W. Silk and A. J. Schofield (July 2009). "Probing spin-charge separation in a Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid". Science 325 (5940): 597-601. doi:10.1126/science.1171769. Retrieved 2015-08-08.
4. Widsith (19 April 2012). "orbiton, In: Wiktionary". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retrieved 2015-08-08.
5. Poccil (18 October 2004). "photon, In: Wiktionary". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retrieved 2015-08-08.
6. "Materials in electronics/The Electron, In: Wikibooks". San Francisco, California. July 13, 2009. Retrieved 2012-06-02.
7. "mass, In: Wiktionary". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. August 2, 2013. Retrieved 2013-08-12.
8. E.J. Eichten, M.E. Peskin, M. Peskin (1983). "New Tests for Quark and Lepton Substructure". Physical Review Letters 50 (11): 811–814. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.50.811.
9. G. Gabrielse et al. (2006). "New Determination of the Fine Structure Constant from the Electron g Value and QED". Physical Review Letters 97 (3): 030802(1–4). doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.97.030802.
10. "Electron, In: Wikipedia". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. May 31, 2012. Retrieved 2012-06-02.
11. "positron, In: Wiktionary". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. July 12, 2012. Retrieved 2012-07-12.
12. Francis Halzen, Todor Stanev, Gaurang B. Yodh (April 1, 1997). "γ ray astronomy with muons". Physical Review D Particles, Fields, Gravitation, and Cosmology 55 (7): 4475-9. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.55.4475. Retrieved 2013-01-18.
13. "Muon, In: Wikipedia". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. January 15, 2013. Retrieved 2013-01-18.
14. "Neutrino". Glossary for the Research Perspectives of the Max Planck Society. Max Planck Gesellschaft. Retrieved 2012-03-27.
15. "Neutrino, In: Wikipedia". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. August 21, 2012. Retrieved 2012-08-23.
16. Martin J. Rees (December 1984). "Is the Universe flat?". Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy 5 (4): 331-48. Retrieved 2013-12-18.
17. Carlo Rubbia (1 July 1985). "Experimental Observation of the Intermediate Vector Bosons W+, W, and Z0". Reviews of Modern Physics 57 (3): 699-744. doi:10.1103/RevModPhys.57.699. Retrieved 2016-09-23.